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Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

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he i e ded ques io o be posed i his essay rela es o he Arme ia Ge ocide of 1915 a d i s evide co ec io o he massacres of Arme ia mi ori y i Azerbaija i 1988-89. he pa h I have chose o a swer his ques io leads hroughou he his ory of Ge ocide i 1915. He ce, he ragedy a he ou se of he we ie h ce ury provoked he slaugh er of he same prosecu ed e h ical mi ori y by he same perpe ra i g e h ic majori y o ly seve y years la er. Accordi g o he heory i roduced by sociologis Alfred Schul s, a y eve by i s ow a ure has o mea i g. His view is ha a mea i g is some hi g ascribed o eve s or objec s a d is based o wo co cep s fu c io i g eve ly: he sedime of pas experie ce a d a o her o e projec ed i fu ure. hese wo fac ors es ablish wha he calls he sys em of releva ces ha e ables o i erpre a curre eve ou of dual perspec ive based o pas a d fu ure.1 By all mea s his heory is applicable o massacre of 1915 a d he pogroms i 1988. he ou li ed parallels be wee he wo series of eve s de o e a much more disas rous circums a ce u der which all he Arme ia popula io i Azerbaija was jeopardized by “ he urks.” I his case he Schu z’s heory i dica es ha he sig ifica ce of pas eve s ( he various massacres a d ge ocide) became evide i i erpre a io of he pogroms ha occurred i 1988-90.2 o crime carries as much des ruc io a d cruel y as ge ocide. I aims a loss of e h ic ide i y of a vic imized par y. Ge ocide i e ds o jus o kill, maim, or viola e people; he ul ima e purpose is o deprive he vic im of i s fu ure as a s ro g a io al e i y. A y massive crime has impac o co emporary a d/or possible prospec ive rela io s of he vic im a d he perpe ra or o global poli ical are a. O e well-docume ed massive crime agai s huma i y is he Arme ia Ge ocide of 1915 whe umber of casual ies was es ima ed from 600 000 o 2 000000 people. he bloody eve i his ory of Arme ia caused o o ly huma loses, bu deprived Arme ia par ially of a ces ral erri ory. O he 9 h of December 1948, he U i ed a io s adop ed he Ge ocide Co ve io , compili g he followi g defi i io i Ar icle II: I he prese Co ve io , ge ocide mea s a y of he followi g fac s commi ed wi h i e o des roy, i whole or i par , a a io al, e h ical, racial or religious group, as such: Killi g members of he group; Causi g serious bodily or me al harm o members of he group; Delibera ely i flic i g o he group co di io s of life calcula ed o bri g abou i s physical des ruc io i whole or i par ; Imposi g measures i e ded o preve bir hs wi hi he group; Forcibly ra sferri g childre of he group o a o her group. he defi i io of ge ocide accep ed by U i ed a io s has caused a grea deal of co roversy, for i excluded social a d poli ical groups. hereaf er, i he 1980’s Hele Fei developed a broader a d more profou d defi i io of ge ocide, from which she excluded killi g as a ma da ory a ribu e of warfare, a d o he opposi e, i cluded groups bei g persecu ed based o heir social a d poli ical belo gi g: Ge ocide is a sus ai ed purposeful ac io by a perpe ra or o physically des roy a collec ivi y direc ly or i direc ly, hrough i erdic io of he biological a d social reproduc io of group members, sus ai ed regardless of he surre der or lack of hrea offered by he vic im.3

I he case of he Arme ia Ge ocide of 1915 he gover me al a roci y agai s i s ow people was ’ specified a ywhere i he scrolls of I er a io al Law. I co ai ed cer ai regula io s o accou of a civilia , o comba a popula io duri g war ime, bu his i cide became firs of i s ki d for which i er a io al law had o s ipula io . Whe he legisla ive defi i io of ge ocide was accep ed by he U i ed a io s i 1948, i ur ed ou o be ha Arme ia ge ocide fell u der each of he five ca egories of i .4 Al hough he pogroms i Sumgai a d Baku of 1988-90 resemble more he pogroms i O oma Empire i 1890’s ra her ha ac ual ge ocide which occurred i 1915 a d culmi a ed i 1921 i he figh a d expulsio of survivors who re ur ed o Celicia, he a alogy be wee 1915 a d 1988-90 is appare . Arme ia s were a mi ori y popula io i bo h Azerbaija a d urkey, hus clearly ide ifiable for persecu io . Arme ia s were more upwardly mobile ha he majori y popula io , he ce crea i g he possibili y of po e ial social co flic . he overarchi g poli ical co di io s were u s able i bo h he Sovie U io a d he O oma Empire – revolu io ary cha ge of e bei g a prerequisi e of ge ocide. Arme ia s were scapegoa ed for poli ical eve s ou side he borders of he cou ry i which hey were residi g.5 Arme ia ge ocide is o e of he firs ge ocide of he we ie h ce ury. I became a model for he “poli ical” ype of ge ocide. he majori y of he curre ge ocides followed his pa er . I order o exami e o wha degree he Ge ocide of 1915 is rela ed o he pogroms i Azerbaija i 1988-90 some his ory of Arme ia s is o be exami ed. Arme ia s have popula ed he highla d regio be wee he Black, Caspia a d Medi erra ea seas for ce uries lo g. his area prese ed a crossroad be wee Eas a d Wes . As a resul of he geographic loca io Arme ia was ’ gover by i s ow dy as ies co s a ly. he s a e has experie ced direc foreig rule as well as payi g fees o he surrou di g s a es. Besides he geography, Arme ia had a o her disadva age. I was he o ly Chris ia s a e surrou ded by Muslim e i ies, his aspec kep Arme ia apar from o hers. Such dis i c differe ce referred Arme ia s as seco d-class ci ize s af er he O oma Empire a exed he erri ory ha had molded a cie a d medieval Arme ia ki gdoms, i he six ee h ce ury. he O oma Empire es ablished o i s erri ory co fessio al-based Muslim, Jewish, Greek Or hodox, a d Arme ia mille s. hrough hese es ablishme s he O oma admi is ra ive sys em legalized he social i equali y wi hi a s ruc ure of he socie y. he mille sys em e abled Arme ia s o preserve heir cul ural-religious ide i y, bu kep hem poli ically a d mili arily i efficacious. Arme ia s did ’ pose a y hrea o o he mul i a io al, u equal socie y a d re ai ed i accord o cer ai degree wi h he domi a Muslim mille as lo g as hey paid he ribu es o he gover me a d remai ed poli ically i ac ive. I he eigh ee h a d i e ee h ce uries a wi d of cha ges came across he O oma Empire a d caused ex er al challe ges a d i er al i s abili y. I capable of compe i g wi h he Wes eco omically a d mili ary, he ruli g au hori y los a umber of provi ces a d e ded up i deb .

