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Division of the sentence into phrases

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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь Учреждение образования «Гомельский государственный университет им. Ф. Скорины» Филологический факультет Курсовая работа Divisio of he se e ce i o phrases Исполнитель: Студентка группы К-42 Лапицкая Т.Е. Гомель 2005 Co e I roduc io Prese a io Algori hm for divisio of he se e ce i o phrases Lis s used by Algori hm o 2 Some examples of he performa ce of Algori hm o 2 Co clusio Refere ces I roduc io For mul iple purposes, i ex Processi g a d Machi e ra sla io , of e here is a eed o divide he se e ce i o smaller u i s ha ca be processed more easily ha he whole se e ce, especially whe he se e ce happe s o be a lo g o e. o ha purpose we have devised a efficie algori hm based o he assump io s prese ed i he ex sec io . Prese a io Whe we say ha we are goi g o divide he se e ce i o phrases, we mus s a e firs how we will defi e he phrase a d wha our u ders a di g of he phrase will be where i s ar s a d where i e ds. For he purposes of he prese algori hm (a d o for a y o her, especially heore ical, purposes) he phrase is delimi ed o i s lef a d o i s righ by Pu c ua io Marks a d Auxiliary words. he phrase usually s ar s wi h a Auxiliary word a d e ds wi h he appeara ce of a Pu c ua io Mark or a Auxiliary word. he Auxiliary words, marki g he bou daries of he phrases, are prese ed i ables (Lis s). Each able lis s Auxiliary words of a par icular ype. I was observed ha some Auxiliary words (as well as some seque ces of co secu ively used Auxiliary words) s ar usually lo ger a d more i depe de phrases ha o hers. For example, i a se e ce like is of e difficul o seek solu io s hrough he cur ailme of co sump io . he Auxiliary word hrough followed by he Ar icle he (a o her Auxiliary word) s ar s a phrase ha e ds wi h he appeara ce of a Pu c ua io Mark, while he Auxiliary word of s ar s a sub-phrase which is par of a lo ger phrase. I our algori hm (see Algori hm o 2 i Sec io 3) his subdivisio of he se e ce i o lo ger phrases a d he subdivisio of he lo ger phrases i o smaller co s i ue phrases is expressed by leavi g differe le g hs of space be wee o e phrase a d a o her. he lo ger he space lef before he phrase, he more self-sufficie a d i depe de he phrase is hough o be. I his s udy we have es ablished five ypes of phrases, depe di g o heir rela ive i depe de ce wi hi he se e ce. his i depe de ce is expressed by a par icular Auxiliary word (or words) or by a Pu c ua io Mark. he lo ges a d he mos self-sufficie a d rela ively i depe de phrase s ar s a d e ds wi h a Pu c ua io Mark. he seco d mos i depe de phrase s ar s wi h a word from Lis o 1 a d e ds wi h a Pu c ua io Mark or wi h he appeara ce of a o her Auxiliary word from Lis o 1. For example: (6 spaces lef ) O e US gover me s udy es ima ed (5 spaces lef ) ha here are 68 large ma ufac uri g complexes (4 spaces) i he regio (5 spaces lef ) ha have sig ifica idle capaci y, (e d) he full s op a he s ar of he se e ce is equivale o six spaces. I o her words, a smaller space followi g af er a larger space o he lef mea s ha he phrase s ar i g af er he smaller space is depe de o , a d a co s i ue of, he larger phrase.

