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Economy of the United States

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he U i ed S a es has he larges a io al eco omy i he world, wi h a GDP for 2005 of 12.41 rillio dollars. I his mixed eco omy, corpora io s a d o her priva e firms make he vas majori y of microeco omic decisio s, a d gover me s prefer o ake a mi imal role i he domes ic eco omy. Because of his, he U.S. has a small social safe y e , a d busi ess firms i he U.S. face co siderably less regula io ha hose i ma y o her a io s. he fiscal policy of he a io si ce he ew Deal has followed he ge eral ideals of Key esia eco omics, which replaced Hamil o ia eco omics followi g he Grea Depressio . eoliberal ideals have become more promi e si ce he preside cy of Ro ald Reaga a d wi h he growi g i flue ce of globaliza io . Si ce he early 1980s, he U i ed S a es has ra sformed from bei g he world's larges credi or o havi g a subs a ial curre accou defici a d a a io al deb , which is ow approxima ely 64% of he GDP a d he highes si ce he 1950s. His ory Wi h Preside Hardi g's pos –World War I &quo ;Re ur o ormalcy&quo ;, he U i ed S a es e joyed a period of grea prosperi y duri g he 1920s. he s ock marke grew by leaps a d bou ds, fueled by he i fla io ary policies of he Federal Reserve, a d he eco omy was co sidered i vi cible. However, he Grea Depressio sha ered ha belief. Preside Fra kli D. Roosevel i roduced a array of social programs a d public works, k ow collec ively as he ew Deal. he ew Deal i cluded a ew social safe y e i volvi g relief programs like he WPA a d he Social Securi y sys em. I 1941, he U.S. e ered World War II. he home fro saw e ormous prosperi y, as labor shor ages brough millio s of housewives, s ude s, farmers a d Africa America s i o he labor force. Millio s moved o i dus rial ce ers i he or h a d Wes . Mili ary spe di g accou ed for over 40% of GDP a he peak, drivi g deb up o record levels. he pos –World War II years were a ime of grea prosperi y i he U i ed S a es. he eco omy remai ed s able u il he 1970s, whe he U.S. suffered s agfla io . Richard ixo ook he U i ed S a es off he Bre o Woods sys em, a d fur her gover me a emp s o revive he eco omy failed. As he decade progressed, he si ua io worse ed. I ovember 1980, Rober G. A derso wro e, &quo ; he dea h k ell is fi ally sou di g for he Key esia Revolu io .&quo ; Ro ald Reaga was elec ed Preside i 1980, a d was of he opi io ha &quo ;gover me is o he solu io o our problem, gover me is he problem.&quo ; Reaga advoca ed a program of 'supply-side eco omics', a d i 1981 Co gress cu axes a d spe di g, a d reduced regula io s. Al hough he Gross Domes ic Produc (GDP) decli ed by 2% i 1982, i proceeded o rebou d, a d by 1988 had e joyed a o al of 31% grow h si ce Reaga 's elec io . U der Bill Cli o 's eigh years of preside cy, he GDP expa ded by 38%. By he e d of his e ure he U i ed S a es had a Gross a io al I come (G I) of $9.7 rillio , a d he lowes u employme ra es i 30 years. A recessio bega duri g 2000 i co ec io o he e d of he do -com bubble. hroughou , housi g s ar s a d purchases remai ed high, a d he eco omy as of 2005 is co sidered by ma y o be s ro g i ge eral. Some fear high gover me spe di g (such as i he Iraq War) as well as high oil prices may accelera e i fla io .

