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Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

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he archival measure of i egra ive complexi y, developed by Suedfeld a d Ra k (1976), is o e of several procedures for he sys ema ic s udy of docume ary evide ce o i fer various charac eris ics of he i erac io s be wee cou ries (e.g., Axelrod, 1976; Er el, 1972; George, 1969; Herma , 1980; Mehrabia , 1967; Wi er, 1987). I egra ive complexi y is defi ed as he joi opera io of wo compo e s of i forma io processi g: differe ia io ( he percep io of ' he U iversi y of Bri ish Columbia. 601 0162-895X/92/1200-0601$06.50/1 ? 1992 I er a io al Socie y of Poli ical Psychology Suedfeld several dime sio s i a s imulus si ua io or of several perspec ives o he si ua io ) a d i egra io ( he recog i io of rela io s amo g differe ia ed dime sio s or perspec ives, e.g., as i erac i g, as capable of bei g i egra ed, or as bei g releva o some overarchi g eve or idea). Evide ce of differe ia io a d i egra io i verbal (wri e or oral) s a eme s ca be reliably assessed by rai ed scorers (see Me hod). A large umber of s udies have show level of complexi y o vary wi h e viro me al a d perso al s ress, poli ical ideology, a d social role, i er alia (Suedfeld, e lock, & S reufer , 1992). Mos of hese s udies have used gover me al docume s or he pro ou ceme s of officials as he da a sources. Level of complexi y is impor a because i i dica es differe ces i decisio -maki g s ra egies: for example, sever- al s udies have co firmed he associa io be wee reduced complexi y of gover me al commu ica io s duri g i er a io al crises a d immi e war (Suedfeld & e lock, 1977; Suedfeld, e lock, & Ramirez, 1977; Suedfeld & Bluck, 1988). Periods of i er a io al crisis are associa ed wi h reduc io s i complexi y o o ly i official docume s bu also i such diverse ma erials as perso al le ers, edi orials i a scie ific jour al, a d preside ial addresses o he America Psychological Associa io (Por er & Suedfeld, 1981; Suedfeld, 1981, 1985). hese da a may i dica e a ge eral s a e of risi g e sio wi hi a socie y, which i ur may affec i forma io processi g a d decisio -maki g a bo h he priva e a d public levels: for example, i may i flue ce readi ess for or agai s ego ia ed compromise as he solu io o problems. he overwhelmi g majori y of archival ma erials used i such s udies have co sis ed of gover me al commu ica io s, memora da, policy papers, a d he like, a d he priva e or professio al correspo de ce a d speeches of various socie al eli es. Rela ively li le a e io has bee paid o he mass media, excep as hey reproduce he o her ki ds of ma erials. Sys ema ic co e a alysis of media co e has bee used o s udy various aspec s of a io al a d i er a io al poli ics-e.g., o ide ify publica io s ha served as disguised propaga da ou le s for azi Germa y, o mo i or seque ial cha ges i Comi er policy oward a d away from coopera io wi h o commu is cou ries a d groups (Lasswell, Lei es, & associa es, 1949). S ruc ural-i.e., complexi y-a alysis may also provide i eres i g da a. he curre s udy focuses o he associa io be wee i er a io al rela io s a d he complexi y of edi orials i periodicals of broad readership a d impac .

Fur her, i looks a he co comi a s of eve s ha are more &quo ; ormal&quo ; ha i er a io al crises: ha is, eve s ha affec rela io s be wee pairs of cou ries posi ively or ega ively bu for he mos par wi hou carryi g major risks such as war. Bo h commu is bloc a d Wes er publica io s were i cluded o assess possible differe ces be wee he wo ypes of sys em i his respec . hree major ques io s are addressed: 602 Bila eral Rela io s Be wee Cou ries a d he Complexi y of ewspaper Edi orials 1. Will he complexi y of ewspaper edi orials reflec lesse i g or i creasi g levels of i er a io al e sio eve whe eve s do o reach he level of crisis bu are of a more rou i e a ure (such as rade agreeme s, diploma ic visi s, U. . vo es, a d he like)? Our hypo hesis was ha such cha ges would be fou d, showi g he effec s of &quo ;disrup ive s ress&quo ;: i.e., cha ged complexi y i imes of i creasi g e sio . 2. Will here be a differe ce be wee publica io s of commu is a d Wes er cou ries i his regard? O e migh expec so. I he former case, u il very rece ly ewspapers were i s rume s of he gover me a d suppor ed he gover me 's curre policies. While America a d Ca adia ewspapers may be more or less subjec o sub le gover me al rei forceme (e.g., &quo ;leaks&quo ; of res ric ed i forma io ) or he lack of i , as well as eedi g o s ay i s ep wi h public opi io , edi orial philosophies are developed wi hi he ewspaper a d may or may o be co grue wi h gover me al views (cf. Charles, Shore, & odd, 1979; Dow i g, 1988; Dreier, 1982). O he o her ha d, he effec s of i er a io al e sio o complexi y have bee show o be qui e pervasive i socie y-bu hese fi di gs were based o imes of crisis. We predic ed ha here would be a closer associa io be wee e sio a d edi orial complexi y i he commu is ha i he Wes er sources. 3. he hird ques io i volves he absolu e level of complexi y ra her ha cha ges i complexi y. Because of previous fi di gs, we predic ed ha Pravda will ge erally show lower complexi y-more dogma ism, less flexibili y a d recog i io of al er a e poi s of view- ha he Wes er publica io s. he releva fi di gs showed such differe ces be wee America a d Sovie gover - me al s a eme s (Suedfeld e al., 1977; e lock, 1988; Wallace & Suedfeld, 1988), al hough he curre reformis leaders of he U.S.S.R. may break he pa er ( e lock & Boe ger, 1989). ME HOD he wo ypes of da a used i his s udy were 1. Edi orials from a io al ewspapers, scored for i egra ive complexi y. 2. Eve s i volvi g bo h members of each pair of cou ries, scored o a scale of ex remely posi ive o ex remely ega ive. Source Docume s he docume s a alyzed were edi orials ha appeared i he ewspaper of a par icular cou ry ( he &quo ;source cou ry&quo ;) a d had as heir opic rela io s wi h, or he ac io s of, a specific o her cou ry ( he &quo ;subjec cou ry&quo ;). he source 603 Suedfeld cou ries were he Sovie U io , Ca ada, a d he U i ed S a es; he subjec cou ries were hese hree plus he People's Republic of Chi a. he choice of ewspapers was based o he a io al a d i er a io al promi e ce of he publica io s.

