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HE U IVERSI Y OF HULL DEPAR ME OF POLI ICS he Poli ics of Eas er Europe HOW SIG IFICA WAS ALEXA DER DUBCEK I HE DEVELOPME OF REFORMIS COMMU ISM?By: Jo as Da iliauskas u or: .P. Mc eillMarch 17, 1995 he I roduc io . he aim of his essay is o a swer he ques io : “How sig ifica was Alexa der Dubcek i he developme of reformis commu ism?” his ques io raises he o her ques io s. Was Dubcek he i spirer of all he reforms which ook place i Czechoslovakia i 1967-1969? How much did he himself i flue ce all he reformis processes? How much he had achieved i impleme i g his ideas? Dubcek became famous o ly i 1967. Before ha he was almos u k ow i he i er a io al poli ics. He was k ow o ly i he Czechoslovak Commu is Par y (CPCS), where he had almos o i flue ce o he major decisio s (u il 1967, of course). His promo io af er he re ur i g from he Moscow where he was s udyi g for hree years i he adva ced Par y school a ached o he Ce ral Commi ee of he Commu is Par y of he Sovie U io (CPSU), was qui e rapid. I 1960 he was elec ed o he Secre aria of he CPCS; i 1962 o he Presidium of he CPCS; i 1963 he became he Firs Secre ary of he Slovak Commu is Par y; fi ally, o Ja uary 5, 1968 he replaced A o i ovo y as he Firs Secre ary of he CPCS. He was he you ges leader of ruli g Commu is Par y (af er Fidel Cas ro), a d he firs Slovak i such a high posi io . hough he s ayed i his pos rela ively shor - u il April 17, 1969, whe he was replaced by Gus av Husak, his ame became k ow world-wide.Why did he reforms begi ? he Czechoslovak crisis deepe ed i 1967, a d showed i self i four spheres:1 1. Slovakia; 2. he eco omy; 3. he legal sys em; 4. Par y a d ideology. Si ce he 1962 he Czechoslovak eco omy sudde ly bega o show sig s of a cri ical decli e. ha happe ed i evi ably, because i he S ali years he expa sio of heavy i dus ry was pushed a he expe se of developme of all o her produc ive sec ors of he eco omy. he resul of his was growi g i efficie cy of produc io , failure o moder ise produc io ech ology, a decli e i he quali y of expor s, a loss of marke s, a d a drop i he effec ive ess of foreig rade.2 I Augus 1962 he hird-Five-Year Pla had o be aba do ed before comple io .3 I his si ua io he Slovaks bega o ac . Ma y of hem realised ha specific Slovak i eres s migh bes be served by des ali iza io a d eve liberalisa io .4 he problem also was he rehabili a io of he vic ims of he purge rials of 1949-1954. ovo y himself a d o her leadi g members of his regime had perso ally par icipa ed i he prepara io a d co duc of he purge rials. So, he rehabili a io was perceived as he direc hrea o he securi y a d he survival of he regime.5 All hese fac ors o ly decreased he level of CPCS’s legi imacy. he Developme of Reforms. he s ar poi of he reforms was he sessio of he Ce ral Commi ee of he CPCS o Oc ober 30-31, 1967. Dubcek raised a objec io agai s ovo y a d produced s a is ics sugges i g ha Slovakia was bei g co i uously chea ed i eco omic ma ers.6 his speech i spired discussio wha was he u precede ed hi g i he Ce ral Commi ee. he ex sessio of he Ce ral Commi ee s ar ed o December 19.

