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The role played by the german and scandinavian tribes on english language

Фонарь желаний бумажный, оранжевый.
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Раздел: Небесные фонарики
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330 руб
Раздел: Ночники
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7 руб
Раздел: Горшки, ящики для рассады

ABLE OF CO E S I RODUC IO . .2-4 CHAP ER I HE CO AC OF E GLISH WI H O HER LA GUAGES .5-7 HE CEL IC I FLUE CE HE APPLICA IO OF A IVE WORDS CHAP ER II HE SCA DI AVIA I FLUE E: HE VIKI G AGE . .8-10 HE SCA DI AVIA I VASIO S OF E GLA D HE SE LEME OF HE DA ES I E GLA D CHAP ER III HE AMALGAMA IO OF HE WO HE RELA IO OF HE WO LA GUAGES HE ES S OF BORROWED WORDS CHAP ER IV HE SCA DI AVIA PLACE HE EARLIES BORROWI G SCA DI AVIA LOA -WORDS A D HEIR CHARAC ER CHAP ER V CEL IC PLACE – AMES . . . 17-19 CEL IC LOA -WORDS HE RELA IO OF BORROWED A D A IVE WORDS CHAP ER VI FORM WORDS . . 20-22 SCA DI AVIA I FLUE CE OU SIDE HE S A DARD SPEECH HIS ORICAL BACKGROU D CO CLUSIO . 23-28 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . 29 I RODUC IO he esse ce of his ory is cha ge aki g place i ime. A y hi g which e dures i ime has a his ory, because i his world of flux a y hi g which e dures i ime suffers cha ge. Bu if his ory is o be mea i gful, here mus also be co i ui y. A people, a a io , or a la guage may cha ge over a lo g period so grea ly as o become some hi g vas ly differe from wha i was a he begi i g. Bu his grea cha ge is he accumula io of ma y small cha ges. A a y s age i i s his ory, he people, a­ io , or la guage is fu dame ally he same e i y ha i was i he immedia ely precedi g s age, albei cha ged i de ail. I has preserved i s ide i y. he preserva io of ide i y hrough co i ui y of cha ge, he , charac erizes hi gs which have a his ory. I is easier o see his i he case of co cre e objec s, like he Grea Pyramid or Kea s's Grecia ur . heir co i ui y is physical; he ac ual s uff of which hey are made has e dured hrough ce uries. heir his ory is primarily wha has happe ed o hem a d arou d hem; he cha ge hey have suffered has chiefly bee cha ge of e viro ­me , ra her ha cha ge of heir ow a ure. I deed, wha fas­ci a ed Kea s abou he ur was i s placid u cha gi g ess i he mids of cha gi g ge era io s of me . I s his ory is e irely wha ca be called &quo ;ou er his ory.&quo ; Accordi g o he Bible: ’I he begi i g was he Word’. By he almud: ‘God crea ed he world by a Word, i s a a eously, wi hou oil or pai s’. Bu I hi k wha ever more mys ical mea i g hese pieces of scrip ure migh have, hey bo h poi o he primacy of la guage i he way huma bei gs co ceive of he world. I agree wi h he heory ha la guage figures ce rally i our lives. I hi k we discover our ide i y as i dividuals a d social bei gs whe we acquire i duri g childhood. I serves as a mea s of cog i io a d commu ica io : i e ables us o hi k for ourselves a d o coopera e wi h people i our commu i y. I provides for prese eeds a d fu ure pla s, a d a he same ime carries wi h i he impressio of hi gs pas . I wa o e i passi g, i cide ally, ha i is speech ha he ogre ca o mas er. Whe her his ecessarily implies ha la guage is also beyo d his reach is a o her ma er, for la guage does o depe d o speech as he o ly physical medium for i s expressio . Aude may o imply such a dis i c io i hese li es, bu i is o e which, as we shall see prese ly, i is impor a o recog ize. I has bee sugges ed ha la guage is so u iquely huma , dis i guishes us so clearly from ogres a d o her a imals, ha our species migh be more appropria ely amed homo loque s ha homo sapie s.

