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Solidarity rights:universality and diversities

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Zol a Vig he oposi io be wee he i dividual a d he commu i y is o e of he ce ral hemes i he o -Wes er cul ural cri icue of i er a io al huma righ s. hroughou he ce uries co cep s of huma righ s a d fu dame al freedoms provided ha he be eficiaries of hose righ s a d freedoms are i dividual huma bei gs i whom hese righ s i here i alie ably by vir ue of heir huma i y, a d he dig i y a d i egri y o which ha charac eris ic e i les hem. For lo g, o e of he key fea ures of huma righ s hi ki g was he ce rali y of he dig i y a d well bei g of i dividuals. O he o her ha d, ma is a „social a imal“, a d i dividual huma righ s have collec ive i eres s as legi ima e res ric io grou ds. Moreover, such i eres s may impose du ies o i dividuals. Some scholars argue ha mos huma righ s have a collec ive aspec . Some huma righ s are i e ded o he pro ec io of a i dividual’s capaci y for rela i g wi h o hers ( he freedom of expressio , he freedom of assembly, e c.). I rela io wi h he s a e’s obliga io o impleme huma righ s, mos of he righ s are collec ive as hey ca be impleme ed by mea s of ge eral measures o ly. Some of he huma righ s are ascribed o special groups of huma bei gs – such as childre , wome , priso ers, e c. - bu s ill hey belo g o i dividual members of a group, ra her ha o he group i self as a hypo he ical e i y. However, he solidari y righ s are difficul o reco cile wi h he classical heory, as hey are held o by i dividuals, bu by collec ive subjec s (“peoples”). hey are freque ly referred o as “ hird ge era io ” righ s. Karel Vasak, former direc or of he Divisio of Huma Righ s a d Peace of U ESCO, bega o use hese erms a he e d of 1970s. Accordi g o his expla a io , af er he firs ge era io of ega ive civil a d poli ical righ s, a d he seco d ge era io of posi ive eco omic, social a d cul ural righ s a ew hird ge era io of righ s receives i er a io al recog i io . hese righ s are he so-called righ s of solidari y as hey ca be brough hrough o ly by joi ac ivi y of all social ac ors – i dividuals, s a e, public a d priva e bodies, a d he i er a io al commu i y. Usi g he ermi ology of he Fre ch Revolu io of 1789, he firs ge era io of righ s implies freedom, he seco d ge era io equali y, a d he hird ge era io ( he solidari y righ s) – fra er i y. his model ca be co sidered a simplified expressio of a very complica ed his orical adva ce. I does o i dica e a li ear progressio i which every ge era io of righ s appears cha gi g he old o e, a d disappears wi h he emerge ce of he ex ge era io of righ s. I also does o sugges ha o e ge era io of righ s is more impor a ha a o her is. he hree ge era io s are implied o be “cumula ive, overlappi g i erdepe de a d i erpe e ra i g.” his riad of democracy, developme , a d huma righ s reflec s he fu dame al co di io ali y of social a d i dividual life a d progress. he “ hird ge era io ” righ s proposed by Vasek i clude he righ o developme , he righ o peace, he righ o a heal hy a d bala ced e viro me , he proper y righ of he commo heri age of ma ki d, a d he righ o huma i aria assis a ce. owadays he ra ge a d classifica io of collec ive righ s is ques io able.

