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Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

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MI IS ERY OF EDUCA IO OF HE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS Belarus S a e Eco omic U iversi y REFERA : «Rise of sociology as a i ellec ual radi io . Classical radi io i sociology of he XIX ce ury» Mi sk 2008 1. Rise of sociology as a i ellec ual radi io Si ce a cie imes ma has bee i eres ed i issues of his ow livi g amo g o her people. Why do people ry o joi livi g wi h o her people, o wi hou ? Wha makes hem fix borders, form separa e s a es a d s ruggle wi h each o her? Why do some people possess all be efi s, o hers are deprived of hem? Searchi g for a swers o hese ques io s forced a cie hi kers o focus heir a e io o ma a d he socie y where he lives i . Emerge ce of sociology is obliged o he co cep “socie y”, i s heore ical developme a d use i prac ice. A emp s o comprehe d op imal ways of gover i g, social order, people’s effec ive ac ivi ies were firs made by a cie Chi ese a d I dia philosophers. A ique philosophers made heir co ribu io by sugges i g ew ideas which are ow co sidered fu dame als of sociology. For i s a ce, Pla o a d Aris o le developed a doc ri e of huma a d he socie y; heir works i i ia ed s udies of cer ai social i s i u io s such as he s a e, family a d law. Followi g he pri ciple of social divisio of labour, Pla o (427-347 BC) crea ed a firs i he world heory of s ra ifica io accordi g o which he socie y is divided i o hree classes: higher class co sis i g of wise me who gover he s a e; middle class or warriors who defe d he socie y from disorder, a d lower class co sis i g of craf sme a d peasa s. A yway, i his heory here was o place for slaves whose des i y was hard work co sidered as u wor hy by free ci ize s. Aris o le co sidered middle class a foo -hold of order. o his mi d, he s a e is be er gover ed if egois ic i eres s of he rich are limi ed, he poor are o excluded from gover me , a d middle class is grea er a d s ro ger ha he rich a d he poor. radi io ally he origi s of sociology are see i Europea philosophy of he XVIII ce ury, a period ha is referred o as he Age of E ligh e me or he Age of Reaso . his moveme advoca ed ra io ali y as a mea s o es ablish a au hori a ive sys em of e hics, aes he ics, a d k owledge. he i ellec ual leaders of his moveme regarded hemselves as courageous a d eli e, a d saw heir purpose as leadi g he world oward progress a d ou of a lo g period of doub ful radi io , full of irra io ali y, supers i io a d yra y. he E ligh e me also provided a framework for he America a d Fre ch Revolu io s, as well as leadi g o he rise of capi alism a d bir h of socialism. he XVIII ce ury also saw a co i ued rise of empirical philosophical ideas, a d heir applica io o poli ical eco omy, gover me a d scie ces such as physics, chemis ry a d biology. However, i ves iga io s of his age were far from bei g sys emic a d i egral. Lo s of impor a issues were o paid a e io o, ha ’s why achieveme s i lear i g social phe ome a were less co siderable as compared o o her scie ces. Of u mos i eres of he period became s udy of social commu i ies a d processes of heir developme a d fu c io i g.

