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The Science Of Grammar

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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь Учреждение образования «Гомельский государственный университет им. Ф. Скорины» Филологический факультет HE SCIE CE OF GRAMMAR Курсовая работа Исполнитель: Студентка группы К-42 Лапицкая Т.Е. Гомель 2006 СодержаниеI roduc io 1. Grammar bears o la guage 2. Grammar is he ar of wri i g a d speaki g correc ly 3. he erm grammar 4. he composi io of la guage Co clusio Li era ure I roduc io &quo ;Haec de Gramma ica quam brevissime po ui: o u om ia dicerem sec a us, (quod i fi i um era ,) sed u maxima ecessaria.&quo ;--QUI ILIA . De I s . Ora . , Lib. i, Cap. x. La guage, i he proper se se of he erm, is peculiar o ma ; so ha , wi hou a miraculous assump io of huma powers, o e bu huma bei gs ca make words he vehicle of hough . A imi a io of some of he ar icula e sou ds employed i speech, may be exhibi ed by parro s, a d some imes by domes ica ed rave s, a d we k ow ha almos all bru e a imals have heir peculiar a ural voices, by which hey i dica e heir feeli gs, whe her pleasi g or pai ful. Bu la guage is a a ribu e of reaso , a d differs esse ially o o ly from all bru e voices, bu eve from all he cha eri g, jabberi g, a d babbli g of our ow species, i which here is o a i elligible mea i g, wi h divisio of hough , a d dis i c io of words. 1. Grammar bears o la guage Speech resul s from he joi exercise of he bes a d obles facul ies of huma a ure, from our ra io al u ders a di g a d our social affec io ; a d is, i he proper use of i , he peculiar or ame a d dis i c io of ma , whe her we compare him wi h o her orders i he crea io , or view him as a i dividual preemi e amo g his fellows. He ce ha scie ce which makes k ow he a ure a d s ruc ure of speech, a d immedia ely co cer s he correc a d elega use of la guage, while i surpasses all he co cep io s of he s upid or u lear ed, a d prese s o hi g ha ca seem desirable o he se sual a d grovelli g, has a i ri sic dig i y which highly comme ds i o all perso s of se se a d as e, a d makes i mos a favouri e wi h he mos gif ed mi ds. ha scie ce is Grammar. A d hough here be some ge iuses who affec o despise he rammels of grammar rules, o whom i mus be co ceded ha ma y hi gs which have bee u skillfully augh as such, deserve o be despised; ye i is rue, as Dr. Adam remarks, ha , &quo ; he s udy of Grammar has bee co sidered a objec of grea impor a ce by he wises me i all ages.&quo ;-- Preface o La i a d E glish Gram. , p. iii. Grammar bears o la guage several differe rela io s, a d acquires from each a a ure leadi g o a differe defi i io . Firs , I is o la guage, as k owledge is o he hi g k ow ; a d as doc ri e, o he ru hs i i culca es. I hese rela io s, grammar is a scie ce. I is he firs of wha have bee called he seve scie ces, or liberal bra ches of k owledge; amely, grammar, logic, rhe oric, ari hme ic, geome ry, as ro omy, a d music. Seco dly, I is as skill, o he hi g o be do e; a d as power, o he i s rume s i employs. I hese rela io s, grammar is a ar ; a d as such, has lo g bee defi ed, &quo ; ars rec e scribe di, rec eque loque di &quo ; he ar of wri i g a d speaki g correc ly.

