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Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

History of english language

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1. he old Germa ic la guages, heir classifica io a d pri cipal fea ures he his ory of he Germa ic group begi s wi h he appeara ce of wha is k ow as he Pro o-Germa ic la guage. As he I do-Europea s ex e ded over a large erri ory, he a cie Germa s or eu o s moved fur her or h ha o her ribes a d se led o he sou her coas of he Bal ic Sea i he regio of he Elbe. PG is a e irely pre-his orical la guage: i was ever recorded i wri e form. he firs me io of Germa ic ribes was made by Pi heas, a Greek his oria a d geographer of he 4 h. C.B.C. i COMME ARIES O HE GALLIC WAR. I he 1s c. A.D. Pli y he Elder, a promi e Roma scie is a d wri er, i A URAL HISRORY made a classified lis of Germa ic ribes groupi g hem u der six headi gs. aci us – he Roma his oria – compiled a de ailed descrip io of he life a d cus oms of he a cie eu o s. Accordi g o his divisio PG spli i o hree bra ches: Eas Germa ic (Vi dili i Pli y’s classifica io ), or h Germa ic (Hillevo ies) a d Wes Germa ic (which embraces I gveo es, Is evo es a d Hermi o es), Eas Germa ic. he Eas Germa ic subgroup was formed by he ribes who re ur ed from Sca di avia a he begi i g of our era. he mos umerous a d powerful of hem were Go hs. heir wes er bra ch, he Visigo e, i vaded Roma erri ory. Li guis ically he Wes er Go hs were soo absorbed by he a ive popula io , he Roma ised Cel s. he Eas er Go hs, Os rogo e, co solida ed i o a powerful ribal allia ce i he lower basi of he D ies er. hey se up a ki gdom i or her I aly. he Go hic la guage, ow dead, has bee preserved i wri e records of he 4 h – 6 h ce ury. he Go hs were he firs of he eu o s o become Chris ia . I he 4 h c. Ulfilas, a Wes Go hic bishop, made a ra sla io of he Gospels from Greek i o Go hic usi g a modified form of he Greek alphabe . I is wri e o red parchme wi h silver a d golde le ers a d is k ow as he SILVER CODEX. I is o e of he earlies ex s i hela guages of he Germa ic group. or h Germa ic. he or h Germa ic ribes lived o he sou her coas of he Sca di avia pe i sula a d i or her De mark. hey did ’ ake par i he migra io s a d were rela ively isola ed. he speech of he or h Germa ic ribes showed li le dialec al varia io u il he 9 h c. a d called Old orse or Old Sca di avia . I has come dow o us i ru ic i scrip io s. RI were carved o objec s made of hard ma erial i a origi al Germa ic alphabe k ow as he ru ic alphabe or he ru es. he pri cipal li guis ic differe ia io i Sca di avia correspo ded o he poli ical divisio i o Swede , De mark a d orway. he earlies wri e records i Old Da ish, Old orwegia a d Old Swedish da e from he 13 h c. La er Da ish a d Swedish developed i o a io al li erary la guages. orwegia was he las o develop i o a i depe de a io al la guage. Also his group i clude he Icela dic a d Faroese la guages, whose origi goes back o he Viki g Age. I he Faroe Isla ds he Wes orwegia dialec s brough by he Sca di avia s developed i o a separa e la guage called Faroese. For ma y ce uries all wri i g was do e i Da ish, i was u il 18 h c. Faroese is spoke owadays by abou 30.000 people. Icela dic developed as a separa e la guage i spi e of he poli ical depe de ce of Icela d upo De mark a d he domi a ce of Da ish i official spheres.