his was o problem i he case of he U.S.S.R. Pravda was a official a io al ewspaper wi h wide domes ic a d foreig circula io . I s 11 millio subscribers a d up o 40 millio readers i cluded he eli e of he Sovie U io : members of he i ellige sia (22% of he readership), e gi eers a d ech icia s (18%), a d 90% of he members of he Commu is Par y. More ha a y o her Sovie ewspaper, Pravda had he &quo ; ask of prese i g Par y policy, i he mos u ambiguous a d au hori a ive form, bo h for domes ic co sump io a d for he world ou side&quo ; (Roxburgh, 1987, p. 79). he ew York imes is cer ai ly o e of he mos pres igious a d widely dis ribu ed America dailies. I a 1982 poll of ewspaper publishers, edi ors, a d professors of jour alism, i was a clear firs choice as he bes ewspaper i he cou ry, a radi io i has lo g held by &quo ; elli g he ews wi h comple e ess a d i egri y&quo ; (Emery & Emery, 1984, p. 653). I has lo g bee co sidered he ewspaper of record, a d has bee described as &quo ;a key par of every Washi g o jour alis 's a d every legisla or's mor i g. he imes is a i dispe sable source for wri ers, edi ors a d embassies. I 's sober, s eady a d hardly ever rocks he es ablishme boa ; i 's bee viewed by foreig gover me s as a reliable chro icle of America posi io s&quo ; ( a ary , 1985, p. 71). Al hough Ca ada has o real equivale of ei her of he above wo publica io s, he oro o Globe a d Mail calls i self, a d is ge erally co sidered o be he closes approxima io of, Ca ada's a io al (ra her ha local or regio al) ewspaper ( a ary , 1985). Like he o her wo, i is dis ribu ed a io wide a d appeals primarily o a rela ively well-educa ed readership. Releva edi orials ( hose deali g wi h a y of he four subjec cou ries) were collec ed from hese hree ewspapers (for Pravda, usi g he E glish ra sla io s i he Curre Diges of he Sovie Press) for every year be wee 1947 a d 1982. here were some problems i selec i g ma erial o be scored. Mos edi orials i all of he ewspapers deal wi h domes ic issues, a d i some years few edi orials appeared deali g wi h some subjec cou ries (bo h he imes a d Pravda had rela ively few edi orials rela ed o Ca ada). Fur hermore, hese edi orials varied grea ly i le g h. We decided o use da abases of equal size as far as possible. For each source ewspaper duri g each year, all edi orials deali g wi h he subjec cou ry were ide ified. he comple e ex s of up o five of hese (all, if here were o ly five or fewer i he sample; o herwise, five were selec ed ra domly) were copied i o he compu er, which he used a ra dom umbers program o selec five scorable paragraphs. he selec ed paragraphs were pre- pared for scori g by he removal of a y ames, da es, or o her specific ma erial ha would ide ify ei her he source or he subjec cou ry. 604 Bila eral Rela io s Be wee Cou ries a d he Complexi y of ewspaper Edi orials Complexi y Scori g Each paragraph was he scored for i egra ive complexi y. he wo scorers had par icipa ed i a o e-week rai i g workshop a d had reached accep able levels of reliabili y (r = .85 or higher) wi h he rai er o a ex e sive se of rai i g passages.

Floating-point numbers in a "smaller" representation are also converted to the larger representation. Similarly, if any of the arguments are complex, any real arguments are converted to the complex equivalents. (+ 1 2.0) ==> 3.0 (/ 2 3.0) ==> 0.6666667 (+ #c(1 2) 3) ==> #c(4 2) (+ #c(1 2) 3/2) ==> #c(5/2 2) (+ #c(1 1) #c(2 -1)) ==> 3 Because / doesn't truncate, Common Lisp provides four flavors of truncating and rounding for converting a real number (rational or floating point) to an integer: FLOOR truncates toward negative infinity, returning the largest integer less than or equal to the argument. CEILING truncates toward positive infinity, returning the smallest integer greater than or equal to the argument. TRUNCATE truncates toward zero, making it equivalent to FLOOR for positive arguments and to CEILING for negative arguments. And ROUND rounds to the nearest integer. If the argument is exactly halfway between two integers, it rounds to the nearest even integer. Two related functions are MOD and REM, which return the modulus and remainder of a truncating division on real numbers

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