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Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

Two approches to the scientific management

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350 руб
Раздел: Ночники

Projec do e by si gova ova Ele a WO APPROCHES O HE SCIE IFIC MA AGEME His orical Review of he Pri cipals of Ma ageme he radi io al model charac erised as admi is ra io u der &quo ; he formal co rol of poli ical leadership, based o a s ric ly hierarchical model of bureaucracy, s affed by perma e , eu ral a d a o ymous officials, mo iva ed o ly by he public i eres , servi g a y gover i g par y equally a d o co ribu i g o policy bu merely admi is eri g hose policies decided by he poli icia s&quo ; (Public Ma ageme a d Admi is ra io a d I roduc io by Owe E Huges, p.23). By he 1920s his model was fully formed a d co i ued wi h ex remely li le cha ge for a leas fif y years. &quo ;You g&quo ; prac i io ers were so assured of heir heories a d hey believed ha he improveme of gover me a d i s admi is ra io would promo e a be er life for all. Af er he cri ique of he heory of he separa io be wee admi is ra io a d poli ics co sidered as he my h o olera e ha poli icia s a d admi is ra ors could be separa ed, he argume ook place be wee scholars of public admi is ra io . ever heless he poli ical co rol a d he heore ical basis of he bureaucracy were horoughly es ablished a d u cha ged, here were public sec or adap a io s of ma ageme heory. he row of impor s from he priva e sec or ook place a d he mos impor a is he scie ific ma ageme . ha was explai ed by pre e di g ha Public Ma ageme is able o be o -poli ical a d he ce he opera io al me hods used i he public sec or would be he same as hose used i he priva e sec or. Bu he larger was e is s ill huma resources, like huma effor s, which go o every day hrough such of our ac s as are blu deri g, ill-direc ed or i efficie , a d which referred o as a lack of &quo ; a io al efficie cy&quo ;. Scie ific Ma ageme School he basic assump io of his school is he philosophy ha workers, a he opera io al level, are eco omically mo iva ed a d ha hey will pu for h heir bes effor s if hey are rewarded fi a cially. he emphasis is o maximum ou pu wi h mi imum s rai , elimi a i g was e a d efficie cy. he work of Frederick Wi slow aylor domi a es he hi ki g of his &quo ;school&quo ;. Biography of F. aylor Frederick Wi slow aylor (1856-1915) was a mecha ical e gi eer whose wri i gs o efficie cy a d scie ific ma ageme were widely read. aylor devised he sys em he called scie ific ma ageme , a form of i dus rial e gi eeri g ha es ablished he orga isa io of work. he mai goal of his heory was o i crease produc ivi y. A d a he same ime he did o favour u io s or i dus rial democracy. ha 's why his heory is regarded as au hori aria s yle of admi is ra io . Efficie cy was he mos impor a heme of aylor's works. As a s eel works ma ager i Philadelphia, he was i eres ed i k owi g how o ge more work ou of workers, who are &quo ; a urally lazy a d e gage i sys ema ic soldieri g.&quo ; his a i ude, he fou d, was co ribu ed o by poor ma ageme . He observed &quo ;whe a a urally e erge ic ma works for a few days beside a lazy o e, he logic of he si ua io is u a swerable. &quo ;Why should I work hard whe he lazy fellow ge s he same pay ha I do a d does o ly half as much work?&quo ;.

He proposed usi g scie ific research me hods o discover he o e bes way o do a job. aylor's effor s were rese ed by u io s a d ma agers alike: ma agers because heir i ui io a d discre io were challe ged, u io s because heir roles were ques io ed. aylor was fired from his origi al job i Philadelphia. He he we o Be hlehem S eel, where he agai was fired af er hree years. he u io s, i dig a by his ime, were i s rume al i ge i g his me hods i ves iga ed by a special co gressio al commi ee; hey succeeded i forbiddi g he use of &quo ;s op wa ches&quo ; a d &quo ;bo uses&quo ; i army arse als u il World War II. However, his co cep s spread o Europe a d Grea Bri ai a d received impe us i he Sovie U io af er he Revolu io . Ma y mai ai ha his moveme represe s ech iques o ly a d &quo ;hi ders&quo ; he developme of a philosophy. Co cep io of Frederic aylor ayrol's a i ude oward work was ha ma a d machi e are similar. He s a ed ha &quo ;i is o si gle eleme , bu ra her his whole combi a io , ha co s i u es scie ific ma ageme , which may be summarised as: Scie ce, o rule of humb; Harmo y, o discord; Co-opera io , o i dividualism; Maximum ou pu , i place of res ric ed ou pu ; he Developme of each ma o his grea es efficie cy a d prosperi y.&quo ; aylor believed ha he bes ma ageme is he rue scie ce, res i g upo clearly defi ed laws, rules, a d pri ciples of scie ific ma ageme which are applicable o all ki ds of huma ac ivi ies, from our simple i dividual ac s o he work of our grea corpora io s, which call for he mos elabora e co-opera io . He also believed ha whe ever hese pri ciples correc ly applied, resul s mus follow which are ruly. aylor expou ded several basic pri ciples: 1) o ga her all radi io al k owledge a d classify, abula e, a d reduce i o rules, laws, a d formulas so as o help workers i heir daily work. 2) o develop a scie ce of each eleme of ma 's work o replace he rule-of- humb me hod. 3) o scie ifically selec a d he rai , each, a d develop he worker. 4) o co-opera e wi h workers o e sure is do e accordi g o developed scie ce pri ciples. 5) o effec a almos equal divisio of work a d respo sibili y be wee workers a d ma agers are o be give work for which hey are bes fi ed, as are employees. He fel ha fas er work could be assured o ly hrough: 1)e forced s a dardisa io of me hods2)e forced adap a io of bes i s rume s a d worki g co di io s3)e forced co-opera io Scie ific ma ageme as a process i volves: 1) ime-a d-mo io s udies o decide a s a dard for worki g; 2) a wage-i ce ive sys em ha was a modifica io of he piecework me hod already i exis e ce; 3)cha gi g he fu c io al orga isa io . Al hough he has ' i ve ed ime-a d-mo io s udies bu did carry hem ou more horoughly ha predecessors. Amo g he experime s he performed o prove his heory were: 1. Work s udy:O e experime de ailed moveme s of workers i a shop a d sugges ed shor cu s or more efficie ways of performi g cer ai opera io s. Wi hi hree years he ou pu of he shop had doubled. 2. S a dardised ools for shops:I a o her area he fou d ha he coal shovels bei g used weighed from 16 o 38 pou ds.

