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Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary

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MI IS RY OF HIGHER A D SECO DARY SPECIAL EDUCA IO OF HE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKIS A GULIS A S A E U IVERSI Y he E glish a d Li era ure Depar me . «S ylis ic Classifica io of he E glish Vocabulary» Gulis a 2008 I roduc io heme ac ually. I is o ews ha a y preposi io al co e – a y «idea» – ca be verbalized i several differe ways. So, «May I offer you are chair?», ake a sea , please, «Si dow » – have he same proposi io bu differ i he ma er of expressio , which, i i s ur , depe ds upo he si ua io al co di io s of he commu ica io ac . 70 perce of our life ime is spe i various forms of commu ica io ac ivi ies – oral or wri e , so i is self evide how impor a i is for a philologis o k ow he mecha ics of rela io s be wee he o verbal, ex rali guis ic de o io al esse ce of he commu ica ive ac a d i s verbal, li guis ic prese a io . ha ’s why I hi k o s udy he classifica io of he vocabulary is very impor a hi g for he E glish eacher a d s ude s. he aims a d purposes of he work. he work se a ask o lear . he peculiari ies of s ylis ic differe ia io of E glish vocabulary. o show he examples of differe scholars approaches o he heme. he prac ical value. Ma erials of he work will help s ude s, eachers a d par icular ra sla ors a d i erpre ers who work o he ra sla io of he origi als. Li era ure overview. Basic i forma io ’s of he qualifica io work are give from he ma uals of grea scholars such as: S ylis ics by Galperi I.R, A book of prac ice i s ylis ics by Kukhare ko V.A, E glish S ylis ics by Boboho ova L. . Besides above me io ed ma uals I ook i forma io s from I er e a d World Book E cyclopedia. he s ruc ure of he work. his qualifica io work co sis s of I roduc io , mai Par , a d Co clusio a d a he e d he lis of used li era ures. 1. Ge eral co sidera io s of s ylis ic classifica io of he E glish vocabulary he word-s ock of a y give la guage ca be roughly divided i o hree u eve groups, differi g from each o her by he sphere of i s possible use. he bigges divisio is made up of eu ral words, possessi g o s ylis ic co o a io a d sui able for a y commu ica ive si ua io , wo smaller o es are li erary a d colloquial s ra a respec ively. I order o ge a more or less clear idea of he word-s ock of ay la guage, i mus be prese ed as a sys em, he eleme s of which are i erco ec ed, i errela ed a d ye i depe de . Some li guis s, who clearly see he sys ema ic charac er of la guage as a whole, de y, however, he possibili y of sys ema ically classifyi g he vocabulary. hey say ha he word-s ock of a y la guage is so large a d so he eroge eous ha i is impossible o formalize i a d herefore prese i i a y sys em. he words of a la guage are hough of as a chao ic body whe her viewed from heir origi a d developme or from heir prese s a e. I deed, coi age of ew lexical u i s, he developme of mea i g, he differe ia io of words accordi g o heir s ylis ic evalua io a d heir spheres of usage, he correla io be wee mea i g a d co cep a d o her problems co ec ed wi h vocabulary are so mul ifarious a d varied ha i is difficul o grasp he sys ema ic charac er of he word-s ock of a la guage, hough i coexis wi h he sys ems of o her level-pho e ics, morphology a d sy ax.

o de y he sys ema ic charac er of he word-s ock of a la guage amou s o de yi g he sys ema ic charac er of la guage as a whole, words bei g eleme s i he ge eral sys em of la guage. he word-s ock of a la guage may be represe ed as a defi i e sys em i which differe aspec s of words may be si gled ou as i erdepe de . A special bra ch of li guis ic scie ce lexicology has do e much o classify vocabulary. A gla ce a he co e s of a y book o lexicology coil suffices o ascer ai he ou li e of he sys em of he word-s ock of he give la guage. For our purpose, i.e. for li guis ic s ylis ics, a special ype of classifica io , s ylis ic classifica io , is mos impor a . I accorda ce wi h he already me io ed divisio of la guage i o li erary a d colloquial, we may represe he whole of he word-s ock of he E glish la guage as bei g divided i o hree mai layers: he li erary layer, he eu ral layer a d he colloquial layer. he li erary a d he colloquial layers co ai umber of subgroups each of which has a proper y i shares wi h all he subgroups wi hi he layer. his commo proper y, which u i es he differe groups of words wi hi he layer, may be called i s aspec . he aspec of he li erary layer is i s markedly bookish charac er. I is his ha makes he layer more or less s able. he aspec of he colloquial layer of words is i s lively spoke charac er. I is his ha makes i u s able, flee i g. he aspec of he eu ral layer is i s u iversal charac er. ha mea s i is u res ric ed i i s use. I ca be employed i all s yles of la guage a d i all spheres of huma ac ivi y. I is his ha makes he layer he mos s able of all. he li erary layer of words co sis s of groups accep ed as legi ima e members of he E glish vocabulary hey have o local or dialec al charac er. he colloquial layer of words as qualified i mos E glish or America dic io aries is o i freque ly limi ed o a defi i e la guage commu i y or co fi ed o a special locali y where i circula es. he li erary vocabulary co sis of he followi g groups of words: 1. commo li erary: 2. erms a d lear ed words: 3. poe ic words: 4. archaic words; 5. barbarisms a d foreig words: 6. li erary coi ages i cludi g o ce-words. he colloquial vocabulary falls i o he followi g groups: 1. commo colloquial words: 2. sla g: 3. jargo s: 4. professio al words: 5. dialec al words: 6. vulgar words: 7. colloquial coi ages. 2. Mai par 2.1 eu ral, commo li erary a d Сommo colloquial vocabulary eu ral words, which form he bulk of he E glish vocabulary, are used i bo h li erary a d colloquial la guage. eu ral words are he mai source of sy o ymy a d polysemy. I is he eu ral s ock of words ha is so prolific i he produc io of ew mea i gs. he weal h of he eu ral s ra um of words is of e overlooked. his is due o heir i co spicuous charac er. Bu heir facul y for assumi g ew mea i gs a d ge era i g ew s ylis ic varia s is of e qui e amazi g. his ge era ive power of he eu ral words i E glish la guage is mul iplied by he very a ure of he la guage i self. I has bee es ima ed ha mos eu ral E glish words are of mo osyllabic charac er, as, i he process of developme from Old E glish o Moder E glish, mos of he par s of speech los heir dis i guish suffixes.

