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Significance of translation in contemporary life

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Pol ava Korole ko a io al Pedagogical U iversi y he depar me of E glish philology Repor “Sig ifica ce of ra sla io i co emporary life” ( heory a d prac ice of ra sla io ) Work by he seco d year s ude Chev ova Ya a FD-25 he professor: Lapochka V.O. Pol ava, 2010 Pla I roduc io ra sla io s services I dus ry ra sla io services marke Impor a ce of ra sla io i cul ure life Impor a ce of ra sla io i busi ess life Co clusio he lis of he sources 1. I roduc io ra sla io is mea of i erli gual commu ica io . he impor a ce of ra sla i g a d i erpre i g i moder socie y has lo g bee recog ized. Prac ically o a si gle co ac a he i er a io al level or eve be wee a y wo foreig perso s speaki g differe la guages ca be es ablished or mai ai ed wi hou he help of ra sla ors or i erpre ers. Equally impor a is ra sla i g a d i erpre i g for u i errup ed fu c io i g of differe i er a io al bodies (co fere ces, symposia, co gresses, e c.) o say o hi g abou he bodies like he E.E.C.(Europea Eco omic Cou cil), he I.M.F.(l er a io al Mo e ary Fu d) or he U i ed a io s Orga iza io wi h i s umerous cou cils, assemblies, commissio s, commi ees a d sub-commi ees. hese ca fu c io smoo hly o ly ha ks o a army of ra sla ors a d i erpre ers represe i g differe s a es a d worki g i ma y differe a io al la guages. umerous bra ches of a io al eco omies oo ca keep up wi h he up- o-da e developme a d progress i he moder world ha ks o he everyday ra sla i g/i erpre i g of scie ific a d ech ical ma er coveri g various fields of huma k owledge a d ac ivi ies. he la er comprise uclear scie ce, explora io of ou er space, ecological e viro me , plas ics, mi i g, chemis ry, biology, medici e, machi e buildi g, elec ro ics, li guis ics, e c. I he prese days ra sla io of scie ific a d ech ical ma er has become a mos sig ifica a d reliable source of ob ai i g all-rou d a d up- o-da e i forma io o he progress i various fields of scie ce a d ech ology i all cou ries of he world. 2. ra sla io Services I dus ry here is a large dema d for ra sla io services a d i is growi g. he ra sla io i dus ry is all abou commu ica i g a d he impor a ce of ra sla io ech ology i differe spheres of moder life is i creasi g. Wi h i creasi g developme of he global marke , i dus ry, busi ess a d commerce fu c io o a i er a io al scale, wi h he grow h of freedom a d flexibili y i erms of excha ge of produc s a d services, i is obvious ha he ra sla io i dus ry is affec ed by hese cha ges. here is i creased dema d for ra sla io services i ma y areas such as Eco omic (Free rade agreeme s) Ecological (Gree peace) Educa io al (Excha ge programs) Huma i aria (Doc ors ) e c. I -spi e of he fac ha he E glish la guage is impor a a d k ow o ma y, here is he commo ly held belief ha people have he righ o use heir ow la guage. Bu s ill he differe la guages spread across he globe should o be a obs acle o mu ual u ders a di g. o facili a e bila eral a d mul ila eral rela io ships, li guis ic problems ca be solved hrough ra sla io . hus, differe aspec s of moder life have led o he requireme for more efficie me hods of ra sla io .

