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Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

The Language of Narrative Writing

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YEREVA S A E LI GUIS IC U IVERSI Y AF ER V. BRUSOV ERM PAPER I LE: HE LA GUAGE OF HE ARRA IVE WRI I GYEREVA - 2009 Co e sI roduc io Chap er O e. ech iques of arra ive Wri i g 1.1 Selec i g a opic 1.2 Selec i g De ails 1.3 Orga izi g I forma io Chap er wo. Major Fu c io s of arra io 2.1 I formi g by arra i g 2.2 Objec ive arra ives 2.3 A ecdo es a d Illus ra io s 2.4 arra i g a Process 2.5 E er ai i g by arra i g 2.6 he S ory 2.7 he Se i g 2.8 he Plo 2.9 he Sce e 2.10 he Summary Co clusio Bibliography I roduc io he prese paper explores he peculiari ies of arra ive wri i g from he view poi of i s s ruc ure, fu c io s a d ypes. arra io is a ac of elli g a s ory. I is o jus elli g a s ory, bu i is also elli g a s ory of a seque ce of real or fic io al eve s - which seems o be a more a ural ac ivi y for mos people ha , say, givi g direc io s or describi g a sce e. arra io is he ki d of wri i g ha a swers he ques io , “Wha happe ed?” he expressio “ arra ive wri i g&quo ; covers a e ormous erri ory. arra ives vary i le g h from a few se e ces o lo g s ories. Some arra ives are based o ac ual experie ce, some are e irely fic i ious, a d o hers use a mix ure of ru h a d fic io . Some arra ives are mea o amuse, o hers i form or co vey a message o readers. arra ives appear i ma y forms, i cludi g poe ry, “regular” prose s ories, a d drama o he s age, i film, or o elevisio . I shor you are surrou ded by arra ives every day, some of hem i pri , ma y i he elec ro ic media, a d o hers passed alo g orally. Good arra ives ca be spoke jus as well as wri e , bu audie ces expec more polish a d s ruc ure i wri e work. hough arra ives of e make serious poi s, ma y arra ives are mea o amuse. Mos readers e joy ligh hear ed or humorous s ories, eve if he experie ces were o humorous o he people i volved a he ime. Some readers are also e er ai ed by scary s ories, which may be abou arrow escapes a d o her frigh e i g mome s i he wri ers’ lives. he paper co sis s of a i roduc io , wo chap ers, a co clusio a d bibliography. I roduc io reveals he ge eral guideli es of he paper. Chap er o e prese s he major ech iques of arra ive wri i g. Chap er wo co ce ra es o ypes a d fu c io s of arra ive wri i g, sig i g ou i formi g by arra i g a d e er ai i g by arra i g. Co clusio summarizes he resul s a d ou comes we have come o i he course of he research. Chap er O e. ech iques of arra ive Wri i g o o e k ows for how ma y housa ds of year’s people have bee elli g a d lis e i g o arra ives, bu we do k ow ha every cul ure has a s ory elli g radi io ; eve i does o have a wri i g sys em. Well before Homo sapie s lear ed o read a d wri e, hey had evide ly framed much of heir wisdom i s ory form. Fic io has always bee a a ural vehicle for people o commu ica e heir experie ces, fa asies, a d fears. Similarly, childre deligh i s ories lo g before hey are able o read or wri e. Almos as soo as a child has lear ed o alk, she ca e joy o o ly lis e i g o s ories, bu maki g up her ow as well. She may pre e d, for example, ha her s uffed a imal is alive a d wa s a cookie, or she may scold a doll for some imagi ary misbehavior.