Some comme a ors dis i guish par icular righ s as such - for example, he righ s o self-de ermi a io , libera io a d equali y, he righ o i er a io al peace a d securi y, he righ o use of weal h a d resources, he righ o developme , he righ o e viro me a d he mi ori y righ s. O hers use classifica io s of collec ive righ s, dis i guishi g for example: - “ a io alis ” collec ive righ s, which imply he group of righ s, which i some respec deal wi h he exis e ce a d cul ural or poli ical co i ua io of groups (e.g. he righ o self-de ermi a io ), - or collec ive huma righ s reflec i g dema d for a global redis ribu io of power, weal h, a d o her impor a values or capabili ies ( he righ o poli ical, eco omic, social, a d cul ural self- de ermi a io , he righ o eco omic a d social developme , he righ o par icipa e i a d be efi from " he commo heri age of ma ki d"), a d he righ s sugges i g he impo e ce or i efficie cy of he a io -s a e i cer ai cri ical respec s ( he righ o peace, he righ o a heal hy a d sus ai able e viro me , a d he righ o huma i aria disas er relief). I he followi g I will discuss hose righ s which are recog ized by he majori y of comme a ors. he pri ciple of “equal righ s a d self-de ermi a io of peoples” is ci ed i he U i ed a io ’s Char er (U CH) 1 (2) as a basis for frie dly rela io s amo g a io s. his pri ciple is also declared o be o e of he four purposes of he U . hroughou i s exis e ce, he U has u der ake a d suppor ed ma y measures o promo e a d pro ec he righ o self-de ermi a io , especially i e couragi g a d accelera i g he gra of i depe de ce o colo ial cou ries, rus erri ories a d o her o -self-gover i g erri ories, 75 of which became i depe de be wee he e ry i o force of he U CH i 1945 a d he e d of 1977. As o e of hose measures his righ is i corpora ed i o he I er a io al Cove a o Civil a d Poli ical Righ s (ICCPR) a d he I er a io al Cove a o Eco omic, Social a d Cul ural Righ s (ICESCR). Bo h of hese docume s (ar icle 1(1)) ide ically provide his righ : “All peoples have he righ of self-de ermi a io . By vir ue of ha righ hey freely de ermi e heir poli ical s a us a d freely pursue heir eco omic, social a d cul ural developme .” I he probably mos progressive docume co cer i g collec ive huma righ s - he 1981 Africa Char er o Huma a d Peoples’ Righ s (ACHPR) (ar icle 20) – he righ o self-de ermi a io is compleme ed wi h he “righ o exis e ce” a d he fur her righ o libera io “from he bo ds of domi a io ”, mea s for libera io bei g u res ric ed, excep for recog i io of such “by he i er a io al commu i y”. Moreover, he ACHPR declares a righ o assis a ce from he o her S a e Par ies i a y “libera io s ruggle agai s foreig domi a io ”. he righ of self-de ermi a io u der he ICCPR a d he ACHPR is absolu e a d immedia e a d o -derogable i a y circums a ces. here is a opi io , ha “self-de ermi a io has bee he si gle mos powerful legal co cep shapi g he world si ce he World War II”; bei g, however, a he same ime very s ro gly affec ed by eco omic self-efficie cy. he righ of a group o exis e ce is ge erally pro ec ed by he prohibi io of ge ocide a d apar heid.

Ar icle II of he Co ve io o he Preve io a d Pu ishme of he Crime of Ge ocide defi es ge ocide as “ac s commi ed wi h i e o des roy, i whole or i par , a a io al, e h ical, racial or religious group as such”. he I er a io al Co ve io o he Suppressio a d Pu ishme of he Crime of Apar heid rela es he defi i io of he crime bo h o ac s agai s i dividuals a d o ac s agai s groups. For example, ar icle II (c) ells abou “measures calcula ed o preve a racial group or groups from par icipa io i he poli ical, social, eco omic a d cul ural life of he cou ry”. he righ o o u dergo group-based discrimi a io , gra ed o i dividuals, is freque ly ci ed as a example of a collec ive righ . his viewpoi fi ds suppor i ma y i er a io al huma righ s i s rume s. he mos impor a example is he I er a io al Co ve io o he Elimi a io of All Forms of Racial Discrimi a io . I par icular, he S a e Par ies u der his co ve io have a obliga io “ o e gage i o ac or prac ice of racial discrimi a io agai s perso s, groups of perso s or i s i u io s” (ar icle 2 (a)). Eve so, ha hese provisio s are formula ed as s a e obliga io s, ra her ha as collec ive or i dividual huma righ s, “ heir resul is a recog i io of he righ s of groups.” . he pro ec io of mi ori ies, reflec i g he eeds of mi ori ies a d groups as collec ives, is he oldes illus ra io of collec ive righ s’ pro ec io . Si ce he seve ee h ce ury i er a io al rea ies i cluded provisio s guara eei g cer ai righ s o religious mi ori ies. Examples are he rea y of Wes phalia (1648), gra i g religious righ s o he Pro es a s i Germa y; he rea y of Olivia (1660), i favour of Roma Ca holics i Livo ia, ceded by Pola d o Swede ; he rea y of Ryswick (1697), pro ec i g Ca holics i erri ories ceded by Fra ce o Holla d, a d he 1763 rea y of Paris be wee Fra ce, Spai a d Grea Bri ai , pro ec i g Ca holics i Ca adia erri ories ceded by Fra ce. Af er he Firs World War he sys em of mi ori y righ s pro ec io was es ablished by he League of a io s. By mea s of special provisio s i peace rea ies his sys em provided for securi g of legal equali y for i dividuals belo gi g o mi ori ies, as well as preserva io of he group ide i y a d radi io s of mi ori ies. Af er he Seco d World War o he pro ec io of mi ori ies was applied ra her a i dividual huma righ s approach. I he firs place mi ori y righ s are secured rough he prohibi io of group-based discrimi a io . I he seco d place, he ICCPR i cludes a special provisio o he righ s of i dividuals belo gi g o mi ori ies servi g as a s ar i g poi for fur her i er a io al a d domes ic legisla io : “I hose S a es i which e h ic, religious or li guis ic mi ori ies exis , perso s belo gi g o such mi ori ies shall o be de ied he righ , i commu i y wi h he o her members of heir group, o e joy heir ow cul ure, o profess a d prac ice heir ow religio , or o use heir ow la guage.” (ar icle 27). Moder huma righ s developme makes clear he moveme i favour of collec ive righ s for mi ori ies. However, i mos i er a io al a d domes ic huma righ s i s rume s hese righ s are declared alo gside wi h righ s of i dividual members of mi ori y groups wi hou a y dis i c io .

