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The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development

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Изготовлены из влагостойкого и грязестойкого материала, сохраняющего свои свойства в любых погодных условиях. Легкость крепления позволяет
66 руб
Раздел: Прочее
Мыло металлическое "Ликвидатор".
Мыло для рук «Ликвидатор» уничтожает стойкие и трудно выводимые запахи за счёт особой реакции металла с вызывающими их элементами.
197 руб
Раздел: Ванная
Чашка "Неваляшка".
Ваши дети во время приёма пищи вечно проливают что-то на ковёр и пол, пачкают руки, а Вы потом тратите уйму времени на выведение пятен с
222 руб
Раздел: Тарелки

o -s a e Educa io al I s i u io Chelyabi sk I s i u e of Eco omics a d Law af er M.V. Ladoshi Facul y of Ma ageme , Fi a ce a d Law HE HEORE ICAL BASIS FOR HE I ER A IO AL RADE. HE MODER RE DS OF HE I ER A IO AL RADE DEVELOPME ERM PAPER Performed by: Kichu ki a . . МЭ-305 Checked by: Salyakhova G. Kh. Chelyabi sk 2007 I roduc io he radi io al a d mos adva ced form of he i er a io al eco omic rela io s is he foreig rade. O a share of rade i is ecessary abou 80 % of all volume of he i er a io al eco omic rela io s. heories of he i er a io al rade begi i g from he E glish classical poli ical eco omy, have passed a umber of s ages oge her wi h he developme of he world eco omic scie ce. he chose heme is ac ual as heories of he i er a io al rade be efi si ce hey help o explai wha compe i ive produc io i is possible o make i a par icular cou ry or regio , where he compa y ca orga ize effec ive ma ufac ure of give produc s a d whe her he s a e will i erfere wi h bar er be wee he cou ries. he basic purpose of his erm paper is s udyi g bo h heories reveali g he pri ciples of op imum par icipa io of a io al eco omies i he i er a io al bar er, a d objec ive laws of developme of he world rade, i cludi g Russia’s foreig rade. he primary goals of his erm paper are: 1. o co sider wha i er a io al specializa io is he mos effec ive a d be eficial for he separa e cou ries a d regio s. 2. o defi e he basic direc io s of commodi y s reams be wee he cou ries a d fac ors of compe i ive ess of separa e cou ries i he world marke ; 3. o a alyse he role of Russia i he world rade. Area of research of he i er a io al eco omic rela io s is heore ical problems of orga izi g forei g rade i Russia a d abroad. Objec of research is he ex er al world. he heore ical a d me hodological basis of he erm paper are he of fou ders of he eco omic scie ce, moder domes ic a d foreig scie is s. However his heme is widely discussed i he periodic eco omic edi io s, such as « he Russia Ex er al Eco omic Bulle i », &quo ;Exper &quo ;. he prac ical impor a ce of he erm paper is s ha i s resul s ca be used i he educa io al process while s udyi g eco omic discipli es. he erm paper co sis s of he i roduc io , hree chap ers, he co clusio a d he lis of he li era ure. I he i roduc io he urge cy of he chose heme is proved, he purpose, problems, area a d objec of he research is defi ed, scie ific ovel y, heore ical a d prac ical values of work are co sidered. I chap erI « heories of he i er a io al rade » classical a d moder heories of he world rade are co sidered; i chap er II he co cep of he world rade, a d also he law of developme of he i er a io al rade a d he basic direc io s of he foreig rade s reams be wee he cou ries; i chap er III he role of Russia i he i er a io al rade has bee a alysed. I he co clusio of he erm paper he basic resul s of he carried ou researches are s a ed, co clusio s a d prac ical recomme da io s are made. Ac ive par icipa io of he cou ries i he foreig rade allows hem o use resources available i he cou ry more effec ively, o joi he world achieveme s of scie ce a d ech ology.

