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Биология Биология

The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

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Oleg V. Mosi 1 1 Depar me of Bio ech ology, M. V. Lomo osov S a e Academy of Fi e Chemical ech ology, Ver adskogo Prospek 86, 117571, Moscow, Russia 1. SUMMARY he role of deu erium i molecular evolu io is mos i eres i g ques io of owdays scie ce comprises wo poi s mai ly: he evolu io of deu erium i self as well as he chemical processes goi g wi h par icipa io of deu erium. I is believed he big ba g produce he u iverse ha was much de ser a d ho er ha i is ow a d made almos e irely of wo mai eleme s - hydroge a d helium. Deu erium i self was made o ly a a seco d s age of he begi i g of he u iverse, amely hrough he collisio of o e eu ro wi h o e pro o a a empera ure of abou o e billio degrees; fur hemore he wo formed deu ero s i ur s uck oge her i o helium uclei, which co ai wo pro o s a d wo eu ro s. I is co sidered, ha duri g he forma io of helium uclei, almos all he deu ero s combi ed o form helium uclei, leavi g a i y rema o be de ec ed oday so ha o ly o e i 10.000 deu ero s remai ed u paired. hus, deu erium serves as a par icularly impor a marker. he qua i y of deu erium i co emporary a ure is approxima ely small a d measured as o more ha 0.015% (from he whole umber of hydroge a oms) a d depe ds s ro gly o bo h he u iformi y of subs a ce a d he o al amou of ma er formed i course of early evolu io . O e may sugges , ha he very reliable source of produci g of deu erium heore ically may o be he umerical explosio s of ova s ars, bu deu erium i self is very readily des royed i hose s ars. If i was so, perhaps his was he a swer o he ques io why he qua i y of deu erium i creased sli ely duri g he global cha ges of clima e for wormi g co di io s. he seco d poi is he chemical processi g of deu erium as a resul of his he 2H2O o he firs ha d may be formed from gaseous deu erium a d a omic oxyde a very high empera ure. Pre y i eres i g wi h chemical poi of view seems our ow idea proposed rece ly abou he possible small e richme of primodial e viro me wi h 2H2O. We supposed, ha his fac if really exis ed, may be co di io ed by a powerful elec rical discharges ake place i premodial a mosphere laki g he a ural shield of ozo e a d may be resul i g i elec rolysis processes of H2O, e.g. hose o es are ow used for he e richme of 2H2O. Bu he realiza io of his process wi h prac ical poi of view seems u likely. ever heless, if such process has really occured, he some hydrophobic effec s of 2H2O as well as chemical iso opic effec s should be ake i o accou while discussi g he chemico-physical proper ies of primodial e viro me . Perhaps, i is also a big prac ical i eres o s udy he proper ies of fully deu era ed membrai e s ruc ures composed for example from fully deu era ed lipids a d pro ei s. Ei her way or o , he model of deu erium evolu io provides a framework for predic i g he biochemical co seque ces of such ew fasci a i g ideas. SUMMARY: Deu erium (2H), he hydroge iso ope wi h uclear mass 2, was discovered by Urey. I he years immedia ely followi g his discovery, here developed a kee i eres i developme of me hods for u iform biological e richme of a cell wi h 2H, ha may be bes achived via growi g of a orga ism o medium wi h high co e of 2H2O (99% 2H), which si ce ye resul ed i a miscella y of ra her co fusi g da a (see as a example Ka z J.,

Crespy H. L. 1972). he mai resolu e co clusio ha ca be derived from he mos compe e a d comprehe sive of he early s udies is ha high co ce ra io sof 2H2O are i compa ible wi h life a d reproduc io a d fur hemore could eve causi g eve le hal effec s o a cell. However, oday a ma y cells could be adap ed o 2H2O ei her via employi g a special me hods of adap a io which of hem we shall describe above, or usi g selec ed (or/a d resis e o 2H2O) s rai s of bac erial a d o her origi . I his co ec io he mai i eres i g ques io arises-wha is he a ure of his i eres i g phe ome o of biological adap a io o 2H2O a d wha is he role of life impor a macromolecules (par icularly D A, i dividual pro ei s, a d/or e zymes) i his process? I is seems very likely, ha duri g adap a io o 2H2O he s ruc ure a d co forma io of labeled macromolecules u dergoi g some modifica io s ha are more useful for he worki g i 2H2O-co di io s. U for u a ely, here are a small umber of experime s carried ou wi h fully deu era ed cells, ha could co firmed ha duri g he grow h o 2H2O labeled macromolecules wi h difi ed iso opical s ruc ures a d co forma io s are formed, so ha a discussio abou he role of deu erium o he s ruc ure a d he co forma io of labeled macromolecules i course of biolodical adap a io o 2H2O is s ill ac ual hrough more ha four decades of years af er he firs descrip io of he biological co seque ces of hydroge replaceme by deu erium. o fur her discuss he ma er, we should dis i gueshed mai ly hree aspec s of biological e richme wi h deu erium: chemical, biological a d biophysical aspec s, all of hem are co ec ed i some way wi h he s ruc ure of labeled macromolecules. heore ically, he prese ce of deu erium i biological sys ems cer ai ly could be ma ifes ed i more or less degree by cha ges i he s ruc ure a d he co forma io of macromolecules. ever heless, i is impor a amely wha precise posi io i macromolecule deu erium ocupied a d dipe di g from ha he primary a d seco dary iso opic effec s are dis i gueshied. For example, mos impor a for he s ruc ure of macromolecule he hydroge (deu erium) bo ds form be wee differe par s of he macromolecule a d play a major par i de ermi i g he s ruc ure of macromolecular chai s a d how hese s ruc ures i erac wi h he o hers a d also wi h 2H2O e viro me . A o her impor a weak force is crea ed by he hree-dime io al s ruc ure of wa er (2H2O), which e ds o force hydrophobic groups of macromolecule oge her i order o mi imize heir disrup ive effec o he hydroge (deu erium)-bo ded e work of wa er (2H2O) molecules. O he o her side he screw parame ers of he pro o helix are cha ged by he prese ce of deu erium so ha ordi ary pro ei s dissolved i 2H2O exhibi a more s able helical s ruc ure ( omi a K., Rich A., e all., 1962). While 2H2O probably exer s a s abilizi g effec upo he hree-dime io al hydroge (deu erium)-bo ded helix via formi g ma y perma e a d easily excha geable hydroge (deu erium) bo ds i macromolecule i he prese ce of 2H2O (as a example he followi g ypes of bo ds -COO2H; -O2H; -S2H; - 2H; 2H2 e .), he prese ce of o excha geable deu erium a oms i ami o acid side chai s could o ly be sy hesized de ovo as he species wi h o ly covale bo ds -C2H, causes a decrease i pro ei s abili y.

