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Communication The Exchange of Information

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MI IS RY OF HIGHER A D SECO DARY SPECIAL EDUCA IO OF HE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKIS A GULIS A S A E U IVERSI Y he E glish a d Li era ure Depar me Qualifica io work o speciali y E glish philology o he heme: “Commu ica io . he Excha ge of I forma io ” Supervisor: Gulis a 2008 CO E S: I. I roduc io Message orie ed commu ica io . he Mai Body La guage Lear i g Pri ciples he a ure of speaki g a d oral i erac io Commu ica ive approach a d la guage eachi g. Chap er I. ypes of commu ica ive exercises a d approaches. Warmi g up exercises I eriews Jigsaw asks Chap er II. Ques io i g ac ivi ies Values clarifica io ech iques hi ki g s ra egies I erac ive problem solvi g Chap er III. S ories a d poe ry Ц pai i g ha speaks Games as a way a breaki g he rou i e of classroom drill Projec work as a a ural ex e sio of co e based i s ruc io (CIB) Co clusio Some Prac ical ech iques for La guage eachi g Bibliography I roduc io Message orie ed commu ica io I wa you o commu ica e. his mea s ha I wa you o u ders a d o hers a d o make yourself u ders a dable o hem. hese sou d like he obvious goals of every la guage lear er., bu I hi k hese simple goals eed o be emphasized, because lear ers oo of e ge diver ed from hem a d fall i o more of a s ruggle wi h he mecha ics of grammar a d pro u cia io ha hey should. Lear ers ca become imid abou usi g wha hey k ow for fear of maki g horrible mis akes wi h wha hey do ’ k ow. All he a e io paid o he mecha ics of commu ica io some imes ge s i he way of commu ica io i self. I he early lesso s of ma y la guage courses, s ude s are e couraged o co ce ra e heavily upo pro u cia io a d grammar, while vocabulary is i roduced o ly very slowly. he idea seems o be ha eve if o e has very li le o say, ha li le bi should be said correc ly. S ude s ca worry a grea deal abou he machi ery of la guage, bu hey worry ra her li le abou real commu ica i g much of a y hi g. U der such circums a ces, lear ers have o hi k abou a awful lo of hi gs i order o co s ruc eve a simple se e ce. hey are supposed o force heir mou hs o produce sou ds ha seem ridiculous. hey have o grope despera ely for words ha hey barely k ow. hey have o perform me al gym as ic ryi g o remember bizarre gramma ical rules. All hese challe ges are a fa al dis rac io from wha skillful speakers worry abou Ц he message ha hey wa o co vey. If early lear ers have o worry abou ge i g every hi g correc , hey ca o hope o day a y hi g very i eres i g. hey simply ca o do every hi g a o ce a d emerge wi h a y real se se of success. I he Germa origi al 'm eilu gsbezoge e Kommu ika io was coi ed by Black a d Bu zkamm (1977)1. hey use i o refer o hose rare a d precious mome s i foreig la guage eachi g whe he arge la guage is ac ually used o arra ge commu ica io . ј prime i s a ce of his use is classroom discourse, i.e. ge i g hi gs do e i he lesso . Some imes real commu ica ive si ua io s develop spo a eously, as i excha gi g comme s o las igh ' s V programme or i roduc io someo e' s ew haircu . he majori y of ordi ary la guage eachi g si ua io s before reachi g a adva ced level, however, are geared owards la guage-orie ed commu ica io or wha Rivers calls 'skill-ge i g': hey make use of he foreig la guage mai ly i s ruc ural exercises a d prede ermi ed respo ses by he lear ers.

