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Industrial development of the African countries

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Moscow S a e U iversi y of I s rume E gi eeri g a d Compu er Scie ce Abs rac : “I dus rial developme of he Africa cou ries.” Execu ed: МФ-ЭФ2-06-02 Bi a -Zade Elvi Checked: Vale i a Ma ishova Mozhaysk, 2008 Co e s: I roduc io 1. His ory 2. Chemis ry a d processi g 3. E viro me al, social a d cul ural impac 4. Biofuels a d bioproduc s 5. Regio al produc io 5.1. Malaysia 5.2. I do esia 5.3. Aus ralia 5.4. Be i 5.5. Ke ya 5.6. Colombia 6. Heal h 6.1. Blood choles erol co roversy Bibliography I roduc io . Palm oil is a form of edible vege able oil ob ai ed from he frui of he oil palm ree. Previously he seco d-mos widely produced edible oil, af er soybea oil, 28 millio me ric o s were produced worldwide i 2004. I may have ow surpassed soybea oil as he mos widely produced vege able oil i he world. I is also a impor a compo e of ma y soaps, washi g powders a d perso al care produc s, is used o rea wou ds, a d has co roversially fou d a ew use as a feeds ock for biofuel. he palm frui is he source of bo h palm oil (ex rac ed from palm frui ) a d palm ker el oil (ex rac ed from he frui seeds). Palm oil i self is reddish because i co ai s a high amou of be a-caro e e. I is used as cooki g oil, o make margari e a d is a compo e of ma y processed foods. Boili g i for a few mi u es des roys he caro e oids a d he oil becomes colourless. Palm oil is o e of he few vege able oils rela ively high i sa ura ed fa s (like coco u oil) a d hus semi-solid a room empera ure. 1. His ory. Palm oil (from he Africa Oil Palm, Elaeis gui ee sis) was lo g recog ized i Wes Africa cou ries, a d amo g Wes Africa peoples i has lo g bee i widespread use as a cooki g oil. Europea mercha s radi g wi h Wes Africa occasio ally purchased palm oil for use i Europe, bu as he oil was bulky a d cheap, palm oil remai ed rare ou side Wes Africa. I he Asa e Co federacy, s a e-ow ed slaves buil large pla a io s of oil palm rees, while i he eighbouri g Ki gdom of Dahomey, Ki g Ghezo passed a law i 1856 forbiddi g his subjec s from cu i g dow oil palms. Palm oil became a highly sough -af er commodi y by Bri ish raders, for use as a i dus rial lubrica for he machi es of Bri ai 's I dus rial Revolu io , as well as formi g he basis of soap produc s, such as Lever Bro hers' &quo ;Su ligh Soap&quo ;, a d he America Palmolive bra d. By c.1870, palm oil co s i u ed he primary expor of some Wes Africa cou ries such as Gha a a d igeria, al hough his was over ake by cocoa i he 1880s. Palm was i roduced o Java by he Du ch i 1848 a d Malaysia ( he he Bri ish colo y of Malaya) i 1910 by Sco sma William Sime a d E glish ba ker He ry Darby. he firs pla a io s were mos ly es ablished a d opera ed by Bri ish pla a io ow ers, such as Sime Darby. From he 1960s a major oil palm pla a io scheme was i roduced by he gover me wi h he mai aim of eradica i g pover y. Se lers were each alloca ed 10 acres of la d (abou 4 hec ares) pla ed ei her wi h oil palm or rubber, a d give 20 years o pay off he deb for he la d. he large pla a io compa ies remai ed lis ed i Lo do u il he Malaysia gover me e gi eered heir &quo ;Malaysia isa io &quo ; hroughou he 1960s a d 1970s.

