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History of democracy of the USA

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HE WHA DO AMERICA S MEA WHE HEY USE HE WORD “DEMOCRACY”? Abraham Li col , o e of he bes -loved a d mos respec ed of America's preside s, said ha he US had a gover me “of he people, by he people a d for he people”. He called he U i ed Sla es &quo ;a a io co ceived i liber y a d dedica ed o he proposi io ha all me are crea ed equal.&quo ; o o e has formula ed a be er way of describi g he pri ciples of he America poli ical sys em, as America s u ders a d i . he Co s i u io , laws a d radi io s of he U i ed S a es give he people he righ o de ermi e who will be he leader of heir a io , who will make he laws a d wha he laws will be. he people have he power o cha ge he sys em. he Co s i u io guara ees i dividual freedom o all. HIS ORICAL BACKGROU D OF DEMOCRACY - Democracy as a form of gover me disappeared from a cie Greece a d, over he ce uries, he ra sla io of he pri ciples a d ideals of democracy i o prac ice has bee very rare hroughou he world. Mos people have bee ruled by ki gs, quee s, emperors or small eli e groups a d, excep for cer ai members of he obili y, he people have had o voice i heir gover me . ha was he si ua io i Europe i 1492. - By he 1700s, E gla d had es ablished 13 colo ies i he eas er par of wha is ow he U i ed S a es. - Some of he early Bri ish colo is s had come o he ew World i hopes of e richi g hemselves; o hers came because. Bri ai forced hem o leave – hey were roublemakers or people who could o pay heir deb s. Some came because of he oppor u i y, which did o exis for hem i Europe, o ow la d or prac ice a rade. - I he course of i s lo g his ory as a a io , Grea Bri ai had ake several s eps oward democracy. E gla d (i cludi g Wales) had a parliame wi ch made laws, a d mos people e joyed a degree of i dividual freedom. - William Pe , a member of he Religious Socie y of Frie ds, fou ded he colo y of Pe sylva ia, where he se up laws pro ec i g freedom of religio a d speech. hose laws also e abled he Pe sylva ia colo is s o have a voice i heir local gover me . - Life i he colo ies also helped s re g he democra ic ideas. hey had o work oge her o build shel er, provide food, clear he la d for farms a d i ge eral o make heir ew home la d livable for hem. his eed for coopera io a d shari g, combi ed wi h a belief i i dividualism, s re g he ed he idea ha i he ew World people were equal; ha o o e should have special righ s a d privileges. - Each colo y had i s ow gover me WAR A D I DEPE DE CE - he Bri ish gover me required people o pay axes, bu gave hem o voice i pausi g he ax laws. he Bri ish mo herla d de ermi ed wha he colo is s could produce a d wi h whom hey could rade. - I 1774, a group of leaders from he colo ies me a d formed he “Co i e al Co gress”, which i formed he ki g of he colo is s’ belief ha , as free E glishme , hey should have a voice i de ermi i g laws ha affec ed hem. he ki g a d he co serva ive gover me i Lo do paid o heed o he co cer s of he colo is s, a d ma y colo is s fel ha his was a i jus ice, which gave hem reaso o dema d i depe de ce from Bri ai .

I 1775, figh i g broke ou be wee ew E gla d mili ia a d Bri ish soldiers. - O July 4, 1776, Co i e al Co gress issued a Declara io of I depe de ce, primarily wri e by homas Jefferso , a farmer a d lawyer from he colo y of Virgi ia. he Declara io described hem as &quo ;free a d i depe de sla es&quo ; a d officially amed hem he U i ed S ales of America. he docume says ha all people are crea ed equal, ha all have he righ o “Life, Liber y, a d he Pursui of Happi ess. -Wi h help from Fra ce, E gla d's old e emy, a d from o her Europea s, he America armies, led by George Washi g o , a surveyor a d ge lema farmer from Virgi ia, wo he War of I depe de ce. he peace rea y sig ed i 1783. HE AMERICA POLI ICAL SYS EM CO S I U IO - Duri g he war, he s a es had agreed o work oge her by se di g represe a ives o a a io al co gress pa er ed af er he &quo ;Co gress of Delega es&quo ; ha co duc ed he war wi h E gla d. I would raise mo ey o pay off deb s of he war, es ablish a mo ey sys em a d deal wi h foreig a io s i maki g rea ies. he agreeme ha se up his pla of coopera io was called he Ar icles of Co federa io . - Ma y America s worried abou he fu ure. How could hey wi he respec of o her a io s if he s a es did o pay heir dep s? How could hey improve . he cou ry by buildi g roads or ca als if he s ales would o work oge her? hey believed ha he Co gress eeded more power. - he pla for he gover me was wri e i very simple la guage i a docume called he Co s i u io of he U i ed Sla es. he Co s i u io se up a federal sys em wi h a s ro g ce ral gover me . A federal sys em is o e i which power is shared be wee a ce ral au hori y a d i s co s i ue par s, wi h some righ s reserved o each. he Co s i u io also called for he elec io of a a io al leader, or preside . - wo mai fears shared by mos America s: o e fear was ha o e perso or group, i cludi g he majori y, migh become oo powerful or be able o seize co rol of he cou ry a d crea e a yra y, a o her fear was ha he ew ce ral gover me migh weake or ake away he power of he s a e gover me s o ru heir ow affairs. o deal wi h his he Co s i u io specified exac ly wha power ce ral gover me had a d which power was reserved for he s a es. - Represe a ives of various s a es o ed ha he Co s i u io did o have a y words guara eei g he freedoms or he basic righ s a d privileges of ci ize s. hough he Co ve io delega es did o hi k i ecessary o i clude such explici guara ees, ma y people fel ha hey eeded fur her wri e pro ec io agai s yra y. So, a &quo ;Bill of Righ s&quo ; was added o he Co s i u io . LEGISLA IVE BRU CH - ca make federal laws, levy federal axes, declare war or pu foreig rea ies i o effec . • he House of Represe a ives: wo-year erms, each member represe s a dis ric i his s a e accordi g o he popula io of i , 435 represe a ives i he U i ed S a es House of Represe a ives. • he Se a e: six-year erms each s a e has wo se a ors, o ly o e- hird of he Se a e is elec ed every wo years, experie ced se a ors i Co gress af er each elec io . - A bill is read, s udied i commi ees, comme ed o a d ame ded i he Se a e or House chamber i which i was i roduced.