Chap er I. heories of he i er a io al rade Classical heories of he i er a io al rade A.Smi h’s Pri ciple of absolu e adva age he policy of free- rade has bee developed by E glish eco omis A.Smi h. He has crea ed he ew heory of he world rade. Не co sidered, ha i is ecessary o impor he goods from he cou ry where cos s absolu ely i is less, a d o expor ha goods, which cos s below expor ers. A.Smi h's approach has received he ame « he Pri ciple of absolu e adva age ». Each cou ry should specialize o ma ufac ure of he goods which average cos s i is less, ha average cos s i o her cou ries. Smi h has proved, ha free rade will be favourable o i s all par icipa s. If a cou ry makes some goods more o a u i of cos ha i s compe i ors do, i has he absolu e adva age i ma ufac uri g hese goods. I is favourable for he cou ry– ma ufac urer o expor hese goods, a d i is favourable for o her cou ries o buy hem si ce i would be more expe sive o produce hem. D.Rikardo’s Pri ciple of compara ive adva age D.Rikardo has formula ed he heory of compara ive cos s. He has defi ed a price zo e i side of which he excha ge will be favourable o everyo e. D.Rikardo has show , ha he i er a io al excha ge is possible a d desirable i i eres s of all cou ries. A eco omic heory which claims ha all cou ries will be be er off if each of hem co ce ra es o doi g he hi gs i does bes . So, mos cou ries have o e hi g hey do be er ha a yo e else. By co ce ra i g o o e ac ivi y hey ca impor he hi gs hey produce less well. Foreig rade should be free. heory of Hecksher - Oli he ew model has bee crea ed by he Swedish eco omis s Ales Hecksher a d Ber el Oli . heory has received he ame of he heory of propor io al fac ors. he cou ries aspire o expor ha goods i which produc io hey have superfluous fac ors of ma ufac ure. A d o impor he goods i which scarce fac ors for he cou ry are used. hey co sidered, ha i is possible o i duce he cou ries o developme of ma ufac ure a d expor of ha produc io where superfluous a d cheap fac ors of ma ufac ure are used. Leo iev’s Paradox Vasily Leo iev a America eco omis . He i ves iga ed s ruc ure of expor a d impor of he USA. He has fou d ou , ha i expor трудовое потребление goods prevailed, a d i impor prevailed capi al-i e sive. he heory has received he ame «Leo iev’s paradox ». V. Leo iev has assumed, ha grea er produc ivi y of he America work is co ec ed wi h higher qualifica io of he America workers. So, V. Leo iev has fou d ou , ha he bra ches bei g successful expor ers, possess higher labour i pu . A d o her bra ches collidi g wi h a compe i io of he impor goods, o so are successful. 1.2 Moder heories of he i er a io al rade he heory of he ech ological break he heory of he ech ological break is he moder heory of he world rade. he heory was developed by he America eco omis s G.Hafbauer, R.Ver o . If i bra ch ech ological i ova io s are applied, cou ry will receive compara ive adva ages. If he cou ry makes he goods wi h smaller cos s, i will receive addi io al profi i he world marke . herefore expor ers are i eres ed i i crease i ma ufac ure of he give goods a d i s realiza io i he world marke .

