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History of Great Britain

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His ory of Bri ai he ki gdom of Grea Bri ai was formed by he Ac of U io (1707) be wee E gla d a d Sco la d. E gla d (i cludi g he pri cipali y of Wales, a exed i he 14 h ce ury) a d Sco la d had bee separa e ki gdoms si ce he early Middle Ages, bu si ce 1603 he same mo arch has ruled bo h la ds. O ly i 1707, however, did Lo do become he capi al of he e ire isla d. Grea Bri ai from he o had a si gle Parliame a d a si gle sys em of a io al admi is ra io , axa io , a d weigh s a d measures. All ariff barriers wi hi he isla d were e ded. E gla d a d Sco la d co i ued, however, o have separa e radi io s of law a d separa e es ablished churches— he Presby eria i Sco la d, he A glica i E gla d a d Wales. For he his ory of he wo cou ries before 1707, see Bri ai , A cie ; E gla d; Sco la d. A Ce ury of Co flic s O e of he chief purposes of he pla ers of he Ac of U io had bee o s re g he a la d preoccupied wi h he War of he Spa ish Successio . U der he leadership of Joh Churchill, 1s Duke of Marlborough, Bri ai a d i s allies had wo ma y ba les agai s Fra ce, he he mos populous a d powerful Europea s a e, bu by 1710 i seemed clear ha o eve Marlborough could preve Louis XIV of Fra ce from i s alli g a Bourbo rela io o he Spa ish hro e. Marlborough a d his poli ical allies were replaced by members of he ory Par y, who i due course made peace wi h Fra ce. I he rea y of U rech (1713), Bri ai ack owledged he righ of he Bourbo dy as y o he Spa ish crow . A he same ime, Fra ce ceded o Bri ai he or h America areas of Hudso Bay, ova Sco ia, a d ewfou dla d. Spai ceded Gibral ar a d he Medi erra ea isla d of Mi orca a d gra ed o Bri ish mercha s a limi ed righ o rade wi h Spai ’s America colo ies; i cluded i ha (u il 1750) was he asie o— he righ o impor Africa slaves i o Spa ish America. Because Quee A e had o survivi g childre , she was succeeded, accordi g o he Ac of Se leme (1701), by her eares Pro es a rela ive, he elec or of Ha over, who came from Germa y i 1714 a d was accep ed as Ki g George I of Grea Bri ai . A ew era of Bri ish his ory bega . Gover me i he 18 h Ce ury Al hough he firs years of George I’s reig were marked by wo major crises— he Jacobi e Rebellio of 1715 by followers of Quee A e’s half bro her, James S uar , a d he Sou h Sea Bubble, a s ock marke crash of 1720—Bri ai was ac ually e eri g wo decades of rela ive peace a d s abili y. Local gover me was lef largely i he ha ds of cou ry ge leme ow i g large es a es. As jus ices of he peace, hey se led he majori y of legal dispu es. hey also admi is ered roads, bridges, i s, a d marke s a d supervised he local opera io of he Poor Law—aid o orpha s, paupers, he very old, a d hose oo ill o work. A he a io al level, ma y Bri o s came o ake pride i heir mixed gover me , which happily combi ed mo archical ( he heredi ary ruler), aris ocra ic ( he heredi ary House of Lords), a d democra ic ( he elec ed House of Commo s) eleme s a d also provided for a i depe de judiciary. he reig of Quee A e had bee marked by parliame ary elec io s every hree years a d by kee rivalry be wee Whig a d ory fac io s.

