Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
сделать стартовой добавить в избранное
Кефирный гриб на сайте www.za4et.net.ru

Экономика и Финансы Экономика и Финансы     Бухгалтерский учет Бухгалтерский учет

Accounting and Finance in AS Diena

Брелок LED "Лампочка" классическая.
Брелок работает в двух автоматических режимах и горит в разных цветовых гаммах. Материал: металл, акрил. Для работы нужны 3 батарейки
131 руб
Раздел: Металлические брелоки
Гуашь "Классика", 12 цветов.
Гуашевые краски изготавливаются на основе натуральных компонентов и высококачестсвенных пигментов с добавлением консервантов, не
170 руб
Раздел: 7 и более цветов
Совок большой.
Длина 21,5 см. Расцветка в ассортименте, без возможности выбора.
21 руб
Раздел: Совки

9 - able of co e s I roduc io 2 Me hodology2 Compa y backgrou d3 Accou i g sys em3 A ual repor s4 A alyses used i A ual Repor 5 Key ra ios6 ROA6 ROE6 COD 6 D / E7 7 Curre ra io; Quick ra io7 Equi y ra io7 Profi margi ; Capi al ur over7 E / E0 = ROE0 – Div / E0 I / E07 ROE = (1 – )(ROCE (ROCE – COD) D / E)8 Co clusio 8 Refere ce lis 9 I roduc io “Accou i g is he la guage of busi ess” I deed, like o ma wi hou abili y o express his hough s clearly a d u ders a dably ca achieve very much i life, o firm ca succeed wi hou a good accou i g sys em. Accou i g is a ecessary ool which o o ly provides i forma io o he ow ers abou how i s mo ey is worki g, a d o he s a e abou how big he axes are o be fe ched, bu , he mos impor a , e ables he compa y o co rol, o pla a d o race all he ac io s, processes a d projec s. he purpose of his repor is o fi d ou how he accou i g is do e i a successful compa y, a d how he pri ciples a d me hods used here differ from he radi io al accou i g heory. I addi io , he a alysis of he compa y’s performa ce will be worked ou usi g he s a dard ra ios. he decisio o choose AS Die a for he repor has bee based o several cri eria: i is o e of he 100 larges compa ies i La via, i has a leadi g posi io i i s bra ch of i dus ry, a d i is a good example of you g a d fas -developi g La via busi ess. Me hodology he a alyses a d fi di gs prese ed i he paper are based o he i forma io received from he i erview wi h he chief accou a of AS Die a I ese Ja ikovska a d from he A ual Repor 1997 of he compa y. he Repor mirrors he fi a cial da a of AS Die a a d i s subsidiaries: publishi g house Die a Bo ier SIA, adver isi g age cy ME RO, Bauskas Dzive SIA, age cy Agro Apgads SIA, Kursas laiks SIA, Dzirks ele SIA, Zemgales Zi as SIA. he i forma io abou subsidiaries is i cluded i A ual Repor i limi s of fi a cial year s ar i g from he da e of acquisi io . Fur hermore, he heore ical side was s re g he ed wi h he k owledge gai ed from he lec ures by Elvi Sederli a d Gu ar Li dholm, a d from he course ex books “Busi ess Accou i g” a d “ he Profi abili y, Fi a ci g, a d he Grow h of he Firm”. o make he key ra io a alysis se sible, a similar size e erprise opera i g i he same bra ch of i dus ry was chose for compariso . For his purpose, he figures from he fi al accou s of AS Preses ams were ake from he Lursof da abase a d used i he a alysis.Compa y backgrou d he La via -Swedish joi -s ock compa y AS Die a was fou ded i 1992. I 1996 i was ra sformed i o s ock corpora io . I fac , i is a group of compa ies wi h pare compa y a d subsidiaries. he share capi al of he compa y co sis s of 6000 fully paid ordi ary shares, moreover, each share has a omi al value of LVL 10 a d i s ow er possesses o e vo i g righ . he shares of AS Die a do o par icipa e i s ock excha ge, a d o deals amo g he shareholders are allowed. he mos impor a shareholder is a Swedish compa y “Expresse AB”, which ow s 2940 shares, i.e., 49% of share capi al a d vo es. I addi io , i ca be poi ed ou ha he sales ur over a 1997 co s i u ed almos LVL 9.5

