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Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England
МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОРОДСКОЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ Факультет иностранных языков Английское отделение Дипломная работа по фонетике английского языка на тему: «REGIO AL VARIA IO OF PRO U CIA IO I HE SOU H-WES OF E GLA D» Москва 2001 Pla : I roduc io .3 Par I. he Specific Fea ures of dialec s Wha is he “dialec ”? 4 Geographic dialec s 5 Dialec al cha ge a d diffusio .5 U ifyi g i flue ces o dialec s .8 Focal, relic, a d ra si io al areas .9 Received Pro u cia io .9 Who firs called i PR? .10 Social Varia io 11 Dialec s of E gla d: radi io al a d Moder .12 Par II. Backgrou d o he Cor ish La guage Who are he Cor ish? .15 Wha is a Cel ic La guage? .15 How is Cor ish Rela ed o o her Cel ic La guages? .15 he Decli e of Cor ish 15 he Rebir h of Cor ish 16 S a dard Cor ish .16 Who uses Cor ish oday? .16 Gover me Recog i io for Cor ish .16 Par III. Peculiari ies of Sou h-Wes er Dialec s Vocalisa io .18 Co so a ism .23 Grammar .27 3.1 ou s .27 3.2 Ge der 27 3.2.1 Ge der maki g i Wessex- ype E glish .27 3.3 umerals 29 3.4 Adjec ives .29 .5 Pro ou s .30 3.5.1 Demo s ra ive adjec ives a d pro ou s i a Devo shire dialec 31 3.6 Verbs .39 3.7 Adverbs .42 3.8 ra si ivi y a d i ra sivi y i he dialec s of Sou h-Wes E gla d .44 4. Vocabulary .52 Co clusio s .68 Bibliography .69 Suppleme s .71 I roduc io . he moder E glish la guage is a i er a io al la guage owadays. I is also he firs spoke la guage of such cou ries as Aus ralia, ew Zeala d, Ca ada, Sou h Africa. Bu i he very U i ed Ki gdom here are some varie ies of i , called dialec s, a d acce s. he purpose of he prese research paper is o s udy he charac eris ic fea ures of he prese day dialec of he Sou h-Wes er regio i par icular. o achieve his purpose i is ecessary o fi d a swers o he followi g ques io s: Wha is he “dialec ”? Why a d where is i spoke ? How does i differ from he s a dard la guage? Me hods of his research paper i cluded he a alysis of works of he famous li guis s a d pho e icia s as Pe er rudgill a d J.K. Chambers, Paddock a d Harris, J.A. Leuve s eij a d J.B. Ber s, M.M. Makovsky a d D.A. Shakhbagova, a d also he eeded i forma io from Bri a ica a d he e cyclopedia by David Crys al a d he speech of he a ive popula io of Devo shire a d Wil shire. S ruc urally he paper co sis s of hree par s focused o he i forma io abou “ he dialec ” i ge eral a d he ways i differs from he s a dard la guage (i s pho e ic, grammar a d o her li guis ic differe ces), a d he specific fea ures of he Sou h-Wes of E gla d. he s a us of he E glish la guage i he XX h ce ury has u dergo e cer ai cha ges. Moder E glish has become a domi eeri g i er a io al la guage of owadays. PAR I. he Specific Fea ures of dialec s. Wha is he “dialec ”? Dialec is a varie y of a la guage. his very word comes from he A cie Greek dialec os “discourse, la guage, dialec ”, which is derived from dialeges hai “ o discourse, alk”. A dialec may be dis i guished from o her dialec s of he same la guage by fea ures of a y par of he li guis ic s ruc ure - he pho ology, morphology, or sy ax.
“ he label dialec , or dialec al, is a ached o subs a dard speech, la guage usage ha devia es from he accep ed orm. O he o her ha d he s a dard la guage ca be regarded as o e of he dialec s of a give la guage. I a special his orical se se, he erm dialec applies o a la guage co sidered as o e of a group derivi g from a commo a ces or, e.g. E glish dialec s”. (№9, p.389) I is of e co sidered difficul o decide whe her wo li guis ic varie ies are dialec s of he same la guage or wo separa e bu closely rela ed la guages; his is especially rue of dialec s of primi ive socie ies. ormally, dialec s of he same la guage are co sidered o be mu ually i elligible while differe la guages are o . I elligibili y be wee dialec s is, however, almos ever absolu ely comple e; o he o her ha d, speakers of closely rela ed la guages ca s ill commu ica e o a cer ai ex e whe each uses his ow mo her o gue. hus, he cri erio of i elligibili y is qui e rela ive. I more developed socie ies, he dis i c io be wee dialec s a d rela ed la guages is easier o make because of he exis e ce of s a dard la guages a d, i some cases, a io al co scious ess. here is he erm ‘ver acular’ amo g he sy o yms for dialec ; i refers o he commo , everyday speech of he ordi ary people of a regio . he word acce has umerous mea i gs; i addi io o de o i g he pro u cia io of a perso or a group of people (“a foreig acce ”, “a Bri ish acce ”, “a Sou her acce ”). I co ras o acce , he erm dialec is used o refer o o ly o he sou ds of la guage bu also o i s grammar a d vocabulary. Geographic dialec s. he mos widespread ype of dialec al differe ia io is geographic. As a rule, he speech of o e locali y differs from ha of a y o her place. Differe ces be wee eighbouri g local dialec s are usually small, bu , i ravelli g far her i he same direc io , differe ces accumula e. “Every dialec al fea ure has i s ow bou dary li e, called a isogloss (or some imes he erogloss). Isoglosses of various li guis ic phe ome a rarely coi cide comple ely, a d by crossi g a d i erweavi g hey co s i u e i rica e pa er s o dialec maps. Freque ly, however, several isoglosses are grouped approxima ely oge her i o a bu dle of isoglosses. his groupi g is caused ei her by geographic obs acles ha arres he diffusio of a umber of i ova io s alo g he same li e or by his orical circums a ces, such as poli ical borders of lo g s a di g, or by migra io s ha have brough i o co ac wo popula io s whose dialec s were developed i o co iguous areas”. (№9, p.396) Geographic dialec s i clude local o es or regio al o es. Regio al dialec s do have some i er al varia io , bu he differe ces wi hi a regio al dialec are supposedly smaller ha differe ces be wee wo regio al dialec s of he same ra k. “I a umber of areas (“li guis ic la dscapes”) where he dialec al differe ia io is esse ially eve , i is hardly jus ified o speak of regio al dialec s. his u iformi y has led ma y li guis s o de y he mea i gful ess of such a o io al oge her; very freque ly, however, bu dles of isoglosses - or eve a si gle isogloss of major impor a ce - permi he divisio , of a erri ory i o regio al dialec s.