Si ce foreig la guage eachi g should help s ude s achieve some ki d of commu ica ive skill i he foreig la guage, аll si ua io s i which real commu ica io occurs a urally have o be ake adva age of a d ma y more sui able o es have o be crea ed. wo devices help he eacher i maki g up commu ica ive ac ivi ies: i forma io gap a d opi io gap. I forma io -gap exercises force he par icipa s o excha ge i forma io i order o fi d a solu io (e.g. reco s i u e a ex , solve a puzzle, wri e a summary). Problem-solvi g ac ivi ies. Opi io gaps are crea ed by exercise or program co roversial ex s or ideas, which require he par icipa s o describe a d perhaps defe d heir views o hese ideas. A o her ype of opi io - gap ac ivi y ca be orga ised by le i g he par icipa s share heir feeli gs abou a experie ce hey have i commo . Fur hermore, lear i g a foreig la guage is o jus a ma er of memorisi g a simple se of ames for he hi gs arou d us; i is also a educa io al experie ce. Si ce our la guage is closely li ked wi h our perso ali y a d cul ure, why o use he process of acquiri g a ew la guage o gai fur her i sigh s i o our perso ali y a d cul ure? his does o mea ha s ude s of a foreig la guage should submi o psychological exercises or probi g i erviews, bu simply ha , for example, lear i g o alk abou heir likes a d dislikes a d bri g abou a grea er aware ess of heir values a d aims i life. Ma y of he ac ivi ies are co cer ed wi h he lear ers hemselves. For lear ers who are s udyi g E glish i a o -E glish-speaki g se i g i is very impor a o experie ce real commu ica ive si ua io i which hey lear o express heir ow views a d a i udes, a d i which hey are ake seriously as people. As applyi g he pri ciples of i forma io gap a d opi io gap o sui able radi io al exercises he eacher ca cha ge hem i o more challe gi g commu ica ive si ua io s. hus he well-k ow procedure a begi er's level of havi g s ude s describe each o her's appeara ce is ra sformed i o a commu ica ive ac ivi y as soo as a eleme of guessi g (i forma io gap) is i roduced. However, o all exercises ca be spruced up like his. Ma ipula ive drills ha have o real opic have o remai as hey are. I forma io a d opi io -gap exercises have o hav some co e wor h alki g abou . S ude s do o wa o discuss rivia; he i eres which is aroused by he s ruc ure of he ac ivi y may be reduced or i creased by he opic. Ma y of he ac ivi ies are co cer ed wi h he lear ers hemselves. heir feeli gs a d ideas are he focal poi of hese exercises, arou d which a lo of heir foreig la guage ac ivi y revolves. For lear ers who are s udyi g E glish i a o -E glish-speaki g se i g i is very impor a o experie ce real commu ica ive si ua io i which hey lear o express heir ow views a d a i udes, a d i which hey are ake seriously as people. radi io al ex book exercises Ч however ecessary a d useful hey may be for all- commu ica ive grammar prac ice Ч do o as a rule forge a li k be wee he lear ers a d he foreig la guage i such a way ha he lear ers ide ify wi h i . Mea i gful ac ivi ies o a perso al level ca be a s ep owards his ide ifica io , which improves performa ce a d ge era es i eres .

A d, of course, alki g abou some hi g which affec s hem perso ally is emi e ly mo iva i g for s ude s. Fur hermore, lear i g a foreig la guage is o jus a ma er of memorisi g a simple se of ames for he hi gs arou d us; i is also a educa io al experie ce. Si ce our la guage is closely li ked wi h our perso ali y a d cul ure, why o use he process of acquiri g a ew la guage o gai fur her i sigh s i o our perso ali y a d cul ure? his does o mea ha s ude s of a foreig la guage should submi o psychological exercises or probi g i erviews, bu simply ha , for example, lear i g o alk abou heir likes a d dislikes a d bri g abou a grea er aware ess of heir values a d aims i life. ј umber of ac ivi ies. adap ed from 'values clarifica io ' heory have bee i cluded wi h his purpose i mi d. Lear i g is very effec ive if he lear ers are ac ively i volved i he process. he degree of lear er ac ivi y depe ds, amo g o her hi gs, o he ype of ma erial hey are worki g o . he s ude s' curiosi y ca be aroused by ex s or pic ures co ai i g discrepa cies or mis akes, or by missi g or muddled i forma io , a d his curiosi y leads o he wish o fi d ou , o pu righ or o comple e. Lear er ac ivi y i a more li eral se se of he word ca also imply doi g a d maki g hi gs; for example, produci g a radio programme forces he s ude s o read, wri e a d alk i he foreig la guage as well as le i g hem lear wi h ape recorders, sou d effec s a d music. Se i g up a opi io poll i he classroom is a seco d, less ambi ious vehicle for ac ive lear er par icipa io ; i makes s ude s i erview each o her, i li erally ge s hem ou of heir sea s a d Ч his is very impor a Ч i culmi a es i a fi al produc which everybody has helped o produce. Ac ivi ies for prac isi g a foreig la guage have lef he arrow pa h of purely s ruc ural a d lexical rai i g a d have expa ded i o he fields of values educa io a d perso ali y buildi g. he impac of foreig la guage lear i g o he shapi g of he lear er' s perso ali y is slowly bei g recog ised. ha is why foreig la guage eachi g Ч jus like ma y o her subjec s Ч plays a impor a par i educa io owards coopera io a d empa hy. As eachers we would like our s ude s o be se si ive owards he feeli gs of o hers a d share heir worries a d joys. ј lo of eachi g/lear i g si ua io s, however, ever ge beyo d a ra io al a d fac -orie ed s age. ha is why i seems impor a o provide a leas a few i s a ces focusi g o he shari g ideas. igsaw asks, i par icular, demo s ra e o he lear ers ha coopera io is ecessary. Ma y of he ac ivi ies i cluded i his book focus o he par icipa s' perso ali ies a d help build a a mosphere of mu ual u ders a di g. Qui e a impor a fac or i educa io owards coopera io is he eacher's a i ude. If she favours a coopera ive s yle of eachi g ge erally a d does o shy away from he grea er workload co ec ed wi h group work or projec s, he he co di io s for lear i g o eachers are good. he a mosphere wi hi a class or group ca largely be de ermi ed by he eacher, who- qui e of e wi hou bei g aware of i Ч se s he o e by choosi g cer ai ypes of exercises a d opics.