mil, a d he average umber of employees was 847. he officially regis ered ki ds of ac ivi ies of AS Die a are as follows: publishi g pri i g work a d rela ed services reproduci g of compu erized ma erials age s deali g wi h sales of he wide ra ge of goods wholesale he prese s ra egy of he firm is developme as a media a d media i fras ruc ure compa y. o co clude, AS Die a ow e joys he be efi s of he large marke share a d solid repu a io , a d i will u doub edly ry o mai ai a d o improve he curre posi io . Accou i g sys em Accou i g sys em i AS Die a is fully kep o sof ware a d all he ra sac io s are do e au oma ically. he mai sof ware accou i g program used is Mac Ha sa. Whe he record is made, he accou is closed au oma ically, a d he bala ce is se o he ex s age, i.e., Profi of Loss Accou , Bala ce Shee , Cash Flow S a eme e c. Pri ed i forma io of accou i g ac io s is kep i he compa y’s archive. As AS Die a is a very large compa y, he chief accou a could o ell exac ly how ma y ra sac io s were recorded per year, bu he approxima e umber is abou 50,000. he mos commo ra sac io s are hose i co ec io o cash a d ba k accou s.A ual repor s he A ual repor is prepared accordi g o legisla io of La via Republic a d he laws “Abou Accou i g” a d “Abou A ual Repor s of he Compa y”. he mai pri ciples used i accou i g are he co sis e cy co cep (me hods of valua io of asse s a d calcula io of reve ues a d expe ses are kep co s a from o e year o a o her) a d he prude ce co cep (e.g., s ock is valued aki g he lowes from prime cos a d marke value). Cash flow s a eme is prepared by usi g i direc me hod. As per legisla io of La via Republic, all he compa y’s books are closed a he e d of he fi a cial year (i his case a December 31 each year), whe he A ual Repor has o be made. his repor is ha ded over o audi ors a d o fi a cial i spec io . Usually, he i spec ed A ual Repor is available for users i abou hree mo hs af er he e d of he fi a cial year. I addi io , a smaller repor for i er al use of he compa y is prepared a he e d of each mo h. his repor is ha ded over o he ma ageme of he compa y. As all he repor s are made au oma ically by mea s of sof ware accou i g program, he problems occur o ly whe ra sac io s are recorded. he mai difficul ies ou li ed by he chief accou a of AS Die a were se li g accou s wi h deb ors a d credi ors a d recordi g expe di ures a d reve ues of he compa y. Difficul ies also appear whe maki g records for fi a cial a d ax accou i g. As per Bala ce Shee a December 31, 1997, he highes value of he compa y’s asse s is ake by deb ors which i o al amou o 1,780,777, i.e., 35.42 % of he o al asse s. he bigges amou of deb s is observed wi h regard o bough goods a d subscrip io s. Each deb or is exami ed i dividually by he ma ageme of he compa y, a d hose admi ed as bad are i cluded i provisio for bad deb s for 100% of he debi ed amou . Qui e impressive are also figures observed as credi ors. Shor - erm credi ors amou o 2,619,142 ha is 52% of he o al passives of he compa y. As i was poi ed ou by he chief accou a of AS Die a, cash is regarded as he mos impor a asse of he compa y because of i s liquidi y.