Af er experime i g, i was fou d ha 21-22 pou ds was he bes weigh . Agai , af er hree years 140 me were doi g wha had previously bee do e by be wee 400 a d 600 me . 3. Selec io a d rai i g of workers: aylor i sis ed ha each worker be assig ed o do wha he was bes sui ed for a d ha hose who exceeded he defi ed work be paid &quo ;bo uses.&quo ; Produc io , as migh be expec ed, rose o a all- ime high. aylor, as a resul of hese experime s, advoca ed assig me of supervisors by &quo ;fu c io &quo ; - ha is, o e for rai i g, o e for discipli e, e c. his fu c io al approach is evide oday i ma y orga isa io s, i cludi g libraries. aylor ook ma y of his co cep s from he bureaucra ic model developed by Max Weber, par icularly i regard o rules a d procedures for he co duc of work i orga isa io s. Weber, he firs o ar icula e a heory of au hori y s ruc ure i orga isa io s, dis i guished be wee power a d au hori y, be wee compelli g ac io a d volu ary respo se. He ide ified hree charac eris ics which aided au hori y: 1) charisma (perso ali y)2) radi io (cus om)3) bureaucracy ( hrough rules a d regula io s) he co cep of bureaucracy developed abou he same ime as scie ific ma ageme , a d hough s o specialisa io of work, levels of au hori y, a d co rol all emerged from Weber's wri i gs. Weber was more co cer ed wi h he s ruc ure of he orga isa io i which people perform heir work roles, ra her ha wi h he i dividual. Mos of his wri i gs a d research rela ed o he impor a ce of specialisa io i labour, regula io s a d procedures, a d he adva ages of a hierarchical sys em i maki g i formed decisio s. Lu her Gulick a d Ly dal Urvick's Pri cipals of Admi is ra io he culmi a io of he Pri ciples of Admi is ra io Approach was he publica io of Lu her Gulick a d Ly dall Urwick's Papers o he Scie ce of Admi is ra io . I ha ime, 1937, public admi is ra io scholars had come o believe i a s a ic se of pri ciples by which a y orga isa io could be desig ed or i s fu c io improved. hese pri ciples, implied ha orga isa io s were very much like machi es, a d ha ma agers could follow a se of formulae o maximise heir efficie cy. Lu her Gulick a d Ly dall Urwick are k ow i he world for he work &quo ; o es o a heory of Orga iza io &quo ; issued i 1937. hey developed he acro ym POSDCORB o describe he admi is ra ive fu c io s of ma agers. POSDCORB s a ds for: Pla i g - Prepari g me hodical pla s for ma agi g programs; Orga isi g - Crea i g he differe sub-u i s of he orga isa io ; S affi g - Hiri g compe e employees o fill vaca cies; Direc i g - Issui g direc ives wi h ime a d performa ce cri eria; Co-ordi a i g - I errela i g employees' effor efficie ly; Repor i g - repor s for superiors; Budge i g - Prepari g a d execu i g budge s. A alysis of wo s a ds A of e repea ed cri icism of he scie ific ma ageme approach is ha i overemphasised produc ivi y a d u deremphasised huma a ure. his cri icism is well expressed by Ami ai E zio i, who wro e ha &quo ;al hough aylor origi ally se ou o s udy he i erac io be wee huma charac eris ics a d he charac eris ics of he machi e, he rela io ship be wee hese wo eleme s which make up he i dus rial work process, he e ded up by focusi g o a far more limi ed subjec : he physical charac eris ics of he huma body i rou i e jobs - e.g