Josef Smrkovsky proposed he separa io of he pos s of Preside a d Firs Secre ary: “I is u sa isfac ory ha a excessive umber of du ies should be piled upo o e pair of shoulders.”7 I bo h sessio s he hree issues were a s ake. Firs , he impleme a io of he eco omic reforms, seco dly, freedom of expressio a d, fi ally, effec ive au o omy for Slovakia. Fi ally, a he Ce ral Commi ee Ple um o Ja uary 5, 1968, ovo y was replaced a he pos of he Firs Secre ary by Dubcek. Also four ew Presidium members were elec ed o s re g he Dubcek’s posi io - J.Spacek, J.Boruvka, E.Rigo, a d J.Piller. So, he Prague Spri g s ar ed a he op levels of he CPCS. Bu soo , as we would see, he Par y will loose i s abili y o co rol he developme s. A he same ime, he ho poli ical deba e s ar ed i he press, o radio a d elevisio . he mai issues were he Commu is Par y, democracy, he au o omy of Slovakia, he collapsi g eco omy, a d he problem of jus ice a d legali y.8 O February 14, he firs public poli ical discussio ook place i Prague. he ex cha ges i he leadership were ovo y’s resig a io from he Preside cy o March 22 a d Ge eral Ludvik Svoboda’s elec io o his pos o March 30, Oldrich Cier ik’s appoi me o he pos of Prime Mi is er a d he forma io of he ew cabi e o April 8, he elec io of he ew Presidium of he CPCS, a d he elec io of Josef Smrkovsky o he pos of he Chairma of he a io al Assembly. O April 9, he CPCS a ou ced i s ‘Ac io Programme’, officially k ow as ‘Czechoslovakia’s Road o Socialism’, as a basis for reformi g commu ism i he cou ry. I his docume he CPCS promised: (1) ew guara ees of freedom of speech, press, assembly a d religious observa ce; (2) elec oral laws o provide a broader choice of ca dida es, grea er freedom for he four o -commu is par ies wi hi he a io al Fro ; (3) upgradi g of he parliame a d he gover me wi h regard o he power of he CPCS appara us; (4) broad eco omic reforms o give e erprises grea er i depe de ce, o achieve a co ver ible curre cy, o revive a limi ed amou of priva e e erprise a d o i crease rade wi h Wes er cou ries; (5) a i depe de judiciary; (6) federal s a us for Slovakia o a i depe de basis a d a ew co s i u io o be draf ed by he e d of 1969.9 he Ce ral Commi ee also pledged a “full a d jus rehabili a io of all perso s” who had bee u jus ly persecu ed duri g 1949 -1954. Bu his programme promised less ha he people ac ually wa ed. he ‘Ac io Programme’ remai ed ou side he mai s ream of he powerful social process which had bee se i mo io i Ja uary.10 he people expec ed more reforms, more freedom. Bu Dubcek a d o her reforma s ried o be more modera e, o fi d he way for he gradual reforms. he Presidium of he CPCS prohibi ed he re ova io of he Social Democra ic Par y a d he Mi is ry of I erior a ou ced ha he forma io of poli ical par ies would be co sidered illegal. Bu a he same ime his Mi is ry sa c io ed he ac ivi y of he Club of E gaged o -Par y Members (KA ), a d recog ised he legal s a u e of a o her big club - K-231. Gradually he reforma s fou d hemselves i he posi io which will become vi al for hem all.

hey fou d hemselves be wee wo differe forces. O e force was he majori y of he Czech a d he Slovak a io s who wa ed more radical cha ges. he o her force was represe ed by he S ali is s, by Moscow, a d by he leadership of he o her cou ries of he Warsaw rea y Orga isa io (W O). O e of he major reforms was he law of Ju e 26, which abolished prepublica io ce sorship. O he ex day he famous ma ifes o, e i led ‘2,000 Words o Workers, Farmers, Scie is s, Ar is s a d Everyo e’ appeared i Li erar i lis y. he ma ifes o gave assura ces of comple e suppor of Dubcek’s regime, “if ecessary, eve wi h arms.”11 he leaders of he SU, Pola d, Bulgaria, Hu gary, a d Eas Germa y viewed he reforms aki g place i Czechoslovakia as he hrea for all he Commu is Bloc. he firs clearly expressed co cer was so-called Warsaw Le er. I was se o July 15, 1968, a d addressed o he Ce ral Commi ee of he CPCS. I proved he clear evide ce of he W O leaders’ lack of co fide ce i he leadership of he CPCS, a d co ai ed cri ical refere ces o Czechoslovakia’s foreig policy.12 here was expressed war i g ha he Czechoslovak reform policy was ‘comple ely u accep able’.13 he Presidium of he CPCS Ce ral Commi ee o July 18 rejec ed as u fou ded he accusa io s made i he Warsaw Le er a d affirmed ha he cou ry’s ew policies were aimed a s re g he i g socialism.14 he clear sig s of crisis i rela io s be wee Prague a d Moscow appeared. O July 19 Moscow issued a summo s o he CPCS Presidium, dema di g ha i mee July 22 or 23 wi h he Sovie Poli buro i Moscow, Kiev or Lvov o discuss i er al Czechoslovak developme s. 9 full members of he CPSU Poli buro a d he e ire CPCS Presidium me o July 29 i he Slovak village Cier a- ad- isou. Dubcek a d he o her reforma s regarded he ou come of he Cier a alks as a ‘Czechoslovak vic ory’. I had brough he a ulme of he Warsaw Le er; he depar ure of Sovie roops was guara eed, a d he cou ry’s sovereig y had bee defe ded.15 he fac ha he agreeme was regarded as he ‘vic ory’ shows ha Dubcek a d he o her reformers were really drive by aпve й a d idealism a d hoped ha hey could crea e he socialism wi h he ‘huma face’ wi hou he i erfere ce from he Moscow side. hey really u deres ima ed heir ow sig ifica ce o he Sovie s. Moscow regarded he reforma s developme s i he Czechoslovakia as he real hrea for he fu ure of he all Commu is Bloc. A commo view ha he da ger of a Czechoslovak deser io from he socialis camp a d a revisio of foreig policy by he Dubcek leadership has e ed he Sovie decisio o occupy he cou ry mili arily.16 he I vasio . O Augus 16 he CPSU Poli buro s a ed ha “ he CPCS was loosi g i s leadi g role i he cou ry.”17 his showed ha he Sovie ’s pa ie ce reached he e d. “Whe Moscow’s erve breaks, Sovie a ks usually s ar rolli g.”18 Armed forces of he SU, Eas Germa y, Pola d, Hu gary, a d Bulgaria i vaded Czechoslovakia i a swif mili ary ac io duri g he igh of Augus 20-21. Dubcek a d o her Czech a d Slovak leaders were arres ed i he ame of he “revolu io ary gover me of he workers a d peasa s.&