I dus ry composi io he ra sla io i dus ry is made up of ma y housa ds of i dividual ra sla ors a d compa ies. Whe we alk abou i dividual ra sla ors, hey belo g o a wide varie y of backgrou ds. While some have ac ual ra sla io rai i g or educa io , bu mos do o . Very of e here are ra sla ors who have had formal la guage rai i g a d because of his hey have some exposure o ra sla io . here are u iversi ies a d la guage schools who ca provide such i dividual ra sla ors. hese are free la ce ra sla ors. hese i dividuals are divided i o hree mai groups-i -house ra sla ors, full ime a d par ime ra sla ors. here are professio al ra sla io compa ies who provide ra sla io a d ra sla io -rela ed services i all la guages. I o e way or he o her he i dividual ra sla ors do come i co ac wi h he ra sla io compa ies. hus he i dus ry ca be divided i o he followi g ca egories of ra sla io service providers: La guage Schools U iversi ies I -house ra sla ors Full ime ra sla ors Par ime ra sla ors ra sla io compa ies Key marke drivers Several fac ors have co ribu ed o a i creased grow h i dema d for ra sla io services i rece years: Use of grea er umber of complex produc s, leadi g o i creased requireme of docume a io . Globaliza io of marke s a d I er a io al rade a d fi a ce have led o i creased dema d of produc li era ure a d o her docume s i several la guages. here is grow h i he i erpre a io marke wi h i creased ravel, i he form of busi ess rips, co fere ces, ourism. Mobili y of people, hereby leadi g o grow h i dema d for ra sla io a d i erpre a io . he expa sio of ew ech ologies, processes, applica io s affec i g ermi ology. Desire o ca er o larger marke s resul s i he eed for mul iple la guage produc versio s simul a eously. Growi g of ew pla forms a d media for commu ica i g a d publishi g i forma io . Cha gi g s yles of produc dis ribu io a d cha els. I creased prese ce of sof ware i several produc s a d i forma io e viro me s. Grow h i he impor a ce of he la guage eleme i produc s a d produc docume a io . Grow h i he umber of la guages which mus be ha dled i i er a io al busi ess opera io s. he op 10 globalisi g sec ors Aerospace Au omo ive Busi ess Services E gi eeri g & Elec ro ics Fi a cial Services IC equipme Pharmaceu icals Pri i g & Publishi g Sof ware Publishi g ra s- a io al Orga iza io s 3. ra sla io Services Marke From gover me o busi ess o i dus ries, ra sla io service compa ies are i grea dema d as effec ive commu ica io s wi h par ers, employees, officials, cus omers i he la guage of your arge marke becomes a ecessi y. As such i is see oday ha i spi e of he fac ha he ra sla io i dus ry is o a orga ized i dus ry, wi h a very low umber of professio al ra sla ors, he ra sla io service marke is growi g. he America ra sla io Associa io (A A), which was formed solely o help i he grow h of ra sla io a d i erpre i g professio s, says membership has doubled i he pas 10 years o 10,000 because of he growi g dema d for la guage ra sla io s a d ra sla io marke . ra sla io dema d for few la guages Some la guages which were i grea dema d for ra sla io i 1991 ( he re d which is co i ui g eve oday) is show below: As see above E glish domi a es he marke .