Bu al hough la guage is clearly esse ial o huma ki d a d has served o ex e d co rol over o her par s of crea io , i is o easy o specify wha exac ly makes i dis i c ive. If, i deed, i is dis i c ive. Af er all, o her species commu ica e af er a fashio , for hey could o o herwise ma e, propaga e, a d coopera e i heir colo ies. E glish belo gs o he A glo-Frisia group wi hi he wes er bra ch of he Germa ic la guages, a sub-family of he I do-Europea la guages. I is rela ed mos closely o he Frisia la guage, o a lesser ex e o e herla dic (Du ch-Flemish) a d he Low Germa (Pla deu sch) dialec s, a d more dis a ly o Moder High Germa . I s pare , Pro o-I do-Europea , was spoke arou d 5,000 years ago by omads who are hough o have roamed he ou h-eas Europea plai s. hree mai s ages are usually recog ized i he his ory of he developme of he E glish la guage. Old E glish, k ow formerly as A glo-Saxo , da es from AD 449 o 1066 or 1100. Middle E glish da es from 1066 or 1100 o 1450 or 1500. Moder E glish da es from abou 1450 or 1500 a d is subdivided i o Early Moder E glish, from abou 1500 o 1660, a d La e Moder E glish, from abou 1660 o he prese ime. he lo g- erm li guis ic effec of he Viki g se leme s i E gla d was hreefold: over a housa d words eve ually became par of S a dard E glish; a large umber of places i he eas a d or h-eas of E gla d have Da ish ames; a d ma y E glish perso al ames are of Sca di avia origi . Words ha e ered he E glish la guage by his rou e i clude la di g, score, beck, fellow, ake, bus i g, a d s eersma he vas majori y of loa words do o begi o appear i docume s u il he early welf h ce ury; hese i clude ma y moder words which use sk- sou ds, such as skir , sky, a d ski ; o her words appeari g i wri e sources a his ime i clude agai , awkward, bir h, cake, dregs, fog, freckles, gasp, law, eck, ra sack, roo , scowl, sis er, sea , sly, smile, wa , weak, a d wi dow. Some of he words ha came i o use by his rou e are amo g he mos commo i E glish, such as bo h, same, ge , a d give. he sys em of perso al pro ou s was affec ed, wi h hey, hem, a d heir replaci g he earlier forms. Old orse eve i flue ced he verb o be; he replaceme of si do by is almos cer ai ly Sca di avia i origi , as is he hird-perso -si gular e di g -s i he prese e se of verbs. here are over 1,500 Sca di avia place ames i E gla d, mai ly i Yorkshire a d Li col shire (wi hi he former bou daries of he Da elaw): over 600 e d i -by, he Sca di avia word for &quo ;farm&quo ; or &quo ; ow &quo ;—for example Grimsby, aseby, a d Whi by; ma y o hers e d i - horpe (&quo ;village&quo ;), - hwai e (&quo ;cleari g&quo ;), a d - of (&quo ;homes ead&quo ;) he dis ribu io of family ames showi g Sca di avia i flue ce is s ill, as a a alysis of ames e di g i -so reveals, co ce ra ed i he or h a d eas , correspo di g o areas of former Viki g se leme . Early medieval records i dica e ha over 60% of perso al ames i Yorkshire a d or h Li col shire showed Sca di avia i flue ce. he impor a ce of he E glish la guage is a urally very grea . E glish is he la guage o o ly of E gla d bu of he ex e sive domi io s a d colo ies associa ed i he Bri ish Empire, a d i is he la guage of he U i ed S a es.

Spoke by over 260 millio people, i is i he umber who speak i he larges of he occide al la guages. E glish-speaki g people co s i u e abou o e e h of he world's popula io . E glish, however, is o he larges la guage i he world. he more co serva ive es ima es of he popula io of Chi a would i dica e ha Chi ese is spoke by abou 450 millio people. Bu he umerical asce da cy of E glish amo g Europea la guages ca be see by a few compara ive figures. Russia , ex i size o E glish, is spoke by abou 140 millio people;2 Spa ish by 135 millio s; Germa by 90 millio s; Por uguese by 63 millio s; Fre ch by 60 millio s; I alia by 50 millio s. hus a he prese ime E glish has he adva age i umbers over all o her wes er la guages. Bu he impor a ce of a la guage is o alo e a ma er of umbers or erri ory; as we have said, i depe ds also o he impor a ce of he people who speak i . CHAP ER I he Co ac of E glish wi h O her La guages he la ­guage which has bee described i he precedi g chap er was o merely he produc of he dialec s brough o E gla d by heJu es, Saxo s, a d A gles. hese formed i s basis, he sole basis ofi s grammar a d he source of by far he larges par of i svocabulary. Bu here were o her eleme s which e ered i o i .I he course of he firs seve hu dred years of i s exis e ce i E gla d i was brough i o co ac wi h hree o her la guages, he la guages of he Cel s, he Roma s, a d he Sca di avia s.From each of hese co ac s i shows cer ai effec s, more espe­cially addi io s o i s vocabulary. he a ure of hese co ac sa d he cha ges ha were effec ed by hem will form he sub­jec of he prese chap er. he Cel ic I flue ce. o hi g would seem more reaso able ha o expec ha he co ques of he Cel ic popula io ofBri ai by he eu o s a d he subseque mix ure of he woraces should have resul ed i a correspo di g mix ure of heirla guages; ha co seque ly we should fi d i he Old E glishvocabulary umerous i s a ces of words which he eu o s heardi he speech of he a ive popula io a d adop ed. For i isappare ha he Cel s were by o mea s ex ermi a ed excep i cer ai areas, a d ha i mos of E gla d large umbers of hemwere gradually absorbed by he ew i habi a s. he A glo-Saxo Chro icle repor s ha a A dredesceas er or Pcve sey adeadly s ruggle occurred be wee he a ive popula io a d he words oo miscella eous o admi of profi able classifica io , like a chor, coul er, fa (for wi owi g), fever, place (cf. marke ­place), spel er (asphal ), spo ge, elepha , phoe ix, ma cus (a coi ) a d some more or less lear ed or li erary words, such as cale d, circle, legio , gia , co sul, a d ale . he words ci ed i hese examples are mos ly ou s, bu Old E glish borrowed also a umber of verbs a d adjec ives such as вspe da ( o spe d; L. expc dere) bcmu ia ( o excha ge; L. mь dre), dih a ( o com­pose; L. dic are), pi io ( o or ure; L. poe a), pi sia ( o weigh; L. pe sare), py ga ( o prick; L. pu gere), scal ia ( o da ce; X,. sal dre), empria ( o emper; L. emperвre), rifolia ( o gri d; L. ribulвre), yr a ( o ur ; L. or dre), a d crisp (L. crispus, curly). Bu e ough has bee said o i dica e he ex e a d varie y of he borrowi gs from La i i he early days of Chris ia i y i E gla d a d o show how quickly he la guage reflec ed he broade ed horizo which he E glish people owed o he church.