here are also war i gs ha he Federal Gover me eeds o re-bala ce he budge o avoid po e ial defaul . While defaul does o appear a probable ou come, i is highly likely ha persis e high budge defici s will drag dow he eco omy i he fu ure. his applies eve more so o he curre accou defici a d ex er al deb . U.S. liabili ies o foreig ers are es ima ed a $15 rillio i 2005, a d co i ue o grow. Basic i gredie s of he U.S. eco omy he firs i gredie of a a io 's eco omic sys em is i s a ural resources. he U i ed S a es is rich i mi eral resources a d fer ile farm soil, a d i is for u a e o have a modera e clima e. I also has ex e sive coas li es o bo h he A la ic a d Pacific Ocea s, as well as o he Gulf of Mexico. Rivers flow from far wi hi he co i e , a d he Grea Lakes - five large, i la d lakes alo g he U.S. border wi h Ca ada - provide addi io al shippi g access. hese ex e sive wa erways have helped shape he cou ry's eco omic grow h over he years a d helped bi d America's 50 i dividual s a es oge her i a si gle eco omic u i . he seco d i gredie is labor. he umber of available workers a d, more impor a ly, heir produc ivi y help de ermi e he heal h of a eco omy. hroughou i s his ory, he U i ed S a es has experie ced s eady grow h i he labor force, a d ha , i ur , has helped fuel almos co s a eco omic expa sio . U il shor ly af er World War I, mos workers were immigra s from Europe, heir immedia e desce da s, or Africa America s who were mos ly slaves ake from Africa, or slave desce da s. Begi i g i he early 20 h ce ury, ma y La i America s immigra ed; followed by large umbers of Asia s followi g removal of a io - origi based immigra io quo as. he promise of high wages bri gs ma y highly skilled workers from arou d he world o he U i ed S a es. Labor mobili y has also bee impor a o he capaci y of he America eco omy o adap o cha gi g co di io s. Whe immigra s flooded labor marke s o he Eas Coas , ma y workers moved i la d, of e o farmla d wai i g o be illed. Similarly, eco omic oppor u i ies i i dus rial, or her ci ies a rac ed black America s from sou her farms i he firs half of he 20 h ce ury. hird, here is ma ufac uri g a d i ves me . I he U i ed S a es, he corpora io has emerged as a associa io of ow ers, k ow as s ockholders, who form a busi ess e erprise gover ed by a complex se of rules a d cus oms. Brough o by he process of mass produc io , corpora io s such as Ge eral Elec ric have bee i s rume al i shapi g he U i ed S a es. hrough he s ock marke , America ba ks a d i ves ors have grow heir eco omy by i ves i g a d wi hdrawi g capi al from profi able corpora io s. oday i he era of globaliza io America i ves ors a d corpora io s have i flue ce all over he world. he America gover me has also bee i s rume al i i ves i g i he eco omy, i areas such as providi g cheap elec rici y (such as he Hoover Dam), a d mili ary co rac s i imes of war. While co sumers a d producers make mos decisio s ha mold he eco omy, gover me ac ivi ies have a powerful effec o he U.S. eco omy i a leas four areas. S ro g gover me regula io i he U.S. eco omy s ar ed i he early 1900s wi h he rise of he progressive moveme ; prior o his he gover me promo ed eco omic grow h hrough pro ec ive ariffs a d subsidies o i dus ry, buil i fras ruc ure, a d es ablished ba ki g policies, i cludi g he gold s a dard, o e courage savi gs a d i ves me i produc ive e erprises.