hirdly, I is as aviga io , o he ocea , which au ic skill alo e e ables me o raverse. I his rela io , heory a d prac ice combi e, a d grammar becomes, like aviga io , a prac ical scie ce. Four hly, I is as a char , o a coas which we would visi . I his rela io , our grammar is a ex -book, which we ake as a guide, or use as a help o our ow observa io . Fif hly, I is as a si gle voyage, o he ope sea, he highway of a io s. Such is our mea i g, whe we speak of he grammar of a par icular ex or passage. Agai : Grammar is o la guage a sor of self-exami a io . I ur s he facul y of speech or wri i g upo i self for i s ow elucida io ; a d makes he o gue or he pe explai he uses a d abuses o which bo h are liable, as well as he a ure a d excelle cy of ha power, of which, hese are he wo gra d i s rume s. From his accou , some may begi o hi k ha i rea i g of grammar we are deali g wi h some hi g oo various a d cha geable for he u ders a di g o grasp; a dodgi g Pro eus of he imagi a io , who is ever ready o assume some ew shape, a d elude he vigila ce of he i quirer. Bu le he reader or s ude do his par ; a d, if he please, follow us wi h a e io . We will e deavour, wi h welded li ks, o bi d his Pro eus, i such a ma er ha he shall ei her escape from our hold, or fail o give o he co sul er a i elligible a d sa isfac ory respo se. Be o discouraged, ge erous you h. Hark o ha swee far-reachi g o e: &quo ;Sed, qua o ille magis formas se ver e i om es, a o, a e, magis co e de e acia vi cla.&quo ; VIRGIL. Geor. IV, 411. &quo ;Bu hou, he more he varies forms, beware o s rai his fe ers wi h a s ric er care.&quo ; DRYDE 'S VIRGIL. If for a mome we co sider he good a d he evil ha are do e i he world hrough he medium of speech, we shall wi h o e voice ack owledge, ha o o ly he facul y i self, bu also he ma er i which i is used, is of i calculable impor a ce o he welfare of ma . Bu his reflec io does o direc ly e ha ce our respec for grammar, because i is o o la guage as he vehicle of moral or of immoral se ime , of good or of evil o ma ki d, ha he a e io of he grammaria is par icularly direc ed. A co sidera io of he subjec i hese rela io s, per ai s ra her o he moral philosopher. or are he ar s of logic a d rhe oric ow co sidered o be properly wi hi he grammaria 's provi ce. Moder scie ce assig s o hese heir separa e places, a d res ric s grammar, which a o e period embraced all lear i g, o he k owledge of la guage, as respec s i s fi ess o be he vehicle of a y par icular hough or se ime which he speaker or wri er may wish o co vey by i . Accordi gly grammar is commo ly defi ed, by wri ers upo he subjec , i he special se se of a ar --&quo ; he ar of speaki g or wri i g a la guage wi h proprie y or correc ess.&quo ;-- Webs er's Dic . 2. Grammar is he ar of wri i g a d speaki g correc ly Lily says, &quo ;Gramma ica es rec e scribe di a que loque di ars;&quo ; ha is, &quo ;Grammar is he ar of wri i g a d speaki g correc ly.&quo ; Despau er, oo, i his defi i io , which is quo ed i a precedi g paragraph, o improperly placed wri i g firs , as bei g ha wi h which grammar is primarily co cer ed.

For i ough o be remembered, ha over a y fugi ive colloquial dialec , which has ever bee fixed by visible sig s, grammar has o co rol; a d ha he speaki g which he ar or scie ce of grammar eaches, is exclusively ha which has refere ce o a k owledge of le ers. I is he cer ai e de cy of wri i g, o improve speech. A d i propor io as books are mul iplied, a d he k owledge of wri e la guage is diffused, local dialec s, which are be ea h he dig i y of grammar, will always be fou d o grow fewer, a d heir differe ces less. here are, i he various par s of he world, ma y la guages o which he ar of grammar has ever ye bee applied; a d o which, herefore, he defi i io or rue idea of grammar, however ge eral, does o properly ex e d. A d eve where i has bee applied, a d is ow ho oured as a popular bra ch of s udy, here is ye grea room for improveme : barbarisms a d solecisms have o bee rebuked away as hey deserve o be. Mela c ho says, &quo ;Gramma ica es cer a loque di ac scribe di ra io, La i is La i e.&quo ; Vossius, &quo ;Ars be e loque di eoque e scribe di, a que id La i is La i e.&quo ; Dr. Pra , &quo ; Gramma ica es rec e loque di a que scribe di ars. &quo ; Ruddima also, i his I s i u es of La i Grammar, reversed he erms wri i g a d speaki g, a d defi ed grammar, &quo ; ars rece loque di scribe dique ;&quo ; a d, ei her from mere imi a io , or from he ge eral observa io ha speech precedes wri i g, his arra geme of he words has bee followed by mos moder grammaria s. Dr. Low h embraces bo h erms i a more ge eral o e, a d says, &quo ;Grammar is he ar of righ ly expressi g our hough s by words.&quo ; I is, however, he provi ce of grammar, o guide us o merely i he expressio of our ow hough s, bu also i our apprehe sio of he hough s, a d our i erpre a io of he words, of o hers. He ce, Perizo ius, i comme i g upo Sa c ius's imperfec defi i io , &quo ; Gramma ica es ars rec e loque di ,&quo ; o improperly asks, &quo ; e quid i i ellige di e explica di ?&quo ; &quo ;a d why o also of u ders a di g a d explai i g?&quo ; He ce, oo, he ar of readi g is vir ually a par of grammar; for i is bu he ar of u ders a di g a d speaki g correc ly ha which we have before us o paper. A d uge has accordi gly give us he followi g defi i io : &quo ;Grammar is he ar of readi g, speaki g, a d wri i g a la guage by rules.&quo ;-- I roduc io o Dic . , p. xii. he word rec e , righ ly, ruly, correc ly, which occurs i mos of he foregoi g La i defi i io s, is ce sured by he lear ed Richard Joh so , i his Gramma ical Comme aries, o accou of he vague ess of i s mea i g. He says, i is o o ly ambiguous by reaso of i s differe uses i he La i classics, bu des i u e of a y sig ifica io proper o grammar. Bu eve if his be rue as regards i s earlier applica io , i may well be ques io ed, whe her by freque cy of use i has o acquired a sig ifica io which makes i proper a he prese ime. he E glish word correc ly seems o be less liable o such a objec io ; a d ei her his brief erm, or some o her of like impor , (as, &quo ;wi h correc ess&quo ;--&quo ;wi h proprie y,&quo ;) is s ill usually employed o ell wha grammar is.