2. Chemis ry a d processi g. Palm oil a d palm ker el oil are composed of fa y acids, es erified wi h glycerol jus like a y ordi ary fa . Bo h are high i sa ura ed fa y acids, abou 50% a d 80%, respec ively. he oil palm gives i s ame o he 16 carbo sa ura ed fa y acid palmi ic acid fou d i palm oil; mo ou sa ura ed oleic acid is also a co s i ue of palm oil while palm ker el oil co ai s mai ly lauric acid. Palm oil is he larges a ural source of oco rie ol, par of he vi ami E family. Palm oil is also high i vi ami K a d die ary mag esium. apalm derives i s ame from aph he ic acid, palmi ic acid a d pyro ech ics or simply from a recipe usi g aph ha a d palm oil. he approxima e co ce ra io of fa y acids (FAs) i palm oil is as follows: Fa y acid co e of palm oil ype of fa y acidpc Palmi ic C16 44.3% S earic C18 4.6% Myris ic C14 1.0% Oleic C18 38.7% Li oleic C18 10.5% O her/U k ow 0.9% Fa y acid co e of palm ker el oil ype of fa y acidpc Lauric C12 48.2% Myris ic C14 16.2% Palmi ic C16 8.4% Capric C10 3.4% Caprylic C8 3.3% S earic C18 2.5% Oleic C18 15.3% Li oleic C18 2.3% O her/U k ow 0.4% Fa y acids are sa ura ed a d u sa ura ed alipha ic carboxylic acids wi h carbo chai le g h i he ra ge of C6 up o C24. A example of a fa y acid is palmi ic acid CH3 – (CH2)14 – COOH Spli i g of oils a d fa s by hydrolysis, or u der basic co di io s sapo ifica io , yields fa y acids; wi h glyceri (glycerol) as a by-produc . he spli -off fa y acids are a mix ure of fa y acids ra gi g from C6 o C18 depe di g o he ype of Oil / Fa . Palm oil produc s are made usi g milli g a d refi i g processes; firs usi g frac io a io , wi h crys alliza io a d separa io processes o ob ai a solid s eari , a d liquid olei . By mel i g a d degummi g, impuri ies ca be removed a d he he oil fil ered a d bleached. ex , physical refi i g removes odours a d coloura io , o produce refi ed bleached deodorized palm oil, or RBDPO, a d free pure fa y acids, used as a impor a raw ma erial i he ma ufac ure of soaps, washi g powder a d o her hygie e a d perso al care produc s. RBDPO is he basic oil produc which ca be sold o he world's commodi y marke s, al hough ma y compa ies frac io a e i ou fur her i o palm olei , for cooki g oil, or o her produc s. Palm is also used i biodiesel produc io , as ei her a simply-processed palm oil mixed wi h pe rodiesel, or processed hrough ra ses erifica io o crea e a palm oil me hyl es er ble d which mee s he i er a io al E 14214 specifica io , wi h glyceri as a by-produc . he ac ual process used varies be wee cou ries a d he requireme s of a y expor marke s. Seco d-ge era io biofuel produc io processes are also bei g rialled i rela ively small qua i ies. 3. E viro me al, social a d cul ural impac . Palm oil produc io is a basic source of i come for ma y of he world's rural poor i Sou h Eas Asia, Ce ral a d Wes Africa, a d Ce ral America. A es ima ed 1.5 millio small farmers grow he crop i I do esia, whereas abou 0.5 millio people are direc ly employed i he sec or i Malaysia, plus hose co ec ed wi h spi offs. o o ly does he palm represe a pillar of hese a io 's eco omies bu i is a ca alys for rural developme a d poli ical s abili y.