Such immedia e breakdow of law a d co seque ve ali y frac ured he fou da io s of O oma mul i a io al socie y. Due he i creasi g hrea s o co i ued exis e ce of he O oma Empire, he sul a s, u der he pressure of Grea Bri ai , lau ched a program of remodeli g ha broke away from he radi io al sociopoli ical heocracy. he a zima period, s re chi g from 1839 o 1876, was desig ed o comme ce heore ical equali y of all O oma subjec s. However, while he decree we i o power, he sys em of mille s mai ai ed, a d he equali y wi hi i correspo di gly. Duri g he poli ical i er al a d ex er al orme s Arme ia s e deavored o uphold a d o follow he reforms i order o secure life a d proper y. hey had o i e io s o develop a ask of separa io or acquiri g i depe de ce from he O oma Empire. he followed he Russia - urkish War, i which urkey los severely. he mili ary a d diploma ic failure of he sul a Abdul-Hamid II a ribu ed o he break away of he mos of Balka provi ces. hus, he a e io of he Europea commu i y was draw o he “Arme ia Ques io .” However, he fac of Europea pro ec ora e, explici ly expressed verbally i regard o he domes ic policy of he crumbli g O oma Empire o ly aggrava ed he co di io of Arme ia s i urkey. Arme ia s’ ques for securi y a d equali y resul ed i bru al pogroms ordered by Abdul-Hamid, which were carried ou by armed Kurdish briga ds i almos every provi ce i habi ed by Arme ia s. he ul ima e purpose of Abdul-Hamid was ’ o ex ermi a e he Arme ia popula io , bu ra her o poi ou ha hey have o follow he policies of he O oma Empire. Par icularly, o look up a Europe was a forbidde ac . His successors aimed a crea i g a e irely socio a io alis ic frame of he s a e, free from Arme ia s, ra her ha jus preservi g a poli ical s a us quo.6 he o ly way o achieve he goal was o whip ou he e ire Arme ia popula io from he O oma Empire erri ory. I early 1913 he You g urk gover me was over hrow by i s mili aris ic a d a io alis ic wi g, wi h E ver, aala , a d Jemal Pashas i head of i . his hreesome i volved he cou ry i o WWI as he ally of Germa y. La er i 1915 he same gover me ou li ed a d pu i o effec a pla for he elimi a io of Arme ia s, es ima ed be wee wo a d hree millio s subjec s. he pla was carried ou i phases. I April 1915 people represe ed he Arme ia religious, poli ical, educa io al, a d i ellec ual au hori y i he Wes er radi io , variously o e housa d i dividuals, were jailed hroughou he e ire Empire, a d co seque ly killed wi hi few days. he ex phase co sis ed of liquida io of he you g male adul popula io , which mai ly were recrui s of he urkish army. he umber approxima ed 200,000. hey were purged hrough mass burials, i ci era io , execu io s a d weak ess i labor ba alio s. he lef overs of hose who survived hose phases were primarily childre , wome a d aged people. All of hem were o be depor ed o dis a regio s of Empire. Wi hi six mo hs of depor a io half of hose who survived firs wo phases were killed, buried alive or hrow i o he sea or he rivers alo g he way.7 he murder of Arme ia s was charac erized like he war agai s E e e, as a jihad or holy war.

War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Fredrickson George M. The Arrogance of Race: Historical Perspectives on Slavery, Racism, and Social Inequality. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1988. --- The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character, 1817–1914. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. — 829- Fribert Lucy M., and Barbara A. White, eds. Hidden Hands: An Anthology of American Women Writers, 1790–1870. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988. Friedman Ellen G., and Miriam Fuchs, eds. The Review of Contemporary Fiction: Kathy Acker, Christine Brook-Rose, Marguerite Young Number 9.3 (Fall 1989). Fussell Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. London: Oxford University Press, 1975. Gardiner Jane. "Form and Reform in Looking Backward." American Transcendental Quarterly 2.1 (March 1988): 69–82. Gass William H. "A Fiesta for the Form." The New Republic (October 25, 1980): 33–39. Gaston Edwin W., Jr. The Early Novel of the Southwest

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