he public is of e aware of such divisio s, usually associa i g hem wi h ames of geographic regio s or provi ces, or wi h some fea ure of pro u cia io . Especially clear-cu cases of divisio are hose i which geographic isola io has played he pri cipal role”. (№9, p.397) Dialec al cha ge a d diffusio . he basic cause of dialec al differe ia io is li guis ic cha ge. Every livi g la guage co s a ly cha ges i i s various eleme s. Because la guages are ex remely complex sys ems of sig s, i is almos i co ceivable ha li guis ic evolu io could affec he same eleme s a d eve ra sform hem i he same way i all regio s where o e la guage is spoke a d for all speakers i he same regio . A firs gla ce, differe ces caused by li guis ic cha ge seem o be sligh , bu hey i evi ably accumula e wi h ime (e.g. compare Chaucer’s E glish wi h moder E glish). Rela ed la guages usually begi as dialec s of he same la guage. “Whe a cha ge (a i ova io ) appears amo g o ly o e sec io of he speakers of a la guage, his au oma ically crea es a dialec al differe ce. Some imes a i ova io i dialec A co ras s wi h he u cha ged usage (archaism) i dialec B. Some imes a separa e i ova io occurs i each of he wo dialec s. Of course, differe i ova io s will appear i differe dialec s, so ha , i compariso wi h i s co emporaries, o o e dialec as a whole ca be co sidered archaic i a y absolu e se se. A dialec may be charac erized as rela ively archaic, because i shows fewer i ova io s ha he o hers; or i may be archaic i o e fea ure o ly”. (№9, p.415) Af er he appeara ce of a dialec al fea ure, i erac io be wee speakers who have adop ed his fea ure a d hose who have o leads o he expa sio of i s area or eve o i s disappeara ce. I a si gle social milieu (ge erally he i habi a s of he same locali y, ge era io a d social class), he cha ce of he comple e adop io or rejec io of a ew dialec al fea ure is very grea ; he i e se co ac a d co scious ess of membership wi hi he social group fos ers such u iformi y. Whe several age groups or social s ra a live wi hi he same locali y a d especially whe people speaki g he same la guage live i separa e commu i ies dialec al differe ces are easily mai ai ed. “ he eleme of mu ual co ac plays a large role i he mai e a ce of speech pa er s; ha is why differe ces be wee geographically dis a dialec s are ormally grea er ha hose be wee dialec s of eighbouri g se leme s. his also explai s why bu dles of isoglosses so of e form alo g major a ural barriers - impassable mou ai ra ges, deser s, u i habi ed marshes or fores s, or wide rivers - or alo g poli ical borders. Similarly, racial or religious differe ces co ribu e o li guis ic differe ia io because co ac be wee members of o e fai h or race a d hose of a o her wi hi he same area is very of e much more superficial a d less freque ha co ac be wee members of he same racial or religious group. A especially powerful i flue ce is he rela ively i freque occurre ce of i emarriages, hus preve i g dialec al mix ure a he poi where i is mos effec ive; amely, i he mo her o gue lear ed by he child a home”.
Hills here and there emerge, like islands, from the plain; some of them steep limestone cliffs, such as that of Soracte in the north-east, and that of the Circeian promontory on the south-west, as well as the similar though lower height of the Janiculum near Rome; others volcanic elevations, whose extinct craters had become converted into lakes which in some cases still exist; the most important of these is the Alban range, which, free on every side, stands forth from the plain between the Volscian chain and the river Tiber. Here settled the stock which is known to history under the name of the Latins, or, as they were subsequently called by way of distinction from the Latin communities beyond the bounds of Latium, the "Old Latins" (prisci Latini). But the territory occupied by them, the district of Latium, was only a small portion of the central plain of Italy. All the country north of the Tiber was to the Latins a foreign and even hostile domain, with whose inhabitants no lasting alliance, no public peace, was possible, and such armistices as were concluded appear always to have been for a limited period
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