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The Church of England

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МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ НЕЗАВИСИМЫЙ ЭКОЛОГО-ПОЛИТОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТРеферат по страноведению на тему: « he Church of E gla d»Москва, 2002 he Church of E gla dCo e : I roduc io . 3 His ory of he Church of E gla d S a us of Church i E gla d up o 1530 .4 Reforma io of Church 4 He ry VII .4 Edward VI 6 Mary I .6 Elizabe h I 7 Charles II . .8 Vic oria . 8 II. he Church of E gla d oday .9 he esse ce of bei g a A glica .9 Orga isa io of he Church of E gla d .11 Church of E gla d becomes a I er a io al Church .12 Co clusio s .13 Every hi g i his life has i s ow his ory, especially Religio , as i is a grea i s i u io . Wi h he developme of his ory of a par icular cou ry, here will always be developme of Religio , si ce he Church is a i egral par of S a e Sys em. Hea he ism, Or hodoxy, Judaism e c. hey have bee livi g for ce uries. A d some of hem were cha ged, pe e ra ed each o her or reformed drama ically. E gla d was o excep io . he E glish are o a deeply religious race. Hu dreds of years ago hey decided ha Roma Ca holicism wi h i s eachi gs abou origi al si a d he u wor hi ess of he huma race could o really have bee mea for hem. So hey desig ed a Church of heir ow – he Church of E gla d. he E glish Reforma io was a resul of he chai of eve s ha eve ually al ered E gla d a d E glish ess forever. So much i his ory is a bas ard child of bo h lo g-s a di g, simmeri g emo io a d he oppor u is ic seizi g of a mome . By i s a ure u expec ed, i is also u predic able, a d shaped as much by e viro me a d cha ce as by i s proge i ors. he Reforma io was o differe . I was goi g o hrough he ages a d reig s. I. His ory of he Church of E gla d 1. S a us of Church i E gla d up o 1530 U il 1054 here was o ly o e Chris ia Church - he Ca holic Church. I s leadership was ce ered i five grea Pa riarcha es -- Jerusalem, A ioch, Alexa dria a d Co s a i ople i he Eas a d Rome i he Wes . Af er he Roma Empire became Chris ia some bishops i creasi gly became i volved i poli ical ma ers, a d he bishops of Rome i par icular bega o claim power over he whole Church. his led o a ragic divisio i he Church, he &quo ;Grea Schism&quo ; of 1054, whe i spli i o he &quo ;Or hodox&quo ; Eas a d he &quo ;Roma Ca holic&quo ; Wes . o direc ly i volved i ha spli was he Church i E gla d, which he Bishops of Rome were de ermi ed o claim - especially af er 1061, whe a rival Papacy i Lombardy claimed allegia ce from he See of Ca erbury. I 1066, he Duke of orma dy (William &quo ; he Co queror&quo ;), wi h he suppor a d formal blessi g of Pope Alexa der II, i vaded E gla d. Af er seizi g he E glish Crow , William replaced all bu o e of he E glish bishops wi h orma bishops loyal o Rome. he CHURCH OF E GLA D was o remai u der Papal jurisdic io for early 500 years, u il he reig of Ki g He ry VIII. 2. Reforma io of Church E gla d i he six ee h ce ury was a la d of co ras s. Much less urba ha ei her Germa y or he e herla ds, i ever heless possessed a hrivi g i er a io al rade ce re i Lo do a d i Oxford a d Cambridge, wo u iversi ies of ou s a di g repu a io . he u iversi ies, i fac , would play a sig ifica role i he early campaig s agai s Lu her.