Wi h he comi g of George I, he Whigs were give prefere ce over he ories, ma y of whom were sympa he ic o he claims of he S uar pre e ders. U der he Sep e ial Ac of 1716, parliame ary elec io s were required every seve years ra her ha every hree, a d direc poli ical par icipa io decli ed. Parliame was made up of 122 cou y members a d 436 borough members. Vir ually all cou ies a d boroughs se wo members o Parliame , bu each borough, whe her a large ci y or a i y village, had i s ow radi io of choosi g i s members of Parliame . Eve hose Bri o s who lacked he righ o vo e could claim he righ s of pe i io , jury rial, a d freedom from arbi rary arres . Full poli ical privileges were gra ed o ly o members of he A glica church, bu o -A glica Pro es a s could legally hold office if hey were willi g o ake A glica commu io o ce a year. he Era of Rober Walpole Al hough he ki g could appoi whomever he wished o his gover me , he fou d i co ve ie o selec members of Parliame , who could exercise i flue ce here. Such was he case of Rober Walpole, who was appoi ed firs lord of he reasury (a d came o be k ow as prime mi is er) i 1721 i he af erma h of he Sou h Sea Bubble. he Bubble was sparked by he fi a cial collapse of he gia Sou h Sea Compa y. he crash slowed dow he commercial boom of he previous hree decades, a ime whe he Ba k of E gla d had bee fou ded, he co cep of a lo g- erm a io al deb formula ed, a d ma y large joi -s ock compa ies es ablished. I par because George I could o speak E glish a d i par because bo h he a d his so , Ki g George II, were of e i Ha over, Germa y, which hey co i ued o rule, Walpole was able o build up a d domi a e a gover me machi e. He presided over a i formal group of mi is ers ha came o be k ow as he cabi e , a d he co rolled Parliame by his perso ali y, his policies, a d his use of pa ro age. His i flue ce, however, had limi s. Hopi g o curb smuggli g, Walpole i 1732 a d 1733 sough o replace a la d ax a d cus oms du ies o impor s wi h a excise ax o wi e a d obacco collec ed from re ailers, bu parliame ary cri ics a d popular rio ers pro es ed agai s he army of ax collec ors ha he bill would have crea ed, a d Walpole was ul ima ely forced o give up his pla . Duri g his admi is ra io , Walpole kep Grea Bri ai ou of war, a d eve A glo-Fre ch rela io s remai ed cordial. I he la e 1730s, however, a war par y emerged i Parliame . I s members sough reve ge agai s Spai for he harassme by Spa ish coas guards of Bri ish mercha s who wished o rade wi h Spa ish colo is s i he Americas. I 1739, agai s Walpole’s be er judgme , Bri ai declared war o Spai , a d wo years la er parliame ary pressure forced Walpole o resig . wo Decades of Co flic Be wee 1739 a d 1763, Grea Bri ai was ge erally a war. he war agai s Spai (see Je ki s’s Ear, War of) soo merged wi h he War of he Aus ria Successio , which bega i 1740, pi i g Prussia, Fra ce, a d Spai agai s Aus ria. Grea Bri ai became Aus ria’s chief ally, a d Bri ish armies a d ships fough he Fre ch i Europe, i or h America, o he high seas, a d i I dia, where he E glish a d Fre ch Eas I dia compa ies compe ed for i flue ce.

I 1745 he Sco ish Jacobi es, aki g adva age of Bri ai ’s i volveme o he Co i e , made heir las major a emp o recover he Bri ish hro e for he S uar dy as y. Pri ce Charles Edward (“Bo ie Pri ce Charlie”) la ded i Sco la d, wo he allegia ce of housa ds of Highla ders, a d i Sep ember cap ured Edi burgh a d proclaimed his fa her Ki g James III. Marchi g sou h wi h his army, he came wi hi a hu dred miles of Lo do , bu failed o a rac ma y E glish suppor ers. I December he re rea ed o Sco la d. he followi g April he was defea ed a he Ba le of Cullode a d fled o Fra ce. he War of he Aus ria Successio e ded wi h he rea y of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), which, as far as Bri ai was co cer ed, res ored he erri orial s a us quo. By he , a series of shor -lived mi is ries had give way o he rela ively s able admi is ra io of He ry Pelham. Duri g he mid-1750s he Bri ish fou d hemselves figh i g a u declared war agai s Fra ce bo h i or h America (see Fre ch a d I dia War) a d i I dia. I 1756 formal war broke ou agai . he Seve Years’ War (1756-1763) pi ed Bri ai , allied wi h Prussia, agai s Fra ce i allia ce wi h Aus ria a d Russia. For Bri ai he war bega wi h a series of defea s i or h America, i I dia, i he Medi erra ea , a d o he Co i e (where he Fre ch overra Ha over). U der s ro g popular pressure, Ki g George II he appoi ed he fiery William Pi he Elder as he mi is er o ru he war abroad, while his colleague, he duke of ewcas le, oiled he poli ical wheels a home. Pi was a exper s ra egis a d co duc ed he war wi h vigor. he Fre ch flee was defea ed off he coas of Por ugal, he E glish Eas I dia Compa y riumphed over i s Fre ch cou erpar i Be gal a d elsewhere, a d Bri ish a d colo ial roops i or h America cap ured For Duques e (o he si e of prese -day Pi sburgh, Pe sylva ia), Quйbec, a d Mo rйal. Al hough Pi was forced from office i 1761 a d he Bri ish ego ia ed separa ely from Prussia, he rea y of Paris (1763) was a diploma ic riumph. All Fre ch claims o Ca ada a d o la ds eas of he Mississippi River were ceded o Bri ai , as were mos Fre ch claims o I dia. Spai , which had e ered he war o he Fre ch side i 1762, ceded Florida. he rea y of Paris es ablished Bri ai ’s 18 h-ce ury empire a i s heigh . Popula io Grow h, Urba iza io , a d I dus rializa io Duri g he firs half of he 18 h ce ury, he popula io of Grea Bri ai i creased by less ha 15 perce . Be wee 1751 a d 1801, he year of he firs official ce sus, he umber rose by o e-half o 16 millio , a d be wee 1801 a d 1851, he popula io grew by more ha wo- hirds o 27 millio . he reaso s i clude a decli e of dea hs from i fec ious diseases, especially smallpox; a improved die made possible by more efficie farmi g prac ices a d he large-scale use of he po a o; a d earlier marriages a d larger families, especially i hose areas where ew i dus ries were s ar i g up. A quicke i g of eco omic cha ge was o iceable by he 1780s, whe James Wa perfec ed he s eam e gi e as a ew source of power. ew i ve io s mecha ized he spi i g a d weavi g of impor ed co o . Be wee 1760 a d 1830 he produc io of co o ex iles i creased welvefold, maki g he produc Bri ai ’s leadi g expor .