Invoking GDB The first line of Listing 13-1 shows how GDB was invoked from the command line. Because we are doing cross-debugging, we need the cross-version of GDB that has been compiled for our host and target system. We invoke our version of cross-gdb as shown and pass xscale_be-gdb the name of the binary followed by the name of the core dump filein this case, simply core. After GDB prints several banner lines describing its configuration and other information, it prints the reason for the termination: signal 11, the indication of a segmentation fault.[81] Several lines follow as GDB loads the binary, the libraries it depends on, and the core file. The last line printed upon GDB startup is the current location of the program when the fault occurred. The line preceded by the #0 string indicates the stack frame (stack frame zero in a function called ClearBlock() at virtual address 0x00012ac4). The following line preceded by 43 is the line number of the offending source line from a file called led.c. From there, GDB displays its command prompt and waits for input

1. The development of computers in the USA

2. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

3. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

4. The development of the Tower

5. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

6. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
7. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time
8. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

9. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

10. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

11. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

12. Higher Education in The U.K.

13. The role of art in our life

14. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

15. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

16. The role of art in our life

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17. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

18. Militant Islam’s Expansion in the Southern Philippines

19. Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind... Пастернак и нравственная дилемма послереволюционной интеллигенции

20. Education in the USA

21. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

22. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present
Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present
23. Europe in the Middle Ages
Europe in the Middle Ages
24. My career in the future
My career in the future

25. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

26. Many strange children were found in the world

27. Sport in the UK

28. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

29. Agriculture in the USA

30. American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries

31. The Tower in the 19th Century: From fortress to ancient monument

32. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

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33. Industrial development of the African countries

34. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

35. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

36. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

37. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

38. A Catcher In The Rye - Summary
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39. The Tower of London
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40. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.
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41. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

42. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

43. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

44. The Tower of London

45. The Economy of Great Britain

46. The History of English

47. The profile of an effective manager

48. The Tower of London

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49. The Hero of Our Time

50. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

51. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

52. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

53. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

54. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?
55. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
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56. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
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57. The history of Australia

58. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

59. The practice of modern medicine


61. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

62. London - the capital of Great Britain

63. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”

64. The uniqueness of the British

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65. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

66. The commonwealth of Australia

67. The Commonwealth of Australia

68. The climate of Great Britain

69. Washington is the capital of the USA

70. The pride of the nation
The pride of the nation
71. The cities of USA
The cities of USA
72. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb
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73. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

74. The House of Yorks

75. The declaration of independence

76. The war of the roses

77. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

78. The making of the collection

79. For the Beauty of the Earth

80. The Grapes of Wrath

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81. The Concept of Youth Subcultures

82. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

83. The Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions

84. The art of conversation

85. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

86. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials
Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials
87. Сборник диалогов по английскому языку для развития устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)
88. Development of Composite Insulators for Overhead Lines
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89. Oscar Wilde "The picture of Dorian Gray"

90. The category of Mood

91. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

92. The history of Germany and tourism

93. The history of grammatical study of the English language

94. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

95. The marking of the Russian Revolution

96. The origins of the International Socialists

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Раздел: Магниты канцелярские

97. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

98. The problem of violence

99. The Science Of Grammar

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