Winstone (London: Arrow, 1996). Blyth M, Great Transformations: Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). Boddy M., C. Fudge (eds.) Local Socialism?Labour Council and New Left Alternatives (London: Macmillan, 1984). Bond P., Against Global Apartheid: South Africa Meets the WorUBank, the IMF and International Finance (London: Zed Books, 2003). Bond P., Elite Transition: From Apartheid to Neoliberalism in South Africa (London: Pluto Press, 2000). Id. Bond P., Talk Left Walk Right: South Africa's Frustrated Global Reforms (Scottsville, South Africa: University of Kwa-Zulu Natal Press, 2004). Bond P., "US and Global Economic Volatility: Theoretical, Empirical and Political Considerations", paper presented to the Empire Seminar, York University, nov. 2004. BrecherJ., T. Costello, B. Smith, Globalization from Below: The Power of Solidarity (Cambridge, Mass: South End Press, 2000). Brenner R., TheBoom and the Bubble: The US in the World Economy (London: Verso, 2002). Cao L., "Chinese Privatization: Between Plan and Market", Law and Contemporary Problems, 63/13 (2000), 13-62

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2. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

3. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

4. School Reform: Pros and Cons

5. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

6. Economic and sociological analysis of suicide
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10. Knowledge, Innovation and Development

11. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

12. Rome and the Roman Empire

13. Slang, youth subcultures and rock music

14. The Irish and Australia

15. Великобритания - традиции и современность. Личное представление. (UK - Tradition and modernity. A personal view)

16. Nikolaev and Yakutia (Николаев и Якутия)

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18. Music and Ballet

19. Punks and Punk Rock

20. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

21. Urbanization and Urban Issues

22. Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies
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23. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars
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24. Entertainment outside the home: Pubs and clubs Leisure and sports
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25. Russians and Mixed Martial Arts

26. Корпоративный имидж (Advertising and public relations)

27. Continuity and change in Stravinskiy`s ballets. Стравинский и его балеты

28. Infant Industry Argument: Theory and Practice

29. Punks and Punk Rock

30. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

31. Music and Ballet

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36. Russians and Mixed Martial Arts

37. Poland and Hungary are in Transition

38. Russia and the international economy
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39. A Country Report and Profile - Republic of Uzbekistan
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43. Huey Lewis and the News

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45. Captain Beefheart and his magic band

46. Communication Systems and Information Theory

47. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

48. Advantages and disadvantages of TV

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50. Government and Politics

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57. Problems of city and country life

58. Human rights

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60. Irkutsk State University

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62. Period of lithuanian and polish rule (1360-1599)

63. Sports and games

64. Vegetation and wildlife

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73. Robin Hood and The Sheriff

74. Japanese Art and Architecture

75. Expressionism and Fauvism

76. Asuka and Nara Art

77. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

78. KOREA People and History in Harmony

79. Allocation of powers between directors and shareholders

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82. Your Health and You

83. Customs and Traditions

84. All English proverbs and sayings

85. Drug abuse: Tendencies and ways to overcome it

86. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?
87. English Painting and Art Galleries
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88. Great Britain and Kazakhstan
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89. Mary Stuart. Her life and struggle for crown

90. Smokers and Death cigarettes

91. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

92. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

93. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

94. Leisure and Activities

95. Survey of the British Geography and Life

96. Melville’s “The March into Virginia” and “The College Colonel”: The Broken Youth.

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97. "Cultural imperialism" and "cultural diplomacy"

98. Sport and healthy lifestyle

99. American Sports and Games


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