Ma y social i i ia ives use profi s from palm oil o fi a ce pover y allevia io s ra egies. Examples i clude he direc fi a ci g of Magbe eh hospi al i Make i, Sierra Leo e, hrough profi s made from palm oil grow by small local farmers, he Presby eria Disas er Assis a ce's Food Securi y Program, which draws o a wome -ru coopera ive o grow palm oil, he profi s of which are rei ves ed i food securi y, or he U Food a d Agricul ure Orga isa io 's hybrid oil palm projec i Wes er Ke ya, which improves i comes a d die s of local popula io s, o ame jus a few. As of 2006, he cumula ive la d area of palm oil pla a io s is approxima ely 11 millio hec ares. I 2005 he Malaysia Palm Oil Associa io , respo sible for abou half of he world's crop, es ima ed ha hey ma age abou half a billio pere ial carbo -seques eri g palm rees. Dema d for palm oil has bee risi g a d is expec ed o climb fur her. his risi g dema d is resul i g i ropical fores bei g cleared o es ablish ew palm pla a io s. Accordi g o U EP, a he curre ra e of i rusio i o I do esia a io al parks, i is likely ha ma y pro ec ed rai fores s will be severely degraded by 2012 hrough illegal hu i g a d rade, loggi g, a d fores fires, i cludi g hose associa ed wi h he rapid spread of palm oil pla a io s. here is growi g co cer ha his will be harmful o he e viro me i several ways: Sig ifica gree house gas emissio s. Defores a io , mai ly i ropical areas, accou for up o o e- hird of o al a hropoge ic CO2 emissio s. Habi a des ruc io of cer ai e da gered species (e.g. he ora gu a s i Bor eo, he Suma ra iger, a d Asia rhi oceros.) Po e ial ex i c io of some such species. Ma y places ha are of i eres for growi g palm are biodiversi y ho spo s, i creasi g he impac of his developme o he e viro me . I addi io o e viro me al impac , he loggi g a d la d-cleari g by large imber compa ies ha accompa y he es ablishme of palm pla a io s hrea e s he livelihood of mi ori y ribes such as he Pe a a d Iba i Sarawak, Bor eo. Damage o pea la d, par ly due o palm oil produc io , is claimed o co ribu e o e viro me al degrada io , i cludi g four perce of global gree house gas emissio s a d eigh perce of all global emissio s caused a ually by bur i g fossil fuels, due o he large areas of rai fores ha are cleared o make way for palm oil pla a io s. he pollu io is exacerba ed because ma y rai fores s i I do esia a d Malaysia lie a op pea bogs ha s ore grea qua i ies of carbo ha are released whe he fores s are cu dow a d he bogs drai ed o make way for he palm oil pla a io s. GOs have accused he grow h of ew palm oil pla a io s as also bei g respo sible for pea fores des ruc io i I do esia a d for accelera i g global warmi g. Gree peace co cluded ha ma y food a d cosme ics compa ies, i cludi g ADM, U ilever, Cargill, Proc or & Gamble, es le, Kraf a d Burger Ki g, are drivi g he dema d for ew palm oil supplies, par ly for produc s ha co ai o -hydroge a ed solid vege able fa s, as co sumers ow dema d fewer hydroge a ed oils i food produc s ha were previously high i ra s fa co e . Frie ds of he Ear h have co cluded ha he i crease i dema d comes from biofuel, wi h producers ow looki g o use palm as a source.

Income from the previous oil boomsБЂ”in the 1970sБЂ”was not absorbed by the regional economies but, rather, spent on imports from the West, investments overseas, and military arms. The local economies saw little direct benefit. But since 2002, over $650 billion from this newБЂ”demand-drivenБЂ”oil windfall have been reinvested in the gulf economies alone. Alongside the cluster strategy adopted by Dubai and a number of other gulf Arab countries, much of the regionБЂ™s oil revenues have gone into real estate development. The GCC real estate sector has been the fastest growing in the world. Between 2000 and 2010, an estimated 19.55 million square yards of new leasable spaceБЂ”new office buildings, shopping malls, hotels, industrial facilities, and housing developmentsБЂ”will have been added in the region, mostly in Saudi Arabia and the UAE, growing at 20 percent annually during this period. (ChinaБЂ™s annual growth in leasable space was 15 percent.) But as in much of the rest of the world, the Persian Gulf real estate bubble has burst

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86. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание
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88. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

89. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

90. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

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99. Country Study, Slovenia: Winning the Transitional Economies Race

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