I is he vo ed upo . If i passes, i is se o he o her house where a similar procedure occurs. Members of bo h houses work oge her i &quo ;co fere ce commi ees&quo ; if he chambers have passed differe versio s of he same bill. Groups who ry o persuade Co gressme o vo e for or agai s a bill are k ow as &quo ;lobbies&quo ;. Whe bo h houses of Co gress pass a bill o which hey agree, i is se o he preside for his sig a ure. O ly af er i is sig ed does he bill become a law. HE EXECU IVE BRA CH - he chief execu ive is he preside , who is elec ed o a wo-year erm. - he preside , as he chief formula or of public policy, ca ve o (forbid) a y bill passed by Co gress. he ve o ca be overridde by a wo- hirds vo e i bo h he Se a e a d House of Represe a ives. As head of his poli ical par y, wi h ready access o he ews media, he preside ca easily i flue ce public opi io regardi g issues a d legisla io ha he deems vi al. - he preside is comma der i chief of he armed forces. - he major depar me s of he gover me are headed by appoi ed secre aries who collec ively make up he preside 's cabi e . Each appoi me mus be co firmed by a vo e of he Se a e. oday hese 13 depar me s are: S a e, reasury, Defe se, Jus ice, I erior, Agricul ure, Commerce, Labor, Heal h a d Huma Services, Housi g a d Urba Developme , ra spor a io , E ergy a d Educa io . - he preside is primarily respo sible for foreig rela io s wi h o her a io s. he preside of e represe s he U i ed S a es abroad i co sul a io s wi h o her heads of s a e, a d, hrough his officials, he ego ia es rea ies wi h over cou ries. Such rea ies mus be approved by a wo- hirds vo e of he Se a e. Preside s also ego ia e wi h o her a io s less formal &quo ;execu ive agreeme s&quo ; ha are o subjec o Se a e approval. HE JUDICIAL BRA CH - he judicial bra ch is headed by he Supreme Cour , which is he o ly cour specifically crea ed by he Co s i u io . I addi io , he Co gress has es ablished 11 federal cour s of appeal a d, below hem, 91 federal dis ric cour s. Federal judges are appoi ed for life or volu ary re ireme , a d ca o ly be removed from office hrough he process of impeachme a d rial i he Co gress. - Federal cour s have jurisdic io over cases arisi g ou of he Co s i u io : laws a d rea ies of he U i ed S a es: mari ime cases; issues i volvi g foreig ci ize s or gover me s; a d cases i which he federal gover me i self is a par y. - he Supreme Cour oday co sis s of a chief jus ice a d eigh associa e jus ices. he Cour 's mos impor a fu c io co sis s of de ermi i g whe her co gressio al legisla io or execu ive ac io viola es he Co s i u io . his power of judicial review is o specifically provided for by he Co s i u io . CHECKS A D BALA CES • If Co gress proposes a law ha he preside hi ks is u wise, he preside ca ve o i . ha mea s he proposal does o become law. Co gress ca e ac he law despi e he preside 's views o ly if wo- hirds of he members of bo h houses vo e i favor of i . • If Co gress passes a law which is he challe ged i he cour s as u co s i u io al. he Supreme Cour has he power o declare he law u co s i u io al a d herefore o lo ger i effec .

Fukuyama, «The End of History and the LastMan», p. XVIII. 15. Из современных работ по демократическому миру см.: Michael W. Doyle, «Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs», Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 12, nos. 3 and 4 (Summer and Fall 1983), p. 205235, p. 323353; Bruce M. Russett, «Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a PostCold War World» (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993); «Debating the Democratic Peace», ed. Michael E. Brown, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996); and «Paths to Peace: Is Democracy the Answer?» ed. Miriam Fendius Elman (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997). 16. Fukuyama, «The End of History and the Last Man», p. XX. 17. Ibid., p. 276. 18. Fukuyama, «The End of History?» p. 18. 19. Francis Fukuyama, «SecondThoughts: The Last Man in a Bottle», National Interest, no. 56 (Summer 1999), p. 1633. 20. Mearsheimer, «Back to the Future», p. 142. Хотя Миршеймер, составляя карту мира после «холодной войны», изначально рассматривал только Европу, впоследствии он включил в рассмотрение и Восточную Азию («The Tragedy of Great Power Politics», New York: Norton, 2001)

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