hese opposi g effec s do o ca cel wi h he case of pro ei macromolecule, a d fully deu era io of a pro ei of e resul s i he des abiliza io . As for he deu era io of D A macromolecule, oday here are o reaso able co sidera io s ha such ega ive effec of 2H2O o he s ruc ure a d fu c io is really exis i i g. ever heless, deu erium subs i u io ca hus be expec ed o modify by cha ges i he s ruc ure a d he co forma io of bo h labeled D A a d pro ei , o o ly he reproduc io l a d divisio sys ems of a cell, a d cy ological or eve mu age ical al era io s of a cell, bu o a grea er or lesser degree of a order of a cell. I should be o ed, however, ha o o ly hese fu c io s bu also he lipid composi io of cell membra e are dras ically cha ged duri g deu era io . he lipid composi io of deu eria ed issue cul ure cells has bee mos compli ely i ves iga ed by a cer ai scie is s (Ro hbla e all., 1963, 1964). As i is repor ed i hese ar icles mammalia cells grow i 30% (v/v) 2H2O co ai more lipid ha do co rol cells. He i crease i he lipids of 2H2O grow cells is due primarily o i creased amou s of riglycerids a d s erol es ers. Radioiso ope experime s i dica e ha he differe s are due o a e ha ced sy hesis of lipid. Mo key kid ey cells grow i 25% (v/v) 2H2O a d or irradia ed wi h X-rays likewise showed i creases of lipid. he 2H2O grow cells co ai ed more squale e, s erol es ers, s erols, a d eu ral fa ha did ei her he co rol of X-irradia ed cells. Phospholipid levels were equal for all groups of cells. hus he effec s of 2H2O o lipid sy hesis are quali a ively qui e similar o hose of radia io damade. A i eris i g observa io ha deserves fur her scru i y rela es o he radia io se si ivi y of deu era ed cells. Usually, cells grow a d irradia ed i 2H2O show much less se sivi y o radia io ha ordi ary cells suspe ded i wa er. Suspe sio of ordi ary cells i 2H2O did o have a y effec o he reduced se si ive y became appare . A serious al era io i cell chemis ry mus be reflec ed i he abili y of he cells o divide i he prese ce of 2H2O a d i he ma er of i s divisio . However, a ma y s a eme s sugges i g ha 2H2O has a specific ac io o cell divisio are commo si ce oday. Probably i may be rue ha rapidly prolifera i g cells are highly se si ive o 2H2O, bu ha deu erium ac s o ly o preve cell divisio is u likely. he rabbi cells grow o medium co ai i g he various co ce ra io s of 2H2O show , ha 2H2O caused a reduc io i cell divisio ra e, a d his effec i creased as he co ce ra io of 2H2O or dura io of exposure, or bo h, were i creased (Lavillaureix e all., 1962). Wi h i creasi g co ce ra io of 2H2O he freque cy of early me aphases i creased, accompa ied by propor io al decreases i he o her phases. I was sugges ed ha 2H2O blocks mi osis i he prophase a d he early me aphase of ma y cells grow i 2H2O. he blockage, however, was overcome if he i i ial co ce ra io of 2H2O was o oo high a d he exposure ime o oo lo g. I experime s wi h eggs of he fresh wa er cichlid fish Aequide s por alegre sis, hey observed ha i 30% 2H2O o ly o e-fif h of he eggs ha hed a d i 50% (v/v) 2H2O o e did so.

What role did our weird sexuality play in our achieving these hallmarks of humanity? Could our sexual distinctiveness be related to our other distinctions from the great apes? In addition to (and probably ultimately as a product of) our upright posture and large brains, those distinctions include our relative hair-lessness, dependence on tools, command of fire, and development of language, art, and writing. If any of these distinctions predisposed us toward evolving our sexual distinctions, the links are certainly unclear. For example, it is not obvious why our loss of body hair should have made recreational sex more appealing, nor why our command of fire should have favored menopause. Instead, I shall argue the reverse: recreational sex and menopause were as important for our development of fire, language, art, and writing as were our upright posture and large brains. The key to understanding human sexuality is to recognize that it is a problem in evolutionary biology. When Darwin recognized the phenomenon of biological evolution in his great book On the Origin of Species, most of his evidence was drawn from anatomy

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3. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

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5. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

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82. The Language of Narrative Writing

83. The origin of language

84. The outline of the period

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86. The problems of oral translation
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87. The Science Of Grammar
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88. The system of English verbs
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89. Historical measurement of the science of governing

90. Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

91. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

92. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

93. Great Britain: the Land of Traditions

94. The Clash of Civilizations

95. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

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99. Sport in different countries of the world


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