While break exis s, i re ders posi ive i flue ce o expor of goods i which ma ufac ure ew ech ologies are used. he heory of he produc life cycle R.Ver o , C.Ki delberger, L.Uels have developed he heory of he produc life cycle. his heory explai s developme of he world rade by fi ished goods o he basis of s ages of i s life i he marke . Developme of he world rade by fi ished ar icles depe ds o s ages of a life. he produc life cycle is a familiar o e i marke i g. A produc is lau ched, developed, goes hrough a period of grow h, e ers ma uri y, decli es, a d eve ually dies. A he firs s age here is a developme of ew produc io . Ma ufac ure of a ew produc has small-scale charac er, dema ds high qualifica io of workers a d co ce ra es i he cou ry of a i ova io . A he seco d s age of grow h dema d for a produc grows also i s ma ufac ure ex e ds. he produc becomes more s a dardized, he compe i io be wee ma ufac urers i creases a d expor ex e ds. he large-lo produc io is ypical of a ma uri y. he produc life cycle passes i a s age of decli e, dema d is reduced. he heory of he produc life cycle is realis ic e ough reflec s evolu io of ma y bra ches. However is o a u iversal expla a io of e de cies of developme of he i er a io al rade . Michael Por er’s he heory of compe i ive adva age I 2- d half XX ce uries i he world rade have occured cha ges. I commodi y s ruc ure of he world rade, sale of fi ished goods bega o prevail. I 1990 he America eco omis M.Por er has published research « Compe i ive adva ages of he cou ries ». M.Por er has crea ed he origi al heory of compe i ive adva age of he cou ry. he ce ral place i his co cep is occupied wi h idea of a a io al rhombus. De ermi a s of compe i ive adva age is charac eris ics of he mos sig ifica sources of compe i ive adva age of he compa ies of processi g i dus ries. 1. he Fac or of a co di io 2. Co di io s of he i er al dema d, causi g a scale effec 3. Prese ce of adjace a d suppor i g bra ches hus, he heory of a compe i io co ec s i clusio of he cou ry a d separa e firm i he world rade wi h co di io s of a compe i io . he heory of a scale effec P.Krjugma , R.Drize, G.Hafbauer have developed he heory of a scale effec . A he cer ai ech ology a d he orga iza io of ma ufac ure lo g- erm average cos s are reduced i process of i crease i ou pu , i.e. here is a eco omy caused by mass produc io . he effec of mass produc io was realized, ecessary capacious e ough marke . I er a io al rade allows o expa d commodi y marke s. I is offered o co sumers o more produc io a d lower prices. he heory of a scale effec is o u iversal. So, owadays he adva ages i he compe i io are de ermi ed ei her by he size of he cou ry, or by rich a ural resources or by he power of he fi a cial capi al. he de ermi a ives are he educa io al level a d volume of he k owledge accumula ed by a socie y. Chap er II. he i er a io al rade a he prese s age of developme 2.1 Co cep a d laws of developme of he i er a io al rade Basis of eco omic rela io s i he world eco omy is i er a io al rade. I er a io al rade is sphere of he i er a io al commodi y a d mo e ary rela io s o a excha ge of produc s of work ( he goods a d services) be wee sellers a d buyers of he differe cou ries».

Tohr is my next interview, and the butler is going to take me to the BrotherБЂ™s house, as evidently heБЂ™s off rotation tonight. IБЂ™m rebundled in my norБЂ™easter clothes and get back in the Mercedes. The partition goes up, and Fritz and I chat using the intercom that links the front and the rear of the car. The trip is about twenty minutes, and man, the Merc holds steady in all the snow. When we stop and stay that way, I figure weБЂ™re at TohrБЂ™s and I unlatch my seat belt. Fritz opens my door and I see the low-slung modern house the Brother and Wellsie and John Matthew live in. The place looks incredibly welcoming in the snow. On its roof two chimneys are gently smoking, and in front of each of the windows pools of yellow light condense on top of the thick white ground cover. On their travels from cloud to earth, flakes hit these patches of illumination and are spotlit for a brief time before they join legions of their accumulated brethren. Wellsie opens the back door, motions me in, and Fritz escorts me over

1. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

2. For the Beauty of the Earth

3. The origins of the International Socialists

4. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

5. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

6. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society
The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society
7. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers
The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers
8. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

9. The Queen of the UK

10. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

11. The fastest computers of the world

12. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

13. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

14. The Taming of the Shrew

15. History of the USA

16. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Ящик с крышкой Darel Box, 41x30x21 см.
Универсальные и герметичные боксы идеально подходят для хранения меха, одежды и домашнего текстиля. Герметичность конструкции обеспечивает
319 руб
Раздел: Более 10 литров
Планшет для акварели и пастели "Соленый ветер. Венеции", 20 листов, А3.
Планшет для пастели и акварели состоит из 2 цветов рисовальной бумаги (10 листов серого цвета и 10 листов оливкового цвета), что позволяет
345 руб
Раздел: Папки для акварелей, рисования
Цветные карандаши, 12 цветов, в пластиковом пенале.
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378 руб
Раздел: 7-12 цветов

17. Problems of the youth

18. Discovery of the New World

19. Cities of the USA

20. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

21. Flora and Fauna of the USA

22. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?
Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?
23. Art of the Edo Period
Art of the Edo Period
24. Modern Tourism Narrows the Mind
Modern Tourism Narrows the Mind

25. Dawn of the digital information era

26. Historical Background of the Middle English Period

27. Lexicology of the English Language

28. Survival of the Welsh Language

29. The war of the roses

30. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

31. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

32. Prominent People of the Belarus

Бейдж с рулеткой, 54x90 мм.
Пластиковый держатель для 2 магнитных пропусков, с рулеткой. Рулетка вытягивается на 60 см. Размер: 54x90 мм.
420 руб
Раздел: Бейджи, держатели, этикетки
Доска магнитно-маркерная, 60x90 см.
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1503 руб
Раздел: Доски магнитно-маркерные
Портфель "Megapolis", А4, 12 отделений, серый.
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517 руб
Раздел: Папки-портфели, папки с наполнением

33. The making of the collection

34. American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries

35. Valley of the Kings

36. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

37. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

38. Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin
Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin
39. Relief of the UK
Relief of the UK
40. Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?
Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?

41. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

42. Islam in the eyes of the West

43. Algorithmic recognition of the Verb

44. Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

45. Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children

46. Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words

47. Economy of the United States

48. Industrial development of the African countries

Вкладыши "Лето".
Вкладыши "Лето" - это развивающая игрушка, предназначенная для детей в возрасте старше 3-х лет. При помощи такой игрушки ребёнок
503 руб
Раздел: Рамки-вкладыши
Конструктор металлический для уроков труда №2.
Конструктор раскрывает перед ребенком неограниченные возможности моделирования и создания множества своих собственных
397 руб
Раздел: Магнитные и металлические конструкторы
Машина-каталка Ламбо "Розовая Принцесса".
Ультрамодный автомобиль Ламбо - это воплощение стиля, опережающее время! Машина-каталка "Розовая Принцесса" - не просто веселая
1369 руб
Раздел: Каталки

49. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

50. Sport in different countries of the world

51. Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary

52. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

53. The history of grammatical study of the English language

54. The origin and history of the English language
The origin and history of the English language
55. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium
The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium
56. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"

57. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

58. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

59. Division of the sentence into phrases

60. Intellectual history of the Europe

61. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

62. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

63. The Tax System of the United States

64. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

Игра "Супер Твистер".
Игра "Твистер" известна по всему миру людям от мала до велика. У нее простые правила, которые будут понятны как взрослым, так и
378 руб
Раздел: Подвижные игры, твистеры
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2107 руб
Раздел: Доски магнитно-маркерные
Соковарка алюминиевая (6 литров).
Легкая, прочная и практичная посуда, изготовлена из пищевого алюминия, имеет высокую стойкость к коррозии, равномерно нагревается за
1494 руб
Раздел: Скороварки, пароварки, мантоварки

65. Russia and the international economy

66. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

67. Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles

68. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present

69. Biopolitics in Russia: History and Prospects for the Future

70. Kastus Kalinovsky the Fighter for Independence of Belarus
Kastus Kalinovsky the Fighter for Independence of Belarus
71. My work at the foreign trade company
My work at the foreign trade company
72. The Medieval Tower: A refuge and a base for royal power
The Medieval Tower: A refuge and a base for royal power

73. The people must fight for their laws as for their walls

74. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

75. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

76. The great Britain

77. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

78. Two approches to the scientific management

79. The Church of England

80. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

Набор диких животных.
В наборе: 12 фигурок диких животных. Средний размер: 10 см. Возраст: 3 лет. Фигурки в наборе представлены в ассортименте, без возможности выбора.
461 руб
Раздел: Дикие животные
Настольная игра "Волшебник Изумрудного города".
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1490 руб
Раздел: Классические игры
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1331 руб
Раздел: Глобусы

81. История развития компьютеров (Silicon Valley, its history & the best companies)

82. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

83. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

84. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

85. Rome and the Roman Empire

86. The Archangel Cathedral
The Archangel Cathedral
87. The capturing
The capturing
88. The cinema in Russia today
The cinema in Russia today

89. The Irish and Australia

90. The Khabarovsk territory

91. The Renaissance

92. The royal family (Королевское семейство)

93. The US Economy after September 11th. Decline or Rapid Growth? (Экономика США после 11-ого сентября. Снижение или Быстрый Рост?)

94. Список мирового наследия (The World Heritage List, на английском языке)

95. The Economy of Great Britain

96. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

Настольная семейная игра "Звонкие колечки".
Эта игра создана для того, чтобы улучшить умственную и зрительную реакцию малышей. Внутри вы найдёте колечки 6 разных цветов и звонок.
362 руб
Раздел: Карточные игры
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3600 руб
Раздел: Трехколесные
Карандаши цветные, трехгранные, 18 цветов.
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305 руб
Раздел: 13-24 цвета

97. The New-York City, Places of interest

98. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

99. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

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