If he compa y ru s ou of cash, i ca easily go ba krup . he highes level of reve ues is observed from sales of ewspapers. he highes expe ses are salaries, purchase of paper a d deprecia io of fixed asse s.A alyses used i A ual Repor he a ual repor of AS Die a i cludes a alysis of he curre si ua io a d cha ges duri g he year 1997. here was LVL 5.27 millio of o al asse s i he bala ce shee a he e d of 1997; of hose fixed asse s were 30.1%. Curre asse s were LVL 3.51 mil; of hose deb ors comprised of 50.7 %. he mos impor a fac is ha rade deb ors have i creased by 40.5 % i 1997. he reaso behi d i is he i crease i e ur over. U for u a ely, previous rade par ers sys ema ically ig ore erms of repayme . 27.6 % of all capi al plus liabili ies was equi y. Accordi g o Arvils A&scaro ;erade s, he equi y has grow o LVL 1.4 millio s, which is 2.3 imes more ha year before (A ual Repor , 1997, p. 5). his was o ly due o profi for 1997; share capi al a d reserves were o al ered. Cha ges i he profi a d loss accou were a alyzed mos ly i he preside ’s repor . he firs i em me io ed is he i crease i e ur over. Accordi g o Arvils A&scaro ;erade s, he e ur over of he whole co cer has i creased by 29 per ce reachi g LVL 9.5 millio , a d such a si ua io is co ve io al for he compa y duri g las years. he mai reaso for ha is s aff’s excelle accomplishme of heir job (A ual Repor , 1997, p. 5). Co seque ly, also he profi af er axes has bee i creased o LVL 813 housa d. I is 16 imes more ha i 1996 (A ual Repor , 1997, p. 5), a d here are hree crucial fac ors which de ermi e such a reme dous cha ge. he firs fac or is he more efficie use of resources i 1997. As me io ed above, e i come has i creased by 29 per ce , bu ma ufac uri g cos of goods sold has i creased o ly by 15% i he same ime. hese calcula io s were made based o he Profi or Loss s a eme . (A ual Repor , 1997, p. 7) ex , here was a co siderable grow h i o her opera i g i come. Fi ally, here was a rapid decrease i effec ive ax ra io a d reduc io i i eres payable.Key ra ios Calcula i g he key ra ios, average values were used because profi was made duri g he year. here is also a assump io ha profi is he same each day duri g he year. All he ra ios a d ecessary da a are give i able 1. ROA his ra io does o depe d o he capi al s ruc ure of he firm ( he Profi abili y, Fi a ci g, a d Grow h of he Firm, p. 26). Profi before i eres a d axa io should be used i order o separa e ROA from he compa y’s fi a cial policy. he ra io is 28.83 per ce ( able 1) which is more ha he same ra io for AS Preses ams, hus elli g abou be er busi ess performa ce. ROE he differe ce from he previous ra io is ha ROE shows he re ur from he ow ers’ poi of view; however, here he mi ori y i eres is also regarded as equi y. hus he profi af er axes (wi h mi ori y i eres added back) has o be applied. I AS Die a’s case ROE is 69.83 % ( able 1). he reaso why here is so large differe ce compari g o AS Preses ams (17.91%) is explai ed u der D / E ra io sec io . COD Average cos of deb i 1997 for AS Die a was 2.1

Система здравоохранения Сингапура описывается в: T. A. Massaro and Y. Wong, Medical Savings Accounts: The Singapore Experience, National Centre for Policy Analysis report, no. 203 (April 1996), Taylor and S. Blair, "Financing Health Care: Singapore's Innovative Approach", Глава шестая Анализ соотношения эффективных рынков, которые не поощряют сбор информации, и неэффективных рынков, которые его поощряют, выполнен в: S. J. Grossman and J. E. Stiglitz, "On the Impossibility of Internationally Efficient Markets," American Economic Review, 70, no. 3 (June 1980): 393—408. Аналогия с очередью в супермаркете — идея Дэвида Фридмана из его книги: David Friedman, Hidden Order (New York: HarperBusiness, 1996), p.9. Данная Кейнсом характеристика фондового рынка как конкурса красоты из: J. M. Keynes, General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (London: Macmillan, 1967), 156. Необоснованный оптимизм Ирвинга Фишера взят из его книги: Irving Fisher, The Stock Market Crash—and After (New York: Macmillan, 1930). Печальная история Тони Дая рассказана в: Times (London), "Dye is cast out but strategy remains," 2000, March 3; The Guardian, "Vindication for Dye as P&D fund wins top spot," 2000, July 20

1. Radio And TV In My Life

2. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

3. Continuity and change in Stravinskiy`s ballets. Стравинский и его балеты

4. Continuity and change in Stravinskiy`s ballets. Стравинский и его балеты

5. Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies

6. Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland
Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland
7. Customs and Traditions in Britain
Customs and Traditions in Britain
8. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)
Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