He ry VIII ur ed o heir fi es heologia s for argume s allowi g him o e er he lis s agai s he growi g hrea of Lu hera heresy. his i i ia ive would ear him from a gra eful Pope he cove ed i le, Defe der of he Fai h. he progress of he Reforma io i E gla d was closely bou d up wi h He ry's perso al affairs. His i creasi g despera io o secure release from his marriage o Ca heri e of Arago forced him o co empla e radical s eps ha we very much agai s he grai of his ow i s i c ive heological co serva ism. He ry VIII I was he o ly He ry’s cha ce o go ou side he bou daries of he or hodoxy. U il his eve , He ry had ever ques io ed he Pope’s au hori y or he validi y of he Bible passage, i ba ed he marriage of a bro her- a d sis er-i -law. I was as early as he e d of 1529 ha He ry firs co sidered a comple e dissocia io from he Roma church. He ry forced Wolsey o re ire, as his e ire foreig policy had collapsed a d he was ow of o help o he Ki g. I July of 1531, He ry se Ca heri e o Amp hill, ever o see her agai . He ook back her royal jewels a d gave hem o A e. Whe Parliame reco ve ed i Ja uary, 1532, He ry ordered ha o fur her fu ds would be ra sferred o Rome, bu hi ed o he Pope ha he mo ey would be res ored if he a ulme was passed. Mea while, mos of he bishops had bee persuaded ha hey would o lose a y power or i come if he E glish Church were o spli from Rome. I March, he Co voca io formally a ou ced heir readi ess o separa e: “May i please your High ess o ordai i he prese Parliame ha he obedie ce of your High ess a d of he people be wi hdraw from he See of Rome.” O May 15, hey pri ed a pledge o submi all i s legisla io o a ew commi ee, formed of layme a d clergyme , called he “Reforma io Parliame ” a d Co voca io . his is where he Church of E gla d was bor . O Ja uary 15, 1533, He ry a d A e, who was four mo hs preg a , were married. However, he Ki g s ill did o have his firs marriage a ulled. He submi ed his reques for a ulme o he ew Co voca io , led by homas Cra mer. O May 23, Cra mer declared He ry a d Ca heri e’s marriage o be u lawful a d void. Five days la er, he pro ou ced He ry a d A e legally wed. O May 31, 1533, A e was coro a ed as Quee of E gla d. Al hough he Ki g a d ew Quee rejoiced, he sile ce from he crowd a he coro a io spoke for much of E gla d. Pope Cleme excommu ica ed he Ki g, s a i g ha he ew marriage was ull, a d ha a y childre would be illegi ima e. O Sep ember 7 Elizabe h was bor . He ry swif ly ra sformed he E glish Church by passi g various Ac s hrough Parliame . I March of 1534, he Ac of Successio declared he marriage o Ca heri e i valid, a d herefore Mary illegi ima e. Elizabe h was amed heir o he hro e u less A e produced a so . Royal commissio ers rode hrough he cou ryside, s oppi g a every house, cas le, mo as ery, a d co ve o exac oa hs of loyal y o he Ki g from every ma a d woma . O ly a few refused; hose ha did were se o he ower of Lo do o be pu o dea h. O ovember 11, 1534, he S a u e of Supremacy was passed by Parliame . his Ac a ou ced ha “ he ki g, our sovereig lord, his heirs a d successors, ki gs of his realm, shall be ake , accep ed, a d repu ed he o ly supreme head i ear h of he Church of E gla d, called A glica s Ecclesia”.

A d he Ki g “ our said sovereig lord, his heirs a d successors, ki gs of his realm, shall have full power a d au hori y” o do every hi g “mos o he pleasure of Almigh y God”. I was do e o “ i crease vir ue i Chris 's religio , a d for he co serva io of he peace, u i y, a d ra quili y of his realm” (pp. 97-98, Mil o Viors , he Grea Docume s of Wes er Civiliza io , Y, Bar es a d oble, 1965) I ova ive from he firs , he ew Church simplified he li urgy, e sured i was i E glish ra her ha La i a d se i ou i a ew Book of Commo Prayer which was desig ed o give he people of E gla d a commo ly held pa er of worship, a se se of o e ess of Church a d people, wi h he Church sa c ifyi g every side of a io al life, givi g socie y a Godward purpose a d direc io . I i roduced o Day of Pe ecos . I is wri e i E glish, emphasizes he people's par icipa io i he eucharis , a d requires he Bible o be read from cover o cover. Fas days are re ai ed (supposedly o help fisherme ), bu sai s' days are o . he poli ical a io was, for he mos par , obedie ly complia ra her ha e husias ic. here is o evide ce of a y grea hos ili y owards he church a d i s i s i u io s before he Reforma io ; o he co rary, bo h he E glish episcopa e a d parish clergy seem o have bee , by he s a dards of o her Europea la ds, bo h well- rai ed a d livi g wi hou sca dal. Cardi al Wolsey, who fa hered a illegi ima e so , was very much he excep io . O he o her ha d, few were prepared o defy he Ki g o defe d he hrea e ed i s i u io s of he old church. Ma y be efi ed from he wi dfall of church proper y ha followed he co fisca io of mo as ic la ds. Edward VI Duri g Edward's reig (He ry’s so ), he Church of E gla d became more explici ly Pro es a - Edward himself was fiercely so. he Book of Commo Prayer was i roduced i 1549, aspec s of Roma Ca holic prac ices (i cludi g s a ues a d s ai ed glass) were eradica ed a d he marriage of clergy allowed. he imposi io of he Prayer Book (which replaced La i services wi h E glish) led o rebellio s i Cor wall a d Devo . “Images&quo ; ordered removed from all churches by he cou cil of rege s. his also mea s o ves me s, ashes, palms, holy wa er, or crucifixes. his causes so much rese me ha a order suppressi g all preachi g follows. Mary I Edward VI dies. People are ired of Pro es a loo i g of churches. Mary udor (&quo ;Bloody Mary&quo ;), a mili a Roma Ca holic, becomes quee , she re ur ed he E glish church o commu io wi h Rome. She was Popular a firs , bu soo marries he ha ed Philip II of Spai . Persecu io of Pro es a s begi s; Mary appoi s ew bishops a d fires all married pries s. Duri g her reig , abou 300 Pro es a s were bur ed, i cludi g 5 bishops, 100 pries s, a d 60 wome . A a emp by Cardi al Pole (Mary's archbishop of Ca erbury) o res ore mo as icism fizzles whe , amo g 1500 survivi g mo ks, u s, a d friars, fewer ha 100 are willi g o re ur o celibacy. All his e sures Roma Ca holics will remai u popular i E gla d.Elizabe h I Mary dies. Elizabe h I, (a Pro es a ), becomes quee . Despi e ma y problems (i cludi g freque assassi a io plo s from Roma Ca holics), she suppor s he e erprisi g middle class a d E gla d prospers.