He dreaded seeing Dora. He longed, he longed desperately for her to have an explanation of those damning facts. (ibid.) 8. My dear, its no good fooling ourselves. We shall never be able to live here after the war. We shall be as poor as church mice. The life we knew and loved had gone never to return. (ibid.) 9. The reactionaries know, it is written clear in history, wherever the workers accept Communist leadership the landlords and capitalists go down never to rise again. (W. Foster) 10. Shes very nervous. Thats another reason why I hated like hell for her to know I got the axe again. (J.PM. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye) Задание 3 FOOTBALL IN ENGLAND Football, in its roughest and most primitive form, had been played in Great Britain from time immemorial. Like other things, it is sometimes said to have been introduced by the Romans, but since Irish antiquaries claim that a form of football was played more than 2,000 years ago, it may have had pre-Roman existence in England. At all events a game with a ball of some kind was played in very old times in England, the great festival day being Shrove Tuesday, for reasons which are unknown

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

2. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

3. London - the capital of Great Britain

4. Climate of Great Britain

5. The climate of Great Britain

6. Customs and traditions of Great Britain
Customs and traditions of Great Britain
7. Traditions and holidays of Great Britain
Traditions and holidays of Great Britain
8. 4 capitals of Great Britain
4 capitals of Great Britain

9. The United Kingdom of Great Britain

10. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

11. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

12. Great Britain: the Land of Traditions

13. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

14. History of runic alphabets

15. Great Britain, Science

16. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)

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Раздел: Для творчества, рисования

17. The History of English

18. The history of Old English and its development

19. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

20. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

21. Реферат перевода с английского языка из книги “A History of England” by Keith Feiling

22. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)
23. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy
24. History of the USA
History of the USA

25. The History of Moscow

26. High education in Great Britain

27. Great Britain

28. Theatre in Great Britain

29. History of Basketball

30. Culture in Great Britain

31. Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine

32. History of democracy of the USA

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33. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

34. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

35. The history of Manhattan

36. History of Belarus

37. Youth organizations in Great Britain

38. Great Britain: constitution. Politics. Law
Great Britain: constitution. Politics. Law
39. History of english language
History of english language
40. Schooling in Great Britain
Schooling in Great Britain

41. The history of Germany and tourism

42. The history of grammatical study of the English language

43. The National Parks of Great Britan

44. National Health Service in Great Britain

45. Intellectual history of the Europe

46. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

47. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought Evolution

48. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

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50. Short Overview of African Countries

51. Royal Dutch Shell: Evaluation of Oil Reserves

52. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

53. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

54. Analysis of Sufism Through Art of Sufi Poetry
Analysis of Sufism Through Art of Sufi Poetry
55. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)
56. Going public and the dividend policy of the company
Going public and the dividend policy of the company

57. Economic and sociological analysis of suicide

58. New York. Places of interest

59. Will Russia be a Rising State a Great Failure?

60. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

61. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought Evolution

62. Irish history

63. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

64. Socionical approach in studding of nations

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65. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

66. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

67. The role of art in our life

68. Three Waves of Alvin Toffler. The Basic Points

69. Ten reasons for a tradition of modernity

70. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)
71. Britney Spears - princess of pop
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72. Christmas in Britain (Рождество в Британии)

73. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

74. The New-York City, Places of interest

75. Translatioin of Political Literature

76. The profile of an effective manager

77. Сравнительные степени прилагательных и наречий (Comparison) Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs) Цепочки существительных (Атрибутивная, номинативная группа) (Chains of nouns)

78. The Hero of Our Time

79. California & Los-Angeles. Places of interest

80. Types of tests used in English Language Teaching Bachelor Paper

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81. Evolution of Christianity

82. Critical Review of Daniel Sprick’s “Release Your Plans”

83. The house of my dream

84. Navruz - A Celebration of Life. Public holidays in Uzbekistan

85. How do I like unusual methods of teaching? (DEAD POETS SOCIETY)

86. Socrates` conception of philosophy
Socrates` conception of philosophy
87. Спецподразделения Армии Израиля: "Голани" (Special forces in Army of Israel Golani)
88. Critical Review of Daniel Sprick’s “Release Your Plans”

89. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

90. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

91. Biography of Che Guevara (Биография Че Гевары)

92. Protection of Information (Защита Информации)

93. Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles

94. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

95. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

96. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

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97. Evolution of Christianity

98. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

99. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

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