9. Sellers and buyers in Russia and in foreign countries

10. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

11. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

12. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

13. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

14. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

15. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

16. Protectionnism and Free Trade in Economical Doctrines

Фломастеры "Jungle Innovation" на подставке, 12 цветов.
Чернила легко смываются с рук и одежды. Эти фломастеры идеальны для раскрашивания, поскольку они долговечны, их краски насыщенны, хорошего
343 руб
Раздел: 7-12 цветов
Карандаши акварельные "Mondeluz", 24 цвета.
Акварельные карандаши применяются в живописи, рисовании, работе в смешанных техниках. Совмещают в себе свойства цветного карандаша и
384 руб
Раздел: Акварельные
Настольная игра "Фефекты фикции".
Увлекательная детская игра для развития речи и творческого мышления, разработанная профессиональными логопедами и детьми. В комплекте:
990 руб
Раздел: Русский язык, слова, речь

17. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present

18. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

19. Internet helps in development of education and democracy

20. Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine

21. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

22. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
23. Accounting rules for regulations in banking sector
Accounting rules for regulations in banking sector
24. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus
Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

25. Listening and memory training in translation

26. The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French

27. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

28. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

29. Quantification of osteocyte lacunar density and anisotropy of vascular canals in compact bone

30. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

31. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

32. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Швабра "Бабочка".
Швабра "Бабочка" предназначена для уборки напольных покрытий.
490 руб
Раздел: Швабры и наборы
Рюмпочка.
РЮМПОЧКА - с каждой рюмкой мир становится светлее! Создайте яркое застолье, зарядитесь энергией и самые светлые стороны жизни откроются,
315 руб
Раздел: Бокалы, рюмки
Ножницы "Explorer", 21,5 см.
Ножницы с массивными лезвиями идеально подходят для работы с плотной бумагой. Эргономичная форма ручек и резиновая вставка с
390 руб
Раздел: Ножи, ножницы, резаки

33. Россия и независимые государства (перевод из "Economic and Post-Soviet Economic Structure and Performance")

34. Democracy in Russia

35. Mass Media in England

36. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

37. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

38. Personnel selection and choice
Personnel selection and choice
39. Подготовка к TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language
40. American Federalism in 1990s
American Federalism in 1990s

41. Business relation ships in japan

42. Epistemology and methodology: main trends and ends. (Эпистемология и Методология)

43. Higher Education in The U.K.

44. Knowledge, Innovation and Development

45. Monopolistic competition and economic efficiency (Монополистическая конкуренция и экономическая)

46. Rome and the Roman Empire

47. Slang, youth subcultures and rock music

48. Substance abuse: Alcohol Consumption and alcohol dependence among the youth (Социологическое исследование проблемы алкоголизма среди студентов)

Ведро-контейнер для мусора, 50 литров, серое, качающаяся крышка.
Объем: 50 литров. Размер: 74х40х35 см. Материал: пластик.
1124 руб
Раздел: Корзины для бумаг, мусора
Автокресло Еду-Еду "KS-513 Lux" с вкладышем (цвет: оранжевый, 9-36 кг).
Автокресло разработано для детей весом от 9 до 36 кг. Группа веса 1/2/3 (ECE R44/04). Каждая деталь автокресла спроектирована должным
2977 руб
Раздел: Группа 1/2/3 (9-36 кг)
Набор цветных карандашей (24 штуки).
Набор цветных карандашей "Crayola" порадует своим качеством письма и цветами. Изготовленные в соответствии с высокими
591 руб
Раздел: 13-24 цвета

49. The Irish and Australia

50. The role of art in our life

51. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

52. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

53. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

54. Christmas in Britain (Рождество в Британии)
55. Mozart: Symphony #40 in G Minor, K.550 Моцарт: Симфония №40 в си-минор, К. 550
56. Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English
Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English

57. Sport: general, in Britain

58. "Career in hotel industry"

59. Education in Great Britain

60. Urbanization and Urban Issues

61. Leadership in Hospitality Industry

62. Control in management

63. Traffic in my city

64. Tourism in Germany

Карандаши цветные "Bic Aquacouleur", 12 цветов.
Яркие цвета, легкая затачиваемость и высокая устойчивость к поломке делают эти карандаши отличным вариантом для детей. Можно использовать
441 руб
Раздел: 7-12 цветов
Шкатулка декоративная "Стиль", 15,5x12,5x11,5 см (серый).
Шкатулка декоративная для ювелирных украшений, с выдвижными ящичками. Размер: 15,5x12,5x11,5 см. Материал: комбинированный.
1638 руб
Раздел: Шкатулки для украшений
Настольная игра "День вождей".
Детская активная игра для компании от 2 до 6 человек. Каждый ход игроки получают карточки с заданиями, которые надо выполнить. Если
1490 руб
Раздел: Игры-ходилки с фишками

65. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

66. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars

67. Modern talking and C.C.Catch

68. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

69. Education in the Middle Ages

70. Education in Great Britain
Education in Great Britain
71. Financial Institutions in Turkey
Financial Institutions in Turkey
72. Uzbekistan-U. S. Economic Relations: Problems and Perspectives
Uzbekistan-U. S. Economic Relations: Problems and Perspectives

73. The role of art in our life

74. Punks and Punk Rock

75. Navruz - A Celebration of Life. Public holidays in Uzbekistan

76. Lexicology. Word structure in Modern English

77. Mozart: Symphony #40 in G Minor, K.550 Моцарт: Симфония №40 в си-минор, К. 550

78. Modern talking and C.C.Catch

79. British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

80. Aral Sea - What Was and What Is

Самоклеящиеся этикетки, A4, 210x297 мм.
Формат: А4. Размер: 210x297 мм. 1 этикетка на листе (100 листов в упаковке).
500 руб
Раздел: Бейджи, держатели, этикетки
Потолочная сушилка "Лиана", 1,9 м.
Сушилка может использоваться в ванной комнате, лоджии или на балконе. Сушилка изготовлена из прочных, экологически чистых
632 руб
Раздел: Сушилки потолочные
Набор детской посуды "Лисичка" (3 предмета).
Набор детской посуды "Лисичка" в подарочной упаковке. В наборе 3 предмета: - кружка 240 мл; - тарелка 19 см; - миска 18
310 руб
Раздел: Наборы для кормления

81. Education in the Middle Ages

82. Militant Islam’s Expansion in the Southern Philippines

83. Christmas in Britain (Рождество в Британии)

84. Sport: general, in Britain

85. Financial Institutions in Turkey

86. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)
87. Control in management
Control in management
88. A Country Report and Profile - Republic of Uzbekistan
A Country Report and Profile - Republic of Uzbekistan

89. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

90. Infant Industry Argument: Theory and Practice

91. Excursion in old Riga

92. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

93. American Autoindustry in 1920

94. Разговоры в царстве мертвых (Dialogoe in regione mortuum)

95. Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind... Пастернак и нравственная дилемма послереволюционной интеллигенции

96. The government role in the market economy

Набор доктора в чемодане.
В наборе: шприц, шапочка из картона, очки, грелка, коробочка "Витамины", бейдж, градусник, лупа, 2 пинцета, ножницы - 2 штуки,
310 руб
Раздел: Наборы доктора
Глобус физический, 210 мм.
На карту глобуса нанесены страны, границы, города, континенты, моря, океаны, глубины и другая полезная информация. Подставка глобуса
346 руб
Раздел: Глобусы
Подушка "Green Line. Бамбук", 50х70 см.
Удобные и практичные постельные принадлежности, изготовленные с применением ткани нового поколения из микрофиламентных нитей Ultratex и
656 руб
Раздел: Размер 50х70 см, 40х60 см

97. Computers and Health

98. Опера Джузеппе Верди "Бал-маскарад" (Un Ballo in Maschera)

99. Hatfield and the North


Поиск Рефератов на сайте za4eti.ru Вы студент, и у Вас нет времени на выполнение письменных работ (рефератов, курсовых и дипломов)? Мы сможем Вам в этом помочь. Возможно, Вам подойдет что-то из ПЕРЕЧНЯ ПРЕДМЕТОВ И ДИСЦИПЛИН, ПО КОТОРЫМ ВЫПОЛНЯЮТСЯ РЕФЕРАТЫ, КУРСОВЫЕ И ДИПЛОМНЫЕ РАБОТЫ. 
Вы можете поискать нужную Вам работу в КОЛЛЕКЦИИ ГОТОВЫХ РЕФЕРАТОВ, КУРСОВЫХ И ДИПЛОМНЫХ РАБОТ, выполненных преподавателями московских ВУЗов за период более чем 10-летней работы. Эти работы Вы можете бесплатно СКАЧАТЬ.