Icela dic has re ai ed a more archaic vocabulary a d gramma ical sys em, Wri e records da e from he 12 h a d 13 h c. he mos impor a records are: he ELDER EDDA- a collec io of heroic so gs of he 12 h c., he YOU GER EDDA (a ex -book for poe s) a d Old Icela dic Sagas. Wes Germa ic. he would-be Wes Germa ic ribes dwel i he Lowla ds be wee he Oder a d he Elbe borderi g o he Slavo ia ribes i he Eas a d he Cel ic ribes i he Sou h. he Wes Germa s i clude several ribes: he Fra co ia s (or Fra ks), occupied he lower basi of he Rhi e. hey divided i o Low, Middle a d High Fra co ia s. he A gles a f he Frisia s, he Ju es a d he Saxo s i habi ed he coas al area of he moder e herla ds, he Federal Republic of Germa y a d he sou her par of De mark. A group of ribes k ow as High Germa s ( he Alema ia s, he Swabia s, he Bavaria s, he huri gia s a d o hers) lived i he mou ai ous sou her regio s of he Federal Republic of Germa y. I he Early Middle Ages he Fra ks co solida ed i o a powerful ribal allia ce. owards he 8 h c. heir ki gdom grew i o o e of he larges s a es i Wes er Europe. I he 9 h c. i broke up i o par s. I s wes er par eve ually became he basis of Fra ce. he eas er par , he eas Fra co ia Empire, comprised several ki gdoms: Swabia or Alema ia, Bavaria, Eas Fra co ia a d Saxo y, Lorrai e a d Friesla d. he Fra co ia dialec s were spoke i he ex reme or h of he Empire; i he la er Middle Ages hey develop i o Du ch – he la guage of he Low Cou ries ( he e herla ds) a d Flemish – he la guage of Fla ders. he earlies ex s i Low Fra co ia da e from he 10 h c. he moder la guage of he e herla ds, formerly called Du ch, a d i s varia i Belgium, k ow as he Flemish dialec , are ow rea ed as a si gle la guage, e herla dish (20 ml people). he High Germa group of ribes did o go far i heir migra io . he High Germa dialec s co solida ed i o a commo la guage k ow as Old High Germa . he firs wri e records i OHG da e from he 8 h a d 9 h c. owards he 12 h c. High Germa had i ermixed wi h eighbori g o gues, especially Middle a d High Fra co ia , a d eve ually developed i o he li erary Germa la guage. (100 ml people) Yiddish grew from he High Germa dialec s which were adop ed by umerous Jewish commu i ies i he 11 h a d 12 h c. hese dialec s ble ded wi h eleme s of Hebrew a d Slavo ic. A he la er s age of he grea migra io period – i he 5 h c. – a group of Wes Germa ic ribes s ar ed ou o heir i vasio of he Bri ish Isles. hey were he A gles, par of he Saxo a d Frisia , a d, probably, he Ju es. heir dialec s i he Bri ish Isles developed i o he E glish la guage. 2. he chro ological divisio of he His ory of E glish. Ge eral charac eris ics of he OE la guage he his orical developme of a la guage is a co i uous u i errup ed process wi hou sudde breaks or rapid ra sforma io . he commo ly accep ed, radi io al periodisa io divides E glish his ory i o hree periods: Old E glish, Middle E glish, a d ew E glish, wi h bou daries a ached o defi i e da es a d his orical eve s affec i g he la guage. OE begi s wi h he Germa ic se leme of Bri ai (5 h c.) or wi h begi i g of wri i g (7 h c.)

a d e ds o he orma Co ques (1066), ME begi s wi h he orma Co ques a d e ds o he i roduc io of pri i g (1475), which is he s ar of he Moder or ew E glish; he ew period las s o he prese day. he His ory of he E glish la guage ca be subdivided i o seve periods. he firs – pre-wri e or pre-his orical period, which may be ermed Early Old E glish, las s from he Wes Germa ic i vasio of Bri ai ill he begi i g of wri i g, ha is from he 5 h o he close of he 7 h c. I is he s age of ribal dialec s of he Wes Germa ic i vaders (A gels, Saxo , Ju es a d Frisia s) he ribal dialec s were used for oral commu ica io , here were o wri e form of E glish. he seco d his orical period ex e ds from he 8 h c. ill he e d of he 11 h. he E glish la guage of ha ime is referred o as Old E glish or A glo-Saxo ; i ca also be called Wri e OE. he ribal dialec s gradually cha ged i o local or regio al dialec s. owards he e d of he period he differe ces be wee he dialec s grew a d heir rela ive posi io al ered. OE was a ypical OG la guage, wi h a purely Germa ic vocabulary, a d few foreig borrowi gs; i displayed specific pho e ic peculiari ies. As far as grammar is co cer ed, OE was a i flec ed la guage wi h a well-developed sys em of morphological ca egories, especially i he ou a d adjec ive. he hird period, k ow as Early Middle E glish, s ar s af er 1066, he year of he orma Co ques , a d covers 12, 13, a d half of he 14 h c. I was he s age of he grea es dialec ical diverge ce caused by he feudal sys em a d by foreig i flue ces – Sca di avia a d Fre ch. he dialec ical divisio of prese day E glish owes i s origi o his period of his ory. U der orma rule he official la guage i E gla d was Fre ch. he local dialec s were mai ly used for oral commu ica io a d were bu li le employed i wri i g. Early ME was a ime of grea cha ges a all levels of he la guage, especially i grammar a d lexis. E glish absorbed 2 layers of lexical borrowi gs: he Sca di avia eleme i he or h-Eas er area a d he Fre ch eleme i he speech of ow speople i he So h-eas . Pho e ic a d gramma ical cha ges proceeded a a high ra e, u res ric ed by wri e radi io . he for h period – from he la er 14 h c. ill he e d of he 15 h – embraces he age of Chauser. We may call i La e or Classical Middle E glish. I was he ime of he res ora io of E glish o he posi io of he s a e a d li erary la guage a d he ime of li erary flourishi g. he mai dialec used i wri i g a d li era ure was he mixed dialec of Lo do . he pho e ic a d gramma ical s ruc ure had i corpora ed a d perpe ua ed he fu dame al cha ges of he precedi g period. Mos of he i flec io s i he omi al sys em – i ou s, adjec ives, pro ou s – had falle oge her. he verb sys em was expa di g, as umerous ew a aly ical forms a d verbal phrases o he way o becomi g a aly ical forms were used alo gside old simple forms. he fif h period – Early ew E glish – las ed from he i roduc io of pri i g o he age of Shakespeare, ha is from 1475 o c. 1660. he firs pri ed book i E glish was published by William Cax o i 1475. his period is a sor of ra si io be wee wo ou s a di g epochs of li erary effloresce ce: he age of Chaucer a d he age of Shakespeare.