Even the bodily exercises advanced from ball-playing, running, and fencing to the more artistically-developed Greek gymnastic contests; though there were not yet any public institutions for gymnastics, in the principal country-houses the palaestra was already to be found by the side of the bath-rooms. The manner in which the cycle of general culture had changed in the Roman world during the course of a century, is shown by a comparison of the encyclopaedia of Cato[2] with the similar treatise of Varro "concerning the school-sciences". As constituent elements of non-professional culture, there appear in Cato the art of oratory, the sciences of agriculture, of law, of war, and of medicine; in Varro - according to probable conjecture - grammar, logic or dialectics, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music, medicine, and architecture. Consequently in the course of the seventh century the sciences of war, jurisprudence, and agriculture had been converted from general into professional studies. On the other hand in Varro the Hellenic training of youth appears already in all its completeness: by the side of the course of grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy, which had been introduced at an earlier period into Italy, we now find the course which had longer remained distinctively Hellenic, of geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and music[3]

1. Historical measurement of the science of governing

2. The Tower of London

3. The Economy of Great Britain

4. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

5. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

6. The history of railways (История железных дорог)
7. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
8. The Castles of England
The Castles of England

9. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

10. The Tower of London

11. The Economy of Great Britain

12. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

13. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

14. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

15. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

16. The Hero of Our Time

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17. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

18. The house of my dream

19. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

20. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

21. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

22. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”
23. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)
24. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

25. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

26. The profile of an effective manager

27. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

28. The Taming of the Shrew

29. The teaching of Hugo Gratius

30. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

31. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

32. London - the capital of Great Britain

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Раздел: Размер 30x40
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33. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”

34. The uniqueness of the British

35. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

36. The library of our institute

37. The lesson of English

38. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements
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39. Has the EU reached the limits of integration?
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40. Washington is the capital of the USA
Washington is the capital of the USA

41. The pride of the nation

42. The constitution of Ukraine

43. The history of Christmas

44. Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony

45. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

46. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

47. The Snows of Mars

48. The development of computers in the USA

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Раздел: Головоломки

49. The system of english tenses

50. The Future of American Youths

51. The making of the collection

52. For the Beauty of the Earth

53. The Grapes of Wrath

54. The Concept of Youth Subcultures
The Concept of Youth Subcultures
55. The development of the Tower
The development of the Tower
56. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors
The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

57. The Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions

58. The art of conversation

59. Economy of the Republic of Ireland


61. Islam in the eyes of the West

62. The production of 2H-labeled amino acids by a new mutant of RuMP fucultative methylotroph Вrevibacterium methylicum

63. Сборник диалогов по английскому языку для развития устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)

64. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

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Раздел: Стульчики

65. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

66. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier

67. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

68. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

69. The history of Germany and tourism

70. The history of Moscow
The history of Moscow
71. The Language of Narrative Writing
The Language of Narrative Writing
72. The origin of language
The origin of language

73. The outline of the period

74. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

75. The problem of violence

76. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

77. The system of English verbs

78. What strategy are most effective in the conditions of globalization

79. The Architecture of Ancient Rome

80. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

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81. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

82. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

83. The collection of French art in the Hermitage

84. Advertising in the world of art

85. The models of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.

86. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
87. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)
88. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns
The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

89. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

90. My modern image of the United States

91. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

92. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

93. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

94. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

95. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

96. The fastest computers of the world

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Раздел: Блокноты оригинальные, шуточные

97. Interactive method of teaching English grammar

98. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

99. The dark side of the moon

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