Marke of M a d H Machi e ra sla io Huma ra sla io Europe & he U i ed S a es 2.5 millio pages 300 millio pages Japa 3.5 millio pages 150 millio pages he developme of bo h machi e ra sla io (M ) a d huma ra sla io (H ) is based o dema d a d supply. O he o e ha d, here is availabili y of ew ech ology a d o he o her, socio-poli ical a d eco omic eed for cha ge. Despi e he adva ces i ech ology, machi e ra sla io prese s o ly a small perce age of he marke . A he begi i g of he 1990s he ra sla io marke was as follows: I ca be see from he above able ha o ly 6 millio pages were ra sla ed hrough machi e ra sla io , whereas hrough huma ra sla io 450 millio pages were ra sla ed which implied ha M covered o ly 1.3% of he o al. his perce age has o cha ged much i rece years as well. Marke a alys s say ha M will remai o ly abou 1% of a over US $10 billio ra sla io marke place . Accordi g o Allied Busi ess I ellige ce, he size of he &quo ;huma ra sla io &quo ; marke is arou d US$11.5 billio a d &quo ;machi e ra sla io &quo ; US$134 millio i 2007. Sof ware localiza io reached US$3.4 billio i he same year. A o her marke segme wi h s ro g expec ed grow h is ech ical docume a io . Japa ra sla io Marke Japa ese la guage ra sla io ook he seco d posi io which reflec ed he impor a ce of he role of Japa i ech ology a d foreig rade. I Japa ese la guage ra sla io , of all fields , ech ology occupied wo- hirds of ra sla io volume a he e d of he 1990s: Foreig rade 25% Scie ce 10% eachi g 10% Li era ure 5% Jour als 5% Busi ess Admi is ra io 5% Chi a's ra sla io Marke Chi a's ra sla io i dus ry is a big i dus ry a d Chi a ca ow claim o be a ra sla io gia . Accordi g o he Chi a Bibliographic Library, be wee 1978 a d 1990, Chi a had published 28,500 ki ds of ra sla ed works, a d he umber grew o 94,400 be wee 1995 a d 2003. Accordi g o he ra sla ors Associa io of Chi a, Chi a's ra sla io marke is a ywhere be wee US$ 1.3b a d US$ 2.5b . Chi a's ra sla io i dus ry accou ed for 1.33 billio US$ a ually i he la er par of 1990s, a d ha umber grew o 21 2.53 billio $ i 2005. Global ra sla io Marke Accordi g o a o her es ima e, he global ra sla io marke grosses US$13 billio a ually. he Asia-Pacific regio has a 30% share of his marke . Accordi g o a survey by a au hori a ive US i s i u io , he global ra sla io marke has reached gross US$22.7 billio by 2005. As he global reach of I er e expa ds, he ra sla io marke is expec ed o grow co i uously a a s aggeri g ra e of 30 perce a year. Europe will co i ue o be he larges regio , wi h 49% of he marke , followed by Asia, wi h 39%. he size of he la guage/ ra sla io services marke i 2006 a d beyo d Accordi g o a s udy made by Commo Se se Advisory (CSA), he marke for ou sourced la guage services was US 8.8 billio dollars worldwide i 2005, growi g a 7.5 perce per year. he CSA made hese es ima es based o heir calcula io s o he o al reve ues of he several compa ies i volved i he busi ess, ma y ra sla ors a d free la cers, a d a es ima e of he reve ue ge era ed by i er a io al marke i g age cies, sys em i egra ors, co sul a s, a d o her service providers who help i ra sla io a d localiza io 4.

You won’t find me offering the opinion that beating is a good thing or recommending the return of the birch. I frankly regard corporal punishment as of no greater significance in the life of most human beings than bustles, hula-hoops, flared trousers, side-whiskers or any other fad. Until, that is, one says that it isn’t. Which is to say, the moment mankind decides that a practice like beating is of significance then it becomes of significance. I should imagine that were I a child now and found myself being beaten by schoolmasters I would be highly traumatised by the experience, for every cultural signal would tell me that beating is, to use the American description, a ‘cruel and unusual punishment’ and I would feel singled out for injustice and smart and wail accordingly. Let’s try – and God knows it’s hard – to be logical about this. If we object to corporal punishment, and I assume we do, on what grounds is this objection based? On the grounds that it is wrong to cause a child pain? Well I don’t know about you, but when I recall childhood pain, I don’t recall the pains of toothache, a thrashed backside, broken bones, stubbed toes, gashed knees or twisted ankles – I recall the pains of loneliness, boredom, abandonment, humiliation, rejection and fear

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2. Problem of Synonyms in the Translation

3. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

4. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

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10. Advertising in our Life

11. Sport in our life

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13. Conflicts of interest in corporate transactions

14. Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

15. The development of computers in the USA

16. Role of Women in Society

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82. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

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89. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

90. Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English

91. Sport: general, in Britain

92. "Career in hotel industry"

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94. Translatioin of Political Literature

95. The profile of an effective manager

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