Ogle's conception of the monster caused him to tease his hair and to apparently cover his face with partially dried Bisquick. That film was produced by Thomas Edison. The same archetype is on view today as the subject of the CBS television series The Incredible Hulk, which has managed to combine two of the archetypes we are discussing here . . . and to do so with a fair amount of success ( The Incredible Hulk can be seen as a Werewolf story as well as a Thing story). Although I have to say that each transformation from David Banner into the Hulk leaves me wondering where the hell the guy's shoes go to and how he gets them back.* * "Ole greenskin is back," my seven-year-old son Joe is apt to say comfortably when David Banner begins his shirt-ripping, pants-shredding transformation. Joe quite rightly sees the Hulk not as a frightening agent of chaos but as a blind force of nature fated only to do good. Oddly enough, the comforting lesson that many horror movies seem to teach the young is that fate is kind. Not a bad lesson at all for the little people, who so rightly see themselves as hostages to forces larger than themselves

1. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

2. The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century

3. The profile of an effective manager

4. Under what conditions will the oligopolists agree to co-operate in their decisions

5. The Higher school and the ways to science

6. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
7. Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children
Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children
8. Ukraine. The long road to independence
Ukraine. The long road to independence

9. The Global Money Markets and Money Management

10. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

11. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

12. The Economy of Great Britain

13. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

14. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

15. The Church of England

16. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

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Раздел: Наборы для кормления

17. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

18. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

19. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

20. История развития компьютеров (Silicon Valley, its history & the best companies)

21. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

22. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)
23. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
24. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation
Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

25. Regulation in telecommunications industries: Why, What and How to Regulate?

26. Russia and the international economy

27. The Archangel Cathedral

28. The capturing

29. The cinema in Russia today

30. The fastest computers of the world

31. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

32. The Irish and South America

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Раздел: Фильтры для воды

33. The People Trade

34. The Renaissance

35. The royal family (Королевское семейство)

36. The US Economy after September 11th. Decline or Rapid Growth? (Экономика США после 11-ого сентября. Снижение или Быстрый Рост?)

37. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

38. Список мирового наследия (The World Heritage List, на английском языке)
39. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
40. The Economy of Great Britain
The Economy of Great Britain

41. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

42. The New-York City, Places of interest

43. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

44. The Tower of London

45. The diabetic diet

46. Control in management

47. The history of Old English and its development

48. Myth of managment

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Раздел: Бумажные куклы

49. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

50. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

51. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

52. How to write exam essay

53. Entertainment outside the home: Pubs and clubs Leisure and sports

54. Education in the Middle Ages
Education in the Middle Ages
55. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
56. The Beatles
The Beatles

57. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars

58. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

59. The Smashing Pumpkins

60. Rome and the Roman Empire

61. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

62. The fastest computers of the world

63. The diabetic diet

64. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?

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1498 руб
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Раздел: Обучающие, игровые

65. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)

66. Education in the Middle Ages

67. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

68. Printing problem led to first air conditioner

69. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

70. Двойственность Познания по Учению Св. Григория Паламы (Double Knowledge According to Gregory Palamas)
71. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
72. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

73. Myth of managment

74. Country Study, Slovenia: Winning the Transitional Economies Race

75. Transitional Success: USSR to EU

76. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

77. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

78. the Great Sailor

79. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

80. The JAZZ Story

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Раздел: Фляжки сувенирные

81. The Taming of the Shrew

82. Анализ деятельности the Coca-Cola company

83. The Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis

84. Quality of life and management of living resources

85. Hatfield and the North

86. Education in the USA
Education in the USA
87. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada
The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

89. История английского языка по книге Bill Bryson The Mother Tongue

90. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

91. The balanced scorecard (новые возможности для эффективного управления)

92. History of the USA

93. Метафорический потенциал слова и его реализация в поэме Т.С. Элиота The Waste Land

94. Earth Impacts as a Threat to Civilization

95. The United States of America

96. Какая технология CTP (COMPUTER-TO-PLATE) окажется в выигрыше: с фиолетовым лазером или термо?

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Раздел: Более 24 цветов
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Размер: 200х200 см. Материал: полиэстер. В комплекте 12 крючков.
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346 руб
Раздел: Прочие

97. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

98. Are young people today slaves to fashion?

99. The US Educational System

Поиск Рефератов на сайте za4eti.ru Вы студент, и у Вас нет времени на выполнение письменных работ (рефератов, курсовых и дипломов)? Мы сможем Вам в этом помочь. Возможно, Вам подойдет что-то из ПЕРЕЧНЯ ПРЕДМЕТОВ И ДИСЦИПЛИН, ПО КОТОРЫМ ВЫПОЛНЯЮТСЯ РЕФЕРАТЫ, КУРСОВЫЕ И ДИПЛОМНЫЕ РАБОТЫ. 
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