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Legal and linguistic aspects of translating english legal terminology

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Шеберстова Т.Б., ассистент кафедры гражданского права, процесса и основ предпринимательской деятельности ИвГУ Ac ive i erac io of Russia wi h cou ries of he world commu i y raised a wide ra ge of issues co cer i g i er a io al busi ess ac ivi ies. Foreig a d mul i a io al corpora io s as well as domes ic compa ies are i volved i i er a io al deals all over he world. Wi h rapid grow h of i er a io al busi ess ra sac io s a d, co seque ly, i er a io al commercial dispu es, he problems of legal ra sla i g acquired vi al impor a ce. owadays he E glish la guage has become he la guage of choice for co duc i g a i er a io al busi ess. I addi io , he E glish la guage has become promi e as he opera io al la guage of ma y law firms a d mul i a io al corpora io s. hus, i eres i s udyi g E glish legal ermi ology a d legal ra sla i g has rece ly grow up. I his co ex , he ar icle reviews ge eral peculiari ies of legal erms a d focuses o li guis ic a d legal aspec s of ra sla i g E glish legal ermi ology. While explori g legal ermi ology we have o de ermi e he u i of his ermi ological sys em. I his ar icle we defi e a erm as a word or a word combi a io belo gi g o he specific field of usage, ei her specially crea ed or borrowed for de ermi i g a specific co cep a d based o a defi i io . I ha way, "a legal erm is a word or a word combi a io which s a ds for a ge eral ame of a legal co cep , has a specific a d defi i e mea i g, a d is of e used i legisla io a d legal docume s" . Co emporary la guage of law makes several requireme s rela i g o legal erms ha should be ake i o co sidera io i he process of ra sla i g. he legal erm should mee he followi g impor a requireme s: a) sa isfy he rules a d orms of a correspo di g la guage, b) be sys ema ic, c) correspo d o a cer ai defi i io orie ed o a cer ai co cep , d) be rela ively i depe de of he co ex , e) be precise, f) be as co cise as possible, g) aim a o e- o-o e correspo de ce (wi hi he cer ai ermi ological sys em), h) be expressively eu ral, i) be eupho ical. he la guage of law as a special subla guage has i s ow co e a d a se of specific charac eris ics which vary depe di g o a la guage sys em. However, irrespec ive of a la guage, he major par of i s dis i c ive fea ures a d peculiari ies are explai ed by he i flue ce of his orical, cul ural, social a d poli ical fac ors o he la guage commu i y. he E glish legal la guage is charac erized by a specific se of erms. Firs of all, i comprises umerous La i words a d phrases (ex. lex loci ac us, res ges ae, corpus delic i, lex domicilii, e c.). I also has words of he Old a d Middle E glish origi , i cludi g compou ds which are o lo ger i commo usage (aforesaid, herei above, hereaf er, whereby, e c.). Besides, he E glish legal la guage i cludes a large amou of words derived from Fre ch (appeal, plai iff, or , lie , es oppel, verdic e c.). he la guage of law also uses formal a d ceremo ial words (I do solem ly swear, Your Ho our, May i please he cour .) a d ech ical erms wi h precise mea i gs (defe da , eglige ce, bail e c). hus, he prese co e of he E glish la guage of law is due o he i flue ce of differe la guages a d ha has a his orical expla a io .

Co sideri g Russia legal ermi ology, we should keep i mi d ha i comprises fewer borrowi gs a d compou ds ha he E glish o e. A co siderable par of legal erms is of a a io al origi i cludi g Old Russia (for example, истец, ответчик, право). his may be explai ed by he his ory of Russia a d i s legal sys em developme as well. A he same ime, co emporary Russia legal la guage has bee e riched by he ew law erms derived from E glish (лизинг - leasi g, антитрестовский - a i rus , корпоративный - corpora e, факторинг - fac ori g e c.) . hus, E glish a d Russia legal la guages are charac erized by heir ow specific fea ures which are explai ed by he his orical, poli ical, social a d cul ural i flue ces. Deali g wi h he la guage of law implies wo forms of ra sferri g from o e la guage o a o her – legal i erpre i g a d legal ra sla i g. Legal i erpre i g is mea for people who come before he cour s (li iga s, defe da s, wi esses e c.) a d who ca o commu ica e effec ively i he la guage of legal procedures. Accordi g o he law, i dividuals who do o commu ica e i he la guage of legal proceedi gs have a righ o speak heir a ive la guage i cour a d use he i erpre i g services. Similar regula io s are provided by he ew Russia legisla io - Arbi ra io Procedure Code (2002), he Civil Procedure Code (2002) a d he Crimi al Procedure Code (2001). he i erpre er's goal is o i erpre from o e la guage o a o her every hi g wha is said i cour , preservi g he o e a d level of he origi al la guage, addi g a d dele i g o hi g. he legal i erpre a io should be adequa e, comple e a d correc . Legal ra sla i g firs of all implies ra sla i g legal docume a io (laws, ac s, judicial decisio s, legal rules, co rac s, agreeme s, admi is ra ive papers a d o her law-rela ed docume a io ). his ki d of ra sla i g has bee rece ly prevaili g i he process of i er a io al rela io s developme . Faced wi h a legal ex o ra sla e, a legal ra sla or mus deal wi h he dual challe ge of la guage a d law, which he or she mus reproduce as correc ly as possible i he arge la guage. his complex procedure of ra sferri g from o e la guage o a o her i volves a umber of risks i here i la guage. ha is why i is ra her difficul o ra sfer he e ire message of he source ex from o e la guage o a o her. Legal ra sla io requires reproduci g bo h form a d co e of he legal ex . he la er also implies ra sferri g ex from o e legal sys em o a o