his phe ome o has led o he developme of co versio as he mos produc ive mea s of word-buildi g. Word compou di g is o so produc ive as co versio or word shif i he par of speech i he firs case a d by he addi io of a affix i he seco d. U like all o her groups, he eu ral group of words ca o be co sidered as havi g a special s ylis ic colori g. Commo li erary words are chiefly used i wri i g a d i polished speech. O e ca always ell a li erary word from a colloquial word. he reaso fro his lies i cer ai objec ive fea ures of he li erary layer of words. Wha hese objec ive fea ures are, is difficul o say because as ye o objec ive cri eria have bee worked ou . Bu o e of he u doub edly is ha li erary u i s s a d i opposi io o colloquial u i s. his is especially appare whe pairs of sy o yms, li erary a d colloquial, ca be formed which s a d i co ras i g rela io . he followi g sy o yms illus ra e he rela io s ha exis be wee he eu ral, li erary a d colloquial words i he E glish la guage. Colloquial eu ral Li erary Kid Child I fa Daddy Fa her Pare Chap Fellow Associa e Ge ou Go away Re ire Go o Co i ue Proceed ee ager Boy (girl) You h (maide ) Flapper You g girl Maide Go ahead Begi Ge goi g S ar Comme ce I goes wi hou sayi g ha hese sy o yms are o o ly s ylis ic bu ideographic as a well, i.e. here is a defi i e, hough sligh , sema ic differe ce be wee he words. Bu his is almos always he case wi h sy o yms. here are very few absolu e sy o yms i E glish jus as here are i a y la guage. he mai dis i c io be wee sy o yms remai s s ylis ic. Bu s ylis ic differe ce may be of various ki ds: i may lie i he emo io al e sio co o ed i a word, or i he sphere of applica io , or i he degree of he quali y de o ed. Colloquial words are always more emo io ally colored ha li erary o es. he eu ral s ra um of words, as he erm i self implies, has o degree of emo ive ess, or have hey a y dis i c io s i he sphere of usage. Bo h li erary a d colloquial words have heir upper a d lower ra ges. he lower ra ge of li erary words approaches he eu ral layer a d has a markedly obvious e de cy o pass i o ha layer. he same may be said of he upper ra ge of he colloquial layer: i ca very easily pass i o he eu ral layer. he li es of demarca io be wee commo colloquial a d eu ral, o he o e ha d, a d commo li erary a d eu ral, o he o her, are blurred. I is here ha he process of i erpe e ra io of he s ylis ic s ra a becomes mos appare . S ill he ex remes remai a ago is ic a d herefore are of e used o bri g abou a collisio of ma ers of speech for special s ylis ic purposes. he differe ce i he s ylis ic aspec of words may color he whole of a u era ce. I his example from «Fa y’s Firs Play», he differe ce be wee he commo li erary a d commo colloquial vocabulary is clearly see . «Dora: Oh, I’ve le i ou . Have I? (co empla i g Juggi s approvi gly as he places a chair for her be wee he able a d he sideboard). Bu he’s he righ sor : I ca see ha (bu o holi g him). You wo ’ le i ou dow s airs, old ma , will you? Juggi s: he family ca rely o my absolu e discre io ».

Another way in which Chinese differs from English is that words relating to homosexuality (see chapter 6) are not particularly used as insults. This, again, may have something to do with the lack of religious dogma in China. While homosexuality is not exactly accepted in Chinese society, being gay does not carry the stigma of inherent moral БЂњwrongnessБЂ« that it often bears in Christian and Muslim societies. (Homosexuality can be considered bad in China for plenty of other reasons, but they mostly have to do with the importance that society places on having children.) Thus there is nothing in the Chinese vocabulary like БЂњcock-sucker,БЂ« БЂњfaggot,БЂ« БЂњbugger off,БЂ« БЂњthatБЂ™s so gay,БЂ« or БЂњthat sucks.БЂ« One final mainstay of English-language swearing conspicuously absent from Chinese is БЂњshit.БЂ« In a country that until recently was predominantly agricultural (meaning that manure was an important resource), where people talk openly at the dinner table about diarrhea, and where babies toddle about with their naked butts exposed in БЂњsplit pantsБЂ« (pants open at the back so that Junior can squat wherever he wants and take an impromptu dump on the street), it just isnБЂ™t very dirty to mention excrement or urine

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