S abiliza io a d grow h Perhaps mos impor a ly, he federal gover me guides he overall pace of eco omic ac ivi y, a emp i g o mai ai s eady grow h, high levels of employme , a d price s abili y. Adjus i g spe di g a d ax ra es (fiscal policy) or ma agi g he mo ey supply a d co rolli g he use of credi (mo e ary policy), i ca slow dow or speed up he eco omy's ra e of grow h-i he process, affec i g he level of prices a d employme . For ma y years followi g he Grea Depressio of he 1930s, recessio s - periods of slow eco omic grow h a d high u employme - were viewed as he grea es of eco omic hrea s. Whe he da ger of recessio appeared mos serious, gover me sough o s re g he he eco omy by spe di g heavily i self or cu i g axes so ha co sumers would spe d more, a d by fos eri g rapid grow h i he mo ey supply, which also e couraged more spe di g. I he 1970s, major price i creases, par icularly for e ergy, crea ed a s ro g fear of i fla io - i creases i he overall level of prices. As a resul , gover me leaders came o co ce ra e more o co rolli g i fla io ha o comba i g recessio by limi i g spe di g, resis i g ax cu s, a d rei i g i grow h i he mo ey supply. Ideas abou he bes ools for s abilizi g he eco omy cha ged subs a ially be wee he 1960s a d he 1990s. I he 1960s, gover me had grea fai h i fiscal policy-ma ipula io of gover me reve ues o i flue ce he eco omy. Si ce spe di g a d axes are co rolled by he preside a d he U.S. Co gress, hese elec ed officials played a leadi g role i direc i g he eco omy. A period of high i fla io , high u employme , a d huge gover me defici s weake ed co fide ce i fiscal policy as a ool for regula i g he overall pace of eco omic ac ivi y. I s ead, mo e ary policy-co rolli g he a io 's mo ey supply hrough such devices as i eres ra es-assumed growi g promi e ce. Mo e ary policy is direc ed by he a io 's ce ral ba k, k ow as he Federal Reserve Board, wi h co siderable i depe de ce from he preside a d he Co gress. Regula io a d co rol he U.S. federal gover me regula es priva e e erprise i umerous ways. Regula io falls i o wo ge eral ca egories. Eco omic regula io : Seeks, ei her direc ly or i direc ly, o co rol prices. radi io ally, he gover me has sough o preve mo opolies such as elec ric u ili ies from raisi g prices beyo d he level ha would e sure hem reaso able profi s. A imes, he gover me has ex e ded eco omic co rol o o her ki ds of i dus ries as well. I he years followi g he Grea Depressio , i devised a complex sys em o s abilize prices for agricul ural goods, which e d o fluc ua e wildly i respo se o rapidly cha gi g supply a d dema d. A umber of o her i dus ries- rucki g a d, la er, airli es-successfully sough regula io hemselves o limi wha hey co sidered as harmful price cu i g. A o her form of eco omic regula io , a i rus law, seeks o s re g he marke forces so ha direc regula io is u ecessary. he gover me -a d, some imes, priva e par ies - have used a i rus law o prohibi prac ices or mergers ha would u duly limi compe i io . I 1933, Co gress crea ed he Federal Deposi I sura ce Corpora io (FDIC) which prese ly guara ees checki g a d savi gs deposi s i member ba ks up o $100,000 per deposi or o preve ba k failures.

Other companies were trying different models. But this was still pre-fiber-optic days. Simon & Schuster, the book publisher, for instance, would ship its books over to India and pay Indians $50 a month (compared to $1,000 a month in the United States) to type them by hand into computers, converting the books into digitized electronic files that could be edited or amended easily in the future—particularly dictionaries, which constantly need updating. In 1991, Manmohan Singh, then India's finance minister, began opening the Indian economy for foreign investment and introducing competition into the Indian telecom industry to bring down prices. To attract more foreign investment, Singh made it much easier for companies to set up satellite downlink stations in Bangalore, so they could skip over the Indian phone system and connect with their home bases in America, Europe, or Asia. Before then, only Texas Instruments had been willing to brave the Indian bureaucracy, becoming the first multinational to establish a circuit design and development center in India in 1985

1. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

2. The United States of America

3. The United States Of America

4. The United States of America

5. Missile Defense System - Buren for the United States

6. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom
London city - Capital of the United Kingdom
7. Sport and recreation in the United States
Sport and recreation in the United States
8. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

9. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

10. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

11. The United Kingdom of Great Britain

12. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

13. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

14. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

15. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

16. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

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21. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

22. The dark side of the moon
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26. The protection of the environment

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34. Political System of the USA

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37. Survey of the British Geography and Life

38. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Most Popular Poet of the Nineteenth Century
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39. Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)
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40. Some problems of the russian spelling
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42. Giza, Wonder of the World

43. The development of the Tower

44. Second period of the Renaissance.

45. The Taming of the Shrew

46. Population of the UK

47. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

48. Islam in the eyes of the West

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50. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century

51. Перевод реферата "Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children"

52. Changes and specimens of the English language

53. Constellations of the star sky

54. Emblems of the UK
Emblems of the UK
55. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)
56. Social structure of the society
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57. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier

58. The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

59. The Heraldic Symbolism of the Unicorn on the British Coat-of-Arms

60. The marking of the Russian Revolution

61. The origins of the International Socialists

62. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

63. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"

64. The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development

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67. Division of the sentence into phrases

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71. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States
International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States
72. The Tower of London
The Tower of London

73. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

74. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

75. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

76. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

77. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

78. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

79. The Castles of England

80. The role of art in our life

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82. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

83. The New-York City, Places of interest

84. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

85. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

86. The history of Old English and its development
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87. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
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88. The house of my dream
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89. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

90. The role of art in our life

91. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

92. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

93. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

94. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

95. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

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