he smaller space i he example above (4 spaces) shows ha he phrase followi g af er i is depe de o he previous phrase ha here are 68 large ma ufac uri g complexes a d explai s i (or bri gs addi io al i forma io abou i , here loca io ), while he five spaces lef af er regio sig ify ha he ex phrase is depe de o he previous large phrase ( he o e ha has a lo ger space lef i fro ), i his case O e US gover me s udy es ima ed ha here are 68 large ma ufac uri g complexes. he space lef be wee he phrases depe ds o he ac ual Preposi io (or Pu c ua io Mark) used or o he seque ce of Pu c ua io Mark a d/or Auxiliary words, as specified (for more de ails see he i s ruc io s for Algori hm o 2 below). Algori hm for divisio of he se e ce i o phrases I pu ex compari g of each word e ry Searchi g lef or righ wi h he Auxiliary words or (up o wo words) for Pu c ua io Marks (prese ed o her Auxiliary words i Lis s) a d ide ifyi g he or Pu c ua io Marks Auxiliary words or Pu c ua io Marks Ou pu resul : a phrase o e: he algori hm (27 digi al i s ruc io s i all) is available for free dow load o he I er e (see I er e Dow loads a he e d of he book). Lis s used by Algori hm o 2 B he words o regis ered i he Lis s are recorded as hey follow, i he same seque ce, af er hose regis ered i he Lis s. (i)Lis o 1: besides, herefore, however, whereas, hus, he ce, hough, despi e, wi h, ever heless, hroughou , hrough, duri g, ha , o ly, bu , if, o herwise, agai , which, al hough, hereby, already, agai s , u less, hereaf er e c. (ii)Lis o 2: over, as, wha , oward(s), for, i o, abou , by, so, from, a , above, u der, beside, below, o o, si ce, behi d, i fro of, beyo d, arou d, before, af er, he , al oge her, amo g(s ), be wee , be ea h e c. (Hi) Lis o 3: bo h, ei her, o e e c. (iv)Lis o 4: of, o (as Preposi io ) (v)Lis o 5: he, a, a (vi) Lis o 6: so much as, so far as, so far, as lo g as, as soo as, so lo g as, i order ha , i order o, les , as well as, a d, or, or e c. (vii) Lis o 7: such, ha , o o, u il, all, ear, eve , whe , while, wi hi , las , ex , also, less, more, mos , whe her, much, o ce, o e, a y, ma y, some, where, a o her, o her, each, he , whose, who, whoever, ill, u il, wha , across, whe ce, accordi g, due o, owi g, whereby, prior, wherever, whe ever, already, moreover, likewise, however e c. (viii) Lis o 8: ou , i , o , dow e c. Some examples of he performa ce of Algori hm o 2 Below we will prese a ex divided i o phrases accordi g o he i s ruc io s for he algori hm: (i) Ma y cou ries also have es ablished or have u der co s ruc io a free zo e, where expor ers have access o shippi g facili ies, a pool of labour a d freedom from excha ge co rols. (ii) he Caribbea Basi I i ia ive, a US package of aid a d rade i ce ives o e courage ma ufac uri g, has give a added boos o i dus rial developme i his regio . he a alysis of he se e ce s ar s wi h checki g he co e s of he memory a d aki g o pri a y i forma io s ored up o his mome ( his is do e a he s ar of each ew se e ce), also wi h ascer ai i g whe her he se e ce has e ded or o a d recordi g he a alysed word i he memory if i is o recorded ye ia procedure carried ou af er each word).