As with British colonial aggression, which consolidated itself with the chalk and the blackboard, the tools of American cultural imperialism are often more lasting and more devastating than physical acts of aggression. Several postcolonial writers testify to the lasting and devastating psychic fractures rooted in colonial(ist) educational systems. This history is significant in terms of understanding some of the causes of expatriation and exile. Mental colonizations result in states of exile — physical displacements and metaphoric exile within one's own culture, to which, given one's education, one un-belongs. The English language is a shared legacy of British colonialism. Language, culture, and power are integrally related, especially within a colonial history that imposed the English language and British educational systems. The economic and psychological repercussions of English-language interventions as a language of power among colonized peoples who spoke other languages are part of postcolonial societies today

1. The history of English

2. The history of grammatical study of the English language

3. Подготовка к TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language

4. Types of tests used in English Language Teaching Bachelor Paper

5. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

6. Lexicology of the English Language
Lexicology of the English Language
7. Сборник диалогов по английскому языку для развития устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)
8. The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages
The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages

9. History of runic alphabets

10. Why do we learn English language?

11. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

12. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

13. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

14. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

15. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

16. History of the USA

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20. The English language

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23. The system of english tenses
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25. The history of Manhattan

26. History of Belarus

27. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

28. French Borrowings in the Modern English Language

29. History of Homeschooling in USA

30. Study of advertising language

31. The history of Germany and tourism

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34. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

35. Interactive method of teaching English grammar

36. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

37. Socio-cultural foundations of east-european&Russian geopolitics english

38. Linguistic Pecularities Of Contracts in English
Linguistic Pecularities Of Contracts in English
39. Survival of the Welsh Language
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40. Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin
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41. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

42. Reculiarites of Teaching English

43. Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary

44. Syntax and semantics of verbals in English

45. The origin of language

46. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

47. The Tower of London

48. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought. Testosterone

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49. Humane approches to toxicological evaluations of industrial chemicals

50. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

51. The Economy of Great Britain

52. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

53. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

54. The Church of England
The Church of England
55. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns
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56. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

57. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

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59. История развития компьютеров (Silicon Valley, its history & the best companies)

60. Башня Лондона (Tower of London)

61. English Course Work on Newspaper Reading

62. English topics

63. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought Evolution

64. Irish history

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68. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

69. The role of art in our life

70. Three Waves of Alvin Toffler. The Basic Points
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71. Вордлисты из учебника "Oxford Intermediate English Course"
72. Лингвистический фон деловой корреспонденции (Linguistic Background of Business Correspondence)

73. Ten reasons for a tradition of modernity

74. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

75. Britney Spears - princess of pop

76. The Economy of Great Britain

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78. English Literature books summary

79. Translatioin of Political Literature

80. The profile of an effective manager

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82. Сравнительные степени прилагательных и наречий (Comparison) Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs) Цепочки существительных (Атрибутивная, номинативная группа) (Chains of nouns)

83. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

84. Myth of managment

85. Modern English Word-Formation

86. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
87. Personality of Hamlet
Personality of Hamlet
88. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

89. Indirect speech acts in modern English discourse. - Косвенные речевые акты в современном английском дискурсе

90. The house of my dream

91. Темы по английскому языку (English topics)

92. How do I like unusual methods of teaching? (DEAD POETS SOCIETY)

93. Socrates` conception of philosophy

94. Спецподразделения Армии Израиля: "Голани" (Special forces in Army of Israel Golani)

95. Critical Review of Daniel Sprick’s “Release Your Plans”

96. California & Los-Angeles. Places of interest

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97. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

98. Personality of Hamlet

99. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)


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