hese baby s ories become more elabora e as he child acquires more experie ces o weave i o her fic io , a d she will of e develop her ow versio of a s ory she has heard. We adul s gossip, share jokes, complai abou wha happe ed o us his mor i g, specula e abou he fu ure. A d i elli g eve hese i formal ales, we are likely o pay careful a e io o he seque ce of he eve s we are speaki g abou . Because s ories crea e a order ha life lacks, we a urally draw upo arra ive. o make se se of our lives, we eed o hi k of begi i gs, middles, a d e di gs, a d we use hese fic io s o ry o orga ize he pas , he prese a d he fu ure. (Surmelia 92) hough arra ives of e make serious poi s, ma y arra ives are mea o amuse. Mos readers e joy ligh hear ed or humorous s ories, eve if he experie ces were o humorous o he people i volved a he ime. Some readers are also e er ai ed by scary s ories, which may be abou arrow escapes a d o her frigh e i g mome s i he wri ers’ lives. Such s ories may simply hrill readers, or hey may be he basis for a serious poi . Wri ers some imes rela e embarrassi g mome s, o ecessarily o co vey serious messages, bu o amuse a d o share hose experie ces wi h readers. Whe her arra ives co vey a serious poi or simply e er ai , hey express mai ideas a d back hem up wi h suppor i g i forma io . I o her words, arra ives follow he mai pri ciples of paragraph wri i g: Prese a opic idea (of e i a opic se e ce a he begi i g) Suppor ha opic idea wi h he o her se e ces I arra ive wri i g, you will co i ue o apply hese pri ciples: 1. Selec a d refi e he opic so ha a mai idea is s a ed clearly i he opic se e ce. I arra ives, he mai idea will probably deal wi h co flic or emo io al respo se o co flic . 2. Selec appropria e, vivid suppor i g de ails. I arra ives, he de ails will ell abou ime, place, ac io s, a d people’s mo ives a d reac io s. 3.orga ize he i forma io so ha readers will be able o u ders a d a d follow he s ory. I arra ives, chro ological arra geme is ormal. A y shif s i ime (or place) mus be made clear o he reader. (Karls/Szma ski 110-111). 1.1 Selec i g a opicFor arra ives, as for o her ki ds of wri i g, look for possible opics i your ow life: your backgrou d, experie ces, i eres s, a d firs ha d observa io of o her people. You will wri e bes whe you wri e abou hi gs ha really ma er o you: perso al experie ces, beliefs, worries, impressio s, a d k owledge i specific areas. You may begi wi h ma y possible opics. Brai s ormi g will produce rela ed ideas, or some imes lead you o a eve be er opic. Before wri i g, you mus exami e he possible opics a d suppor i g ideas. he goal is o arrow your focus o specific i s a ce. O e way o arrow a broad opic is o limi he ime a d place o a few mi u es (or maybe a few hours) a d o par icular place. For example, suppose you e joy hu i g, fishi g, a d explori g i parks a d fores s, you also work o a co s ruc io crew. You could ell ma y s ories based o your experie ces, bu for a brief arra ive, you would limi yourself o o e brief ime i o e specific place. Ideally, you would selec a episode ha s a ds ou i your mi d as drama ic or memorable.

I his paragraph, he s ude wri er limi ed himself o o e brief bu drama ic mome : Las Oc ober, I was ou i he woods wi h a work crew, cu i g a surveyi g li e for a gas pipeli e. We go o a cleari g a d decided o ake a break. Seco ds af er I fou d a ree o lea agai s , I heard he crackle of u derbrush breaki g. I ur ed o look a d saw a huge bear raci g righ a me. I remembered ha I was armed wi h o ly a mache e a d a walkie- alkie. I udged a guy ear me. We s ood here helpless wi h our mou hs ope a d our eyes he size of fryi g pa s. he bear kep comi g u il i was abou fif ee fee away. Sudde ly i saw us. I had ever before see a bear wi h a surprised look o i s face. Wi hi a seco d, i lurched back i o he woods. Bu before we could brea he a sigh of relief, a o her big bear came rushi g oward us. Whe i go wi hi abou seve fee a d saw us, i also dashed i o he woods. Our hear s were pou di g. Whe we recovered a li le, we decided ha he ex ime we work i he woods; we should go be er prepared for he u expec ed. (Karls J. / Szma ski R.112-113). 1.2 Selec i g De ailsWhe you have a workable opic i mi d, some de ails will occur o you immedia ely, a d o hers will spri g o mi d as you brai s orm a d wri e your firs draf s. You wa o selec he bes de ails you ca . ha mea s selec i g releva , vivid de ails. A imes, you may hi k of a drama ic mome , full of colorful de ails sure o grab your readers’ a e io a d hold heir i eres . If so, wri i g comes more easily, excep ha you may o have a mai idea u il you hi k abou he s ory la er. A o her imes, you may be wri i g simply o share a i eres i g or amusi g experie ce; your mai idea may be implied. Besides usi g de ails o make he sce e vivid, you mus provide he de ails readers eed i order o u ders a d he si ua io . Whe you wri e you firs draf , you will pu i some appropria e de ails; you may also e d wi h some irreleva o es. As you revise, you mus co sider which de ails really ma er. You wa o i clude de ails ha help suppor your mai idea. he goal i selec i g de ails sou ds qui e simple a d obvious: ell he readers wha hey eed o k ow, o hi g more a d o hi g less. elli g he readers more ha hey eed o k ow slows hem dow . elli g hem less ha hey eed o k ow leave hem puzzli g over he ime, place, or si ua io . By i cludi g e ough de ails, bu o ly appropria e de ails, you will give readers he i forma io hey eed. I his paragraph, a s ude wri er shares a drama ic a d amusi g mome . I am a firefigh er wi h he ci y fire depar me . Las fall, I respo ded o a fire call repor ed by a eighbor as “smoke i he house ex door”. Upo arrival, we do ed our self co ai ed brea hi g appara us a d e ered he house o do a primary search a d rescue. We discovered ha a mea loaf was bur i g i he ove , causi g he ki che a d much of he house o fill wi h smoke. I quickly ex i guished he mea loaf, he focus o searchi g for possible vic ims. I rushed arou d, hopi g I would ’ fi d a yo e home, bu k owi g I had o check everywhere o be sure. Upo e eri g he ba hroom, I came upo a lady soaki g i he ub. She was lis e i g o loud music a d appare ly had ’ heard a hi g.