he s udy was caused by wo fac ors. he firs fac or was i dus rial developme of Europea cou ries; he seco d o e was ha all spheres of huma ac ivi ies became more complica ed ha raised problems of people’s i erac io s a d heir gover me , crea io of social order i he socie y e c. Whe problems were realized a d sou ded, prerequisi es for developi g a ew scie ce appeared, scie ce which could s udy groups of people a d heir behaviour i groups, huma i erac io s a d heir resul s. As origi s of sociology are see i spiri ual a d poli ical ideas of he E ligh e me a d reac io o he Fre ch Revolu io , Fre ch hi kers, E glish a d Germa philosophers who worked a d crea ed i ha period are co sidered direc predecessors of sociological k owledge. Of Germa philosophers Imma uel Ka (1724-1804) is more of e recollec ed due o his co ribu io o developme of social problems, i par icular problems of perso ali y. Ka believed ha ma is a ambivale bei g by his a ure: he is bo h good a d bad, ho es a d disho es , fair a d u fair, free a d depe de . o his mi d, ma ’s a ural ega ive charac er is hidde a d displayed i hose livi g co di io s which make ma reveal his vices. Bu ma is s rivi g for self-perfec io a d his ally is reaso ha helps ma o overcome his ega ive quali ies. Ka co sidered ha harmo y be wee huma a d he socie y is achieved if ma overcomes his vices by obeyi g laws a d moral orms. Georg Hegel (1770-1831) made his dialec ics more ge eralized. His aim was o defi e basic de ermi a s of his oric developme so ha he could exami e peculiari ies of i s realiza io i differe his oric periods a d show correla io of his oric ecessi y a d people’s co scious ac ivi ies. He drew a pic ure of social reali y all par s of which (objec ive a d subjec ive, dy amic a d s a ic, ma erial a d ideal) are i errela ed by a dialec ic me hod. Of Fre ch philosophers o e ca me io Charles Mo esquieu, Jea -Jacques Rousseau, Sai -Simo a d o hers. Ch. Mo esquieu (1689-1755) u derli ed impor a ce of compara ive research of social phe ome a. J.-J. Rousseau (1712-1778) dis i guished classes i he socie y a d believed ha ma ’s a ure is good bu ma is “spoil ” by he socie y. I o he basis of harmo ic arra geme of he socie y he pu social agreeme , i.e. co se sus of people as reflec io of heir commo will which is expressed i laws. Sai -Simo (1760-1825) was possibly he firs o sugges pla i g as a way o ru eco omy. o his mi d, social problems could be solved by moral a d religious reformi g, based o employers’ good will o be er he worki g co di io s. I 1822 he published his work, Pla de raveaux scie ifiques &eacu e;cessaires pour r&eacu e;orga iser la soci&eacu e; &eacu e; (План научных работ, необходимых для реорганизации общес­тва), wri e wi h Augus e Com e. I he book he hi kers sugges ed a idea of developi g a ew scie ce of he socie y which, by a alogy wi h physics, should be based o observa io , experime a d o her me hods of a ural scie ces. I i ially, he scie ce was give he ame of social physics. By ha ime a social heory prese ed a mixed spec rum of various views i which bo h basic a d addi io al mo ives were combi ed; basic mo ives bore ra io al a d irra io al charac er while eco omic, poli ical, legal a d moral i eres s co s i u ed he e i y of addi io al o es.

hose views reflec ed hi kers a d researchers’ ou look, heir ideological posi io s a d ways of s udyi g social problems. I his co ex legacy by A. Com e (1798-1857), he i i ia or of sociology, was o a excep io . here are wo reaso s why A. Com e is ack owledged as he fou di g fa her of sociology. Firs , he developed a sys ema ic a d hierarchical classifica io of all scie ces a d by i cludi g sociology i o hem, he gave grou ds for es ablishi g i s au o omy as a discipli e; seco d, i 1839 he cha ged he ame of social physics i o sociology. His fu dame al works are Cours de philosophie posi ive i 6 volumes (1830-1842), Sys ème de poli ique posi ive (1850-1854). A. Com e’s legacy i cludes he law of hree phases, his co ribu io o fur her developme of he heory of a i dus rial socie y s ar ed by Sai -Simo . I is by his s a eme of his law ha he is bes k ow i he E glish-speaki g world. he law says ha he socie y has go e hrough hree phases: heological, or mili ary au hori y; me aphysical, or feudal au hori y; scie ific, or posi ive phase see as a i dus rial civiliza io . I he heological phase ma ’s place i he socie y a d he socie y’s res ric io s upo ma were referred o God. he me aphysic phase i volved jus ifica io of u iversal righ s as some hi g o a higher pla e ha he au hori y of a y huma ruler could cou erma d. he scie ific phase is ha o e i which people could fi d solu io s o social problems a d bri g hem i o force despi e of he proclama io s of huma righ s or prophecy of he will of God. For i s ime, he idea of a scie ific phase was co sidered up- o-da e. A. Com e also formula ed he law of hree phases: huma developme (social progress) progresses from a heological s age, i which a ure was my hically co ceived a d ma sough he expla a io of a ural phe ome a from super a ural bei gs, hrough a me aphysical s age i which a ure was co ceived of as a resul of obscure forces a d ma sough he expla a io of a ural phe ome a from hem o he fi al posi ive s age i which all abs rac a d obscure forces are discarded, a d a ural phe ome a are explai ed by heir co s a rela io ship. his progress is forced hrough he developme of huma mi d a d i creasi g applica io of hough , reaso i g a d logic o he u ders a di g of world. Due o i , A. Com e hough ha i dus rializa io is he resul of a scie ific way of hi ki g spread ou i all spheres of huma life bu o of ech ical a d eco omic progress. However, he rejec ed he role of ge eral heory i sociology: i s ead of heore ic ge eraliza io of empiric da a o make up a whole of hem, he prese ed he socie y as a simple e i y of i erco ec ed fac s. He did ’ clearly de ermi e he subjec of a ew scie ce; ei her he did ’ fi d i s scie ific me hod o lear laws of social developme . A grea co ribu io o es ablishi g he me hodological basis of sociology, mos ly i s empiric basis, was made by Lamber Ke le (1796-1874), a Fre ch a d Belgia ma hema icia a d s a is icia . He brough i ew heore ic a d me hodological ideas a d a ew sample of research aimed a solvi g cer ai applied problems. His achieveme s i sociology are as follows: discovery of s a is ical laws; u ders a di g a social law as a s able e de cy of cha gi g mea s; me hodical recomme da io s how o formula e ques io s i forms a d ques io aires.