British colonizations and empire building resulting in Englishlanguage writers (the empire writing/striking back), as well as contemporary American imperialism and the unnamed American Empire, play crucial roles in the "chosen" language (English) and location (North America) of contemporary writers. I will also explore some metaphoric resonances of colonization — for instance, of women within patriarchal cultures, of "minority" groups who must struggle to make spaces for themselves within hegemonic white academic institutions and literary marketplaces. In part, colonialism and imperialism historically account for migrations of peoples of color into the industrialized North. A multiethnic and polyglot cosmopolitanism pervades this new diaspora visible in contemporary London, New York, Toronto. Today, alliances between colonialist and imperialist forces ensure a continuing imbalance of power and hegemonic control of "third world" nations by covert colonizations in the guise of international aid agencies, as well as multinational capital, that transcend geographical boundaries and that make it increasingly difficult to hold any single entity accountable for perpetuating poverty in the "third world." In general, material factors and, in particular, the conditions of cultural production — book production, publishing, audience, critical reception — vastly different in "first" and "third world" areas, often necessitate migrations

1. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

2. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

3. The role of art in our life

4. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars

5. The role of art in our life

6. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”
7. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease
The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease
8. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR
The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

9. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

10. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier

11. The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual tradition

12. The models of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.

13. The fastest computers of the world

14. The dark side of the moon

15. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

16. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

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Раздел: Фильтры для воды
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Раздел: Микрофоны

17. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

18. Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?

19. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

20. The Heraldic Symbolism of the Unicorn on the British Coat-of-Arms

21. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

22. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)
23. The City of London and its role as a financial centre
The City of London and its role as a financial centre
24. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

25. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

26. Russia and the international economy

27. The Irish and Australia

28. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

29. The history of Old English and its development

30. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

31. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

32. Символ и таинство в богословии св. Максима исповедника (symbol and mystery in st.Maximus the confessor)

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Раздел: Пазлы (400-999 элементов)

33. Russia and the international economy

34. The government role in the market economy

35. Hatfield and the North

36. Sports in Great Britain, the USA and Russia

37. The Weather and Climate Fluctuations

38. Flora and Fauna of the USA
Flora and Fauna of the USA
39. Judaism and the Jewish People
Judaism and the Jewish People
40. Usa. Howard h. Aiken and the computer
Usa. Howard h. Aiken and the computer

41. Biopolitics in Russia: History and Prospects for the Future

42. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

43. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

44. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

45. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

46. Melville’s “The March into Virginia” and “The College Colonel”: The Broken Youth.

47. The Sound and the Fury

48. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

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Раздел: Для творчества, рисования

49. World War I and the Armenian Genocide

50. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

51. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century

52. Incorporation of [2,3,4,5,6-2H5]Phenylalanine, [3,5-2H2]Tyrosine, and [2,4,5,6,7-2H5]Tryptophan into the Bacteriorhodopsin Molecule of Halobacterium halobium

53. The production of 2H-labeled amino acids by a new mutant of RuMP fucultative methylotroph Вrevibacterium methylicum

54. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus
Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus
55. The British Character and English Humour
The British Character and English Humour
56. The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French
The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French

57. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

58. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

59. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

60. Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

61. Ghandi and the myth of non-violent action

62. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

63. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

64. The Global Money Markets and Money Management

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944 руб
Раздел: Прочее

65. The Tower of London

66. Missile Defense System - Buren for the United States

67. The great Britain

68. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

69. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

70. The Church of England
The Church of England
71. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements
On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements
72. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

73. The enviromental problems which concern the Mankind

74. Does the crime pay or not ?

75. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

76. The Archangel Cathedral

77. The capturing

78. The cinema in Russia today

79. The great Britain

80. The Khabarovsk territory

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328 руб
Раздел: Прочие

81. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

82. The royal family (Королевское семейство)

83. The US Economy after September 11th. Decline or Rapid Growth? (Экономика США после 11-ого сентября. Снижение или Быстрый Рост?)

84. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

85. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

86. The Economy of Great Britain
The Economy of Great Britain
87. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.
The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.
88. The New-York City, Places of interest
The New-York City, Places of interest

89. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

90. The Tower of London

91. The diabetic diet

92. The Hero of Our Time

93. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

94. The house of my dream

95. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

96. Ways of exploring the world

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97. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

98. The Smashing Pumpkins

99. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)


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