As a developer, you can use either the C# or VB.NET language to write applications for the Windows Mobile platform. All the functionalities required by your applications can be satisfied by: □ The class libraries in the .NET CF, and/or □ APIs at the OS level via Platform Invoke (P/Invoke), and/or □ Alternative third-party class libraries such as the OpenNetCF's Smart Device Extension (SDE) You can determine the versions of the .NET Compact Framework currently installed on your Windows Mobile device by going to Start→File Explorer and launching the cgacutil.exe utility located in \Windows. Figure 18-4 shows the version of the .NET CF installed on a Windows Mobile emulator (more on this later). Figure 18-4 Windows Mobile 5.0 devices comes with the .NET CF 1.0 preinstalled in ROM, whereas the newer Windows Mobile 6 devices come with the .NET CF 2.0 preinstalled in ROM. If your application uses the newer .NET CF v3.5, you will need to install it onto the device before applications based on it can execute

1. The history of grammatical study of the English language

2. The Tower of London

3. The Economy of Great Britain

4. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

5. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

6. The history of railways (История железных дорог)
7. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
8. The Castles of England
The Castles of England

9. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

10. The Tower of London

11. The Economy of Great Britain

12. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

13. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

14. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

15. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

16. The Hero of Our Time

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17. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

18. The house of my dream

19. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

20. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

21. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

22. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”
23. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)
24. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

25. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

26. The profile of an effective manager

27. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

28. The Taming of the Shrew

29. The teaching of Hugo Gratius

30. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

31. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

32. London - the capital of Great Britain

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33. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”

34. The uniqueness of the British

35. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

36. The library of our institute

37. The lesson of English

38. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements
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39. Has the EU reached the limits of integration?
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40. Washington is the capital of the USA
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41. The pride of the nation

42. The constitution of Ukraine

43. The history of Christmas

44. Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony

45. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

46. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

47. The House of Yorks

48. The declaration of independence

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49. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

50. The war of the roses

51. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

52. Is the nature of quantum chaos classical?

53. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

54. The history of Ancient Egypt
The history of Ancient Egypt
55. The Formation of Youth Subcultures
The Formation of Youth Subcultures
56. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance
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57. The Taming of the Shrew

58. The map of England

59. The history of Manhattan

60. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

61. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

62. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

63. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

64. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

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65. Oscar Wilde "The picture of Dorian Gray"

66. The category of Mood

67. The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

68. The history of English

69. The history of grammar theory

70. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using
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71. The origins of the International Socialists
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72. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.
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73. The place of “Macbeth” among Shakespeare’s tragedies

74. The problems of oral translation

75. The Science Of Grammar

76. The system of English verbs

77. What strategy are most effective in the conditions of globalization

78. Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

79. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

80. Ghandi and the myth of non-violent action

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81. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

82. Great Britain: the Land of Traditions

83. The Killing of Percy Casserley

84. The Clash of Civilizations

85. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

86. Lexicology of the English Language
Lexicology of the English Language
87. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion
Word-formation of the English language. Conversion
88. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language
A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

89. The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages

90. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

91. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

92. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

93. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

94. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

95. Подготовка к TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language

96. The fastest computers of the world

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97. Three Waves of Alvin Toffler. The Basic Points

98. The New-York City, Places of interest

99. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense


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