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Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages

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he mi is ry of Higher a d Seco dary Special Educa io of he republic of Uzbekis a « he compara ive ypology of E glish, Russia a d Uzbek la guages» Gulis a 2007 I roduc io A sile ce would be a lo ely world. o lis e , o a swer, o share our hough a d ideas hrough speech a d heari g his is o e of he mos exci i g por s of bei g huma . I is o doub rue ha s ude s grow oward ma uri y a d i depe de ce of hough as hey progress hrough he grades; bu his grow h is o as a rule a sharp a d sudde o e, or does he psychology of he s ude s u dergo a y grea cha ge duri g he various levels of he fu dame al pri ciples ha u derlie he work of he U iversi y remai he same from year o year. he eed i every level is o bri g abou academic grow h by providi g ear a d broader experie ces. While worki g a school fou d ou how difficul for he s ude s of he seco dary school, defi i e he a io al groups, o lear E glish, because here are o preposi io s i Uzbek, bu i E glish we have. If we alk abou ge der we have, of course some similari ies. A d whe , I ried hem o explai some examples i compariso hey lear ed hose words be er ha I hough . hus, he goal of he research is o i ves iga e grammar of he E glish la guage i compariso wi h he Uzbek, o i ves iga e pho e ics, i compariso E glish wi h Uzbek. he e abli g objec ives are as follows: o review li era ure of compara ive la guages (E glish a d Uzbek) i order o make heore ically we-mo iva ed discussio s o he choice of compariso . o a alyze he par s of speech of he E glish la guage a d he Uzbek la guage. he ovel y is ha his work co ai s he compara ive a alyses of he E glish grammar, pho e ics a d co s ruc io of he se e ce. he s ude made her ow i ves iga io fi di g ma y examples of compariso o o ly i E glish, a d i Uzbek. Ma erials a d li era ure which she used were « he compara ive ypology of E glish a d urkic la guages», he lec ures o «Compara ive ypology» a d « heory of pho e ics» by A. Abduazizov. he qualifica io work co sis s of several par s where she ope ed a d a alyzed he heme. 1. Mai par 1.1 Compara ive ypology of E glish a d Uzbek he word ypology co sis s of wo Greek morphemes: a) ypos mea s ype a d b) logos mea s scie ce or word. ypology is a bra ch of scie ce which is ypical o all scie ces wi hou a y excep io . I his respec heir ypological me hod is o limi ed wi h he sphere of o e scie ce. I has a u iversal rise. So ypology may be divided i o: o -li guis ic a d Li guis ic ypology o -li guis ic ypology is he subjec ma er of he scie ces excep li guis ics. Li guis ic ypology is a ew bra ch of ge eral li guis ic which s udies he sys ems of la guages compara ively, also fi ds commo laws of la guages a d es ablishes differe ces a d similari ies be wee hem. ypological classifica io of la guages. I li guis ics we may come across ma y erms as o he ermi ological a ure of li guis ic ypology. he are: 1. Compara ive me hods, 2. Compara ive – his orical me hod, 3. Compara ive (or co ras ive) li guis ics, 4. Compara ive ypology, 5. Compara ive grammar, 6. Co o a io grammar, 7. Descrip ive – compara ive li guis ics a d o he erms used i Russia a d Uzbek are o exac ei her.