he he algori hm reads he ex word (i o 4a), which i he case of (i) above is ma y, a d proceeds o a alyse i i 5. Si ce i is o a full s op or a y o her Pu c ua io Mark (5, 7), or a word specified i 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 or 19, he a alysis yields o resul u il he program ge s o opera io o 21, where he word ma y is loca ed i Lis o 7. Here he program, hrough opera io o 22, checks whe her ma y is followed by ye a o her word from he Lis s. Opera io 22ab cer ifies ha i is o , a d i s ruc s he program o cu he se e ce a his poi a d o leave hree spaces (before ma y) whe recordi g i , he o re ur o opera io o 2 o s ar he a alysis of he ex word. he ex word, cou ries, could o be ide ified (i is o regis ered i he Lis s), herefore opera io 27 i s ruc s he program o record i i he memory as he ex co secu ive word of he phrase a d o re ur o 2 o co i ue he a alysis of he se e ce. he word also follows ex . he program ca o loca e he word a d proceeds fur her, af er regis eri g i . he ex words have a d es ablished are deal wi h i a similar way. ex comes he Co ju c io or. he program loca es he word i opera io o 17, he i checks if o her words from he Lis s follow (18). A si gle space is lef before recordi g i ( o 18b). he word have is regis ered ex a d he program reaches u der (15) o draw a dividi g li e by leavi g four spaces (16ab), a d his carries o ill he e d of he ex . hese procedures ca be applied o a y E glish la guage ex s. he ac ual users of he algori hm ca improve i by addi g ew words o he Lis s or by cha gi g he dividi g li es o sui o her s ra egies a d o her i erpre a io s of he bou daries of he E glish phrase. Co clusio Algori hm o 2 was developed wi h he special purpose of aidi g he overall au oma ic a alysis of he se e ce. he divisio of he se e ce i o smaller u i s helps us u ders a d be er i s mea i g, hough he divisio , as prese ed i his sec io , is o based o mea i g bu o formal fea ures. he reader will fi d somewha differe a d much more accura e i erpre a io of he exis i g bou daries wi hi a se e ce i Par 2. I he course of his s udy i was observed ha each foregoi g phrase fi ds fur her i erpre a io of i s mea i g i he ex phrase. I o her words, he firs phrase of a se e ce carries a cer ai mea i g, which wi h each successive phrase becomes more a d more clear a d comple e - he ex phrase simply adds more i forma io o he mea i g of he previous phrase. he phrases have varied mu ual i erdepe de ce, which we ried o express wi h a margi lef be wee hem. We will express his graphically i Figure 2.2, which co siders wo se e ces. he bracke s show he depe de ce of each succeedi g phrase bo h o he previous o e a d o all precedi g o es. I he seco d se e ce, he phrases are separa ed wi h equal space lef be wee hem. I hose cases where he space lef is smaller, his mea s ha he ie wi h he previous phrase is s ro ger (i.e. he ex phrase is a i egral par of he precedi g o e). A sudde surge of he i erval sig als he divisio be wee wo phrases, as i he example i Figure 2.3. I his example, he seco d large phrase (Clause) explai s he mea i g of he firs . his is i dica ed wi h he i erval lef a d wi h he bracke s.

Just as often, two platoons from the same company could occupy adjacent fields for hours before discovering each other's presence. Where the Americans got lost, the Germans were at home. The German 352nd Division had been training in Normandy for months. Further, they were geniuses at utilizing the fortification possibilities of the hedgerows. In the early days of battle many GIs were killed or wounded because they dashed through the opening into a field, just the kind of aggressive tactics they had been taught, only to be cut down by pre-sited machine-gun fire or mortars (mortars caused three quarters of American casualties in Normandy). American army tactical manuals stressed the need for tank-infantry cooperation. But in Normandy the tankers didn't want to get down on the sunken roads, because of insufficient room to traverse the turret and insufficient visibility. But staying on the main roads proved impossible: the Germans held the high ground inland and had their 88-mm cannon sited to provide long fields of fire along highways

1. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

2. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

3. My modern image of the United States

4. The fastest computers of the world

5. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

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7. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
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8. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
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9. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

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12. History of the USA

13. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

14. Problems of the youth

15. Discovery of the New World

16. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

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21. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

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24. Political System of the USA
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27. Survey of the British Geography and Life

28. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

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30. The making of the collection

31. For the Beauty of the Earth

32. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

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34. The development of the Tower

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44. Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words

45. Economy of the United States

46. Industrial development of the African countries

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50. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

51. The history of grammatical study of the English language

52. The origin and history of the English language

53. The outline of the period

54. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English
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55. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
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56. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

57. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

58. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

59. The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus

60. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

61. Working out of the search algorithm of failures of Air Conditioning System of TU-154

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68. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

69. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

70. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation
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71. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)
72. The Tower of London
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73. The Economy of Great Britain

74. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

75. The History of English

76. The profile of an effective manager

77. The Tower of London

78. The Hero of Our Time

79. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

80. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

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81. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

82. The role of art in our life

83. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

84. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

85. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

86. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)
87. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)
88. The profile of an effective manager
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89. The history of Australia

90. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

91. The teaching of Hugo Gratius

92. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

93. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

94. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

95. The United States of America

96. What type of toys do the kids prefer nowadays?

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97. THE Growing Influence of English Mass Culture

98. The 8th of March

99. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease


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