Like the Contemporary Composers of the Western Concert Tradition, they experimented with the elements of music - attempting to redefine and reinvent them for the new and modern world they lived in. No longer functioning as a Popular Music, but rather a true Art Music, they were free of any market considerations or audience demands. This enabled experimentation and innovation dependent only on artistic ‘vision’ - and as such, parallel much of what the New ‘Classical’ music did in manipulating the musical elements. The 20th Century Concert Tradition is a logical introduction to this next and multi dimensioned Jazz period. In investigating these changes, it is best to keep in mind the Yin and Yang of any art music - that swing between the Formal and the Emotional. This constant tension - both of degree,dominance, or rejection - determines the parameters of the musical search for a contemporary musical language. • Melody: neither the formal beauty of the Classical nor the lyric beauty of the Romantic were emulated

1. English as an Indo-European Language

2. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century

3. Socionical approach in studding of nations

4. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

5. Internet helps in development of education and democracy

6. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century
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7. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
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8. Stages and types of an applied sociological research. Sociological research process
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10. Economic and sociological analysis of suicide

11. The profile of an effective manager

12. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

13. Customs and traditions of English speaking countries

14. Traditions and holidays of Great Britain

15. Is the nature of quantum chaos classical?

16. Traditions & Customs of Great Britain

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20. Benitto Mussolini as a lider of Italy

21. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

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24. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

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26. The Economy of Great Britain

27. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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30. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

31. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

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36. British traditional holidays

37. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought Evolution

38. Lexico-sementic chartersticcs of business letter correspondence
39. My modern image of the United States
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42. The role of art in our life

43. Three Waves of Alvin Toffler. The Basic Points

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45. Поиск культурных корней Американцев (Looking for cultural roots of Americans)

46. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

47. Short Overview of African Countries

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50. The New-York City, Places of interest

51. The History of English

52. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

53. Сравнительные степени прилагательных и наречий (Comparison) Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs) Цепочки существительных (Атрибутивная, номинативная группа) (Chains of nouns)

54. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
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55. The Hero of Our Time
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56. California & Los-Angeles. Places of interest
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57. The Queen of the UK

58. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

59. Personality of Hamlet

60. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

61. The house of my dream

62. Navruz - A Celebration of Life. Public holidays in Uzbekistan

63. Interactive method of teaching English grammar

64. How do I like unusual methods of teaching? (DEAD POETS SOCIETY)

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67. Critical Review of Daniel Sprick’s “Release Your Plans”

68. California & Los-Angeles. Places of interest

69. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

70. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание
71. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
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72. Biography of Che Guevara (Биография Че Гевары)

73. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

74. The fastest computers of the world

75. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

76. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

77. Traditional Meals in Mexico

78. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

79. Evolution of Christianity

80. Socrates` conception of philosophy

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81. Royal Dutch Shell: Evaluation of Oil Reserves

82. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

83. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

84. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

85. Eleanor of Aquitaine

86. Scripts of all of Asia
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87. The Taming of the Shrew
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88. The practice of modern medicine
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89. The teaching of Hugo Gratius

90. Quality of life and management of living resources

91. Dreams of Sanity

92. Eternal Tears of Sorrow

93. Cemetery of Scream

94. Cradle of Filth


96. Council of Europe

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97. Lexico-sementic characterstics of business letter correspondence

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