hey are: сравнительная грамматика, сопоставительная грамматика, сравнительно-историческое языкознание, контрастивная лингвистика, сравнительная типология i Russia a d қиёсий типология, қиёсий тарихий тилшунослик, қиёсий грамматика, қиёсий тилшунослик a d so o i Uzbek. Classifica io of li guis ic ypology. Accordi g o he o io of compariso of li guis ics phe ome o a d he aim direc ed o we may classify li guis ic ypology i o he followi g par s a) ge e ic of ge ealogical ypology, b) s ruc ural ypology, c) areal ypology a d d) compara ive ypology. Ge ealogical ypology is a bra ch of li guis ic ypology which s udies he similari ies a d he rela io ship be wee he rela ed la guages. I is applica ed o he sys ems of ge e ically rela ed la guages. Ge ealogical ypology developed from he compara ive – his orical li guis ics domi a ed duri g he 19 h ce ury i Europe. I ’s origi was s imula ed by he discovery of Sa skri , he a cie classical la guage of I dia. he discovery of Sa skri disclosed he possibili y of a compara ive s udy of la guages. he co cep of rela ive la guages was co firmed by he exis e ce i I dia of a sis er of he familiar la guages of Europe e.g. Sa skri «ma a» mea s «mo her», i he accuse case «ma arum» Dvau- wo rayah – hree As i-he is e c. Before he discovery of Sa skri Europea li guis ics possessed very vague similari ies for he curre grammars buil o he Greek model. hey did ’ se clearly he fea ures of each la guages. I is wor h o me io ha a he same ime Sa skri discovery gave rise o co fuse o io s of li guis ic rela io which lived for a brief ime ha Europea la guages were derived from Sa skri . Bu his opi io gave way o a correc expla a io , amely Sa skri , La i , Greek, a d o her were la er forms of o e prehis orically la guage. Compara ives gave wo ki ds of classifica io of la guages – ge ealogical a d morphological. Ge ealogical classifica io deals wi h he family rela io ship of la guages which desce d from o e commo a ces or. I dis ribu es la guages i o differe families. Morphological classifica io deals wi h he classifica io of la guages accordi g o heir s ruc ural fea ures i s ead of a ge ealogical origi . Accordi g o he morphological classifica io he la guages are divided i o: Isola i g (Chi ese; Vie amese; Japa ; e c.) A aly ic (Russia ; E glish; Germa ; e c.) Agglu i a ive ( urkish la guages) a d o her. Ge e ic ypology compares he sys ems of la guages i wo ways: diachro ically a d sy chro ically. Bu i he seco d case ge e ic rela io ship is o ake i o co sidera io . S ruc ural li guis ic ypology ca be u ders ood as a sys ema iza io of li guis ic phe ome o from differe la guages accordi g o heir specific s ruc ural fea ures. S ruc ural ypology research makes i possible o es ablish some rai s are u iversal, u ique, a d special. La guage U iversals. he o io of la guage u iversals is closely co ec ed wi h he process of u ifica io of li guis ic fac s wi h a process of es ablishi g commo fea ures be wee he sys ems of differe la guages. Wi h he process of ge eraliza io of li guis ic phe ome o he i ves iga io s or la guage u iversals bega a he e d of 1950s.

he mai eve i his field is he i er a io al co fere ce held i April, 1961 i ew-York. A his co fere ce a repor called «Memora dum» co cer i g he la guage u iversals was prese ed by he America li guis s J. Gree burg, Ch. Os good a d J. Ge ki gs. I he former Sovie U io B.A. Uspe sky published his mo ographic research «Структурная типология языка» (1965). I 1966 here appeared J. Gree berg’s book «La guage u iversals wi h special refere ces o fea ure hierarchies.» hese works were followed by a umber of o her research works published as ar icles a d special volumes. Accordi g o he «Memora dum» la guages u iversals are by heir a ure summary s a eme s abou charac eris ics or e de cies shared by all huma speakers. As such hey co s i u e he mos ge eral laws of scie ce of li guis ics. La guage u iversals s udy he u iversal fea ures i he sys ems of differe la guages of he world. hey fi d similari ies which are ypical of he absolu e or overwhelmi g majori y of la guages. ypes of u iversals are as follows: 1. Defi i io al u iversals, 2. Empirical u iversals. Defi i io al u iversals are co ec ed wi h he fac which he speaker possesses a d uses his ex rapola io . I mea s ha li guis ic phe ome o exis s i he sys em of hese la guages which he scholar does o k ow. E.g. I do-Europea la guages have he opposi io of he vowels a d co so a s. his phe ome o may be co sidered o be sys ems of o her la guages of he world. Empirical u iversals are co ec ed wi h he me al or imagi ary experie ce ha is a defi i e li guis ic fea ure may exis i all la guages, seco dly he or she does o k ow if his or ha fea ure exis i all la guages. E.g. composi io may exis i all la guages i spi e of heir morphological s ruc ure. U res ric ed u iversals. Accordi g o his ype of u iversals li guis ic supposi io of hypo heses is o res ric ed. E.g. all la guages have vowels or for all la guages he umber of pho emes is o fewer ha 10 or more ha 70 or every la guage has a leas 2 vowels. U iversal implica io . hese u iversals i volve he rela io ship be wee wo charac eris ics. If a la guage has a cer ai charac eris ics, i has also some par icular charac eris ics bu o vise-versa i.e. he prese ce of he seco d does ’ emp y he prese ce of he firs. E.g. If a la guage has a ca egory of dual umber i has also a ca egory of plural bu o vise-versa. Such implica io s are umerous par icularly i he pho ological aspec of la guages. Compara ive ypology is a bra ch of ge eral li guis ic ypology. I deals wi h a compariso of la guages. Compara ive ypology compares he sys ems of wo or more co cre e la guages a d crea es commo ypological laws. he compariso of he sys em of wo la guages are compared firs of all. E.g. he ca egory of mood i E glish is co sidered o be a small sys em. Havi g comple ed he compariso of la guages i ves iga ors akes he hird la guage o compare a d so o . Compara ive ypology is some imes charac erized by some scholars as charac erology which deals wi h he compariso of he sys ems o ly. 1.2 Compara ive – ypological a alysis of he pho ological sys ems of E glish a d Uzbek I he li guis ic li era ure pho eme is defi ed as he smalles dis i c ive u i .