No more printing lorry loads, carting paper to every town and outlet in the land; no more tonnes of unread returns, no more landfill. So why not stick to screens only? Because people wonвАЩt. Newspapers and magazines on your computer have been available for ages, but folk still trudge to the shop and pick up newsprint. In future they will get their newsprint, but without the trudge. And that newspaper will be updated to the minute. Books and newspapers: two examples of hundreds that the communications revolution might offer. On what basis should our future technological choices be made? My criteria are 1. environmental impact 2. efficiency and convenience 3. public demand 4. overall economy. Earlier I noted that the two main functions of communication are to exchange useful information and to gossip. I have assumed that gossip will look after itself. The only constraint on my generationвАЩs phone chatter 30 years ago was the cost of a call. Let teens chat on-if they can afford it. In the process they will redefine вАШappointmentвАЩ, вАШconversationвАЩ and even time

1. The Tower of London

2. The Economy of Great Britain

3. –оль —ћ» в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

4. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (–евность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожени€ в " рейцеровой сонате" Ћьва “олстого)

5. The history of railways (»стори€ железных дорог)

6. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
7. The Castles of England
The Castles of England
8. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers
The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

9. The Tower of London

10. The Economy of Great Britain

11. ќсобенности ведени€ бизнеса в  итае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

12. ƒинасти€ “юдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

13. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. ‘.ћ. ƒостоевский, ѕреступление и наказание

14. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

15. The Hero of Our Time

16. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

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–аздел: 7-12 цветов
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–аздел: “ележки

17. The house of my dream

18. The History of Alaska (истори€ јл€ски)

19. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

20. ƒинасти€ “юдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

21. Protection of Information («ащита »нформации)

22. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?
23. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
24. јпокатастасис и "Ѕлагое молчание" в эсхатологии св. ћаксима исповедника (Apokatastasis and ЂHonorable silenceї in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

25. ќсобенности ведени€ бизнеса в  итае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

26. The history of Australia

27. ћальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

28. The practice of modern medicine

29. THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR

30. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

31. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

32. The History of Moscow

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–аздел: Ѕуксировочные тросы
—кладна€ силиконова€ вставка дл€ горшка Potette Plus, голуба€.
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–аздел: ѕрочие

33. The 8th of March

34. The protection of the environment

35. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

36. The commonwealth of Australia

37. The Commonwealth of Australia

38. The climate of Great Britain
The climate of Great Britain
39. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism
40. The sights of USA.
The sights of USA.

41. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

42. The cities of USA

43. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

44. The main fault of The 70s or the years of Уmight-have-been hopesФ

45. The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century

46. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

47. The Snows of Mars

48. The development of computers in the USA

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–аздел: √оловоломки

49. The system of english tenses

50. The Future of American Youths

51. The making of the collection

52. For the Beauty of the Earth

53. The Grapes of Wrath

54. The Concept of Youth Subcultures
The Concept of Youth Subcultures
55. The development of the Tower
The development of the Tower
56. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors
The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

57. The Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions

58. The art of conversation

59. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

60. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

61. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

62. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

63. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

64. Oscar Wilde "The picture of Dorian Gray"

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–аздел: √ели, концентраты
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343 руб
–аздел:  ачели

65. The category of Mood

66. The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

67. The history of English

68. The history of grammar theory

69. The history of Moscow

70. The Language of Narrative Writing
The Language of Narrative Writing
71. The origin of language
The origin of language
72. The outline of the period
The outline of the period

73. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

74. The problem of violence

75. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

76. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

77. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (ShakespeareТs Histories)

78. Historical measurement of the science of governing

79. The Architecture of Ancient Rome

80. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

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805 руб
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81. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

82. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

83. The collection of French art in the Hermitage

84. Advertising in the world of art

85. The models of atomТs nucleus and table of elements.

86. The basic features of translation informal lexicon
The basic features of translation informal lexicon
87. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
88. »стори€ —оветсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

89. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

90. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

91. My modern image of the United States

92. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (ѕословицы - ƒети ќпыта)

93. ѕредставители –енессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

94. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

95. Ways of exploring the world

96. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

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–аздел: ѕрочее
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97. Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles

98. ‘инансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

99. Communication Systems and Information Theory


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