Первым сидит старый простолюдин в черном одеянии, вытянувший ноги, и всем он кажется самым главным хозяином. Они дырявят своими перьями пергамент и говорят, что я виноват и должен принести все мое честно нажитое богатство... Пастухи их ненавидят». Wright, Political Songs. 134 Реформа завершилась к концу 1279 года. Были сделаны новые круглые клише, вытеснившие «обрезанные» квадратные. Среди новых появилась и серебряная монета в четыре пенса, известная как грот (groat). Powicke, 632-3; J. Ramsay, Dawn оf the Constitution, 326-7; C. Roth, History of the Jews in England, 74-6. 135 Суд архиепископа, который шесть столетий спустя предоставил работу отцу Доры из «Дэвида Копперфильда». 136 «Недавно пришло мне исполнительное письмо, внушающее страх по виду и не менее ужасное по содержанию». S. G. Carpenter, The Church in England, 104. Так как Печем был монахом, у него не было личной собственности, хотя на пир по поводу его возведения в сан он должен был предоставить одной только рыбы: 300 морских щук, 600 штук трески, 40 свежих лососей и 7 баррелей соленых, 5 баррелей соленой осетрины, 8000 моллюсков, 100 щук, 400 линей, 100 карпов, 800 лещей, 1400 миног, 200 штук крупной плотвы, не считая тюленей, морских свиней и «pophyns»! Он также должен был сделать обычные подарки крупнейшим вассалам епархии, которые действовали как наследственные дворецкий, булочник, управляющий и виночерпий

1. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

2. Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

3. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

4. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

5. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

6. The history of railways (История железных дорог)
7. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
8. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society
The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

9. The role of art in our life

10. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

11. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

12. The History of English

13. The profile of an effective manager

14. The Tower of London

15. The history of Old English and its development

16. The Queen of the UK

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Раздел: Полки напольные, стеллажи
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17. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

18. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

19. The role of art in our life

20. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

21. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

22. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”
23. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)
24. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

25. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

26. The profile of an effective manager

27. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

28. The practice of modern medicine


30. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

31. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

32. The History of Moscow

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Раздел: Здания, города
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Раздел: Буксировочные тросы
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Раздел: Прочие

33. The 8th of March

34. The protection of the environment

35. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

36. The commonwealth of Australia

37. The Commonwealth of Australia

38. The climate of Great Britain
The climate of Great Britain
39. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism
40. The sights of USA.
The sights of USA.

41. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

42. The cities of USA

43. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

44. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

45. The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century

46. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

47. The House of Yorks

48. The declaration of independence

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Раздел: Электронные и звуковые плакаты
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Раздел: Стулья
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49. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

50. The war of the roses

51. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

52. Is the nature of quantum chaos classical?

53. Castles of England

54. The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
55. The Concept of Youth Subcultures
The Concept of Youth Subcultures
56. The development of the Tower
The development of the Tower

57. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

58. The Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions

59. The history of Manhattan

60. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

61. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

62. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

63. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

64. Communication The Exchange of Information

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Раздел: Формы и формочки для выпечки
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Раздел: Мобили

65. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

66. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier

67. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

68. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

69. The history of Germany and tourism

70. The history of grammatical study of the English language
The history of grammatical study of the English language
71. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using
The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using
72. The marking of the Russian Revolution
The marking of the Russian Revolution

73. The origins of the International Socialists

74. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

75. The place of “Macbeth” among Shakespeare’s tragedies

76. The problems of oral translation

77. The Science Of Grammar

78. The system of English verbs

79. What strategy are most effective in the conditions of globalization

80. Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

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Раздел: Коляски-трость
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Раздел: Стиральные порошки

81. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

82. Ghandi and the myth of non-violent action

83. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

84. Great Britain: the Land of Traditions

85. The Killing of Percy Casserley

86. The Clash of Civilizations
The Clash of Civilizations
87. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
88. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States
International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

89. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

90. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

91. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

92. The fastest computers of the world

93. Three Waves of Alvin Toffler. The Basic Points

94. The New-York City, Places of interest

95. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

96. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

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Раздел: Без наполнения

97. The fastest computers of the world

98. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

99. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

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