I shall be in the wardroom." He left without waiting for the man to acknowledge his order. Hidaka was becoming annoyed with his own inability to unravel the puzzle of this ship. He had been chosen to lead the boarding party because of his near-faultless grasp of English, but the language displayed on all the signage throughout the vessel meant nothing to him. Once or twice he had found a small plaque written in what seemed to be German, but that only served to deepen the mystery. He proceeded to the wardroom in very poor humor. The men in there sprang to attention when he arrived. Three of the insensate crew lay on the floor. "Well?" he asked immediately. "Anything to report?" An ensign snapped to attention and indicated a pile of books and papers sitting on a table. "We were just coming to get you, Commander. We have located these, we think some are written in English…" He cast a wary eye over a tall stack of magazines written in what he assumed was the baboons' language. Most were editions of something called Detik

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

2. THE Growing Influence of English Mass Culture

3. The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual tradition

4. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

5. Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English

6. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia
The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia
7. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language
Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language
8. The lesson of English
The lesson of English

9. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

10. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

11. Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words

12. The history of English

13. The system of English verbs

14. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

15. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

16. Конституция в киберпространстве: закон и свобода за электронной границей (english/russian)

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Раздел: Дуги и погремушки для колясок

17. Russians and Mixed Martial Arts

18. The fastest computers of the world

19. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

20. The dark side of the moon

21. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

22. The United States Of America
The United States Of America
23. The United States of America
The United States of America
24. The political system of Ukraine
The political system of Ukraine

25. Internal Structure of a Proton and New Method of Receiving of Energy

26. English Painting and Art Galleries

27. The political role of Great Britain in modern world

28. Description of a person and a place

29. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

30. Перевод реферата "Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children"

31. Global and worldly Englishes Discommunities and subcultural empires

32. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)

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Раздел: Магнитная

33. Territorial varieties of English pronunciation

34. The Geographical Position of Ukraine

35. The National Parks of Great Britan

36. The United Kingdom of Great Britain

37. Working out of the search algorithm of failures of Air Conditioning System of TU-154

38. Problem of meaning ambiguity in a language
Problem of meaning ambiguity in a language
39. The history of Old English and its development
The history of Old English and its development
40. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

41. The origin and history of the English language

42. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

43. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

44. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

45. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

46. Legal and linguistic aspects of translating english legal terminology

47. Flora and Fauna of the USA

48. Socio-cultural foundations of east-european&Russian geopolitics english

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Раздел: Полки напольные, стеллажи
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Раздел: Размер 50x60 и более
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49. Historical Background of the Middle English Period

50. Some Difficulties of Translating English Phrasal Verbs into Russian

51. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

52. Some problems of the russian spelling

53. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

54. Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin
Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin
55. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language
A (Very) Brief History of the English Language
56. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials
Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

57. Сборник диалогов по английскому языку для развития устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)

58. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

59. Syntax and semantics of verbals in English

60. The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French

61. The history of grammatical study of the English language

62. The Life and Times of Shakespeare

63. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

64. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"

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Раздел: Полки напольные, стеллажи
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65. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

66. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

67. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

68. Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation

69. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

70. The Economy of Great Britain
The Economy of Great Britain
71. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)
72. The Church of England
The Church of England

73. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

74. Economic and sociological analysis of suicide

75. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

76. My modern image of the United States

77. Russia and the international economy

78. The Castles of England

79. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

80. The Irish and South America

Дырокол на 2-3-4 отверстия, 10 листов, черный.
Дырокол на 2-3-4 отверстия. Расстояние между отверстиями регулируется. Толщина прокола: до 10 листов. Материал: металл. Цвет корпуса: черный.
547 руб
Раздел: Дыроколы
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Раздел: Игры со словами
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Раздел: Игры для взрослых (18+)

81. The role of art in our life

82. Three Waves of Alvin Toffler. The Basic Points

83. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

84. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

85. The New-York City, Places of interest

86. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)
87. Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies
Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies
88. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

89. The Queen of the UK

90. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

91. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

92. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

93. Interactive method of teaching English grammar

94. Ways of exploring the world

95. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

96. Rome and the Roman Empire

Фигурка декоративная "Колокольчик", 6x10 см.
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358 руб
Раздел: Миниатюры
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Раздел: Батуты, надувные центры
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442 руб
Раздел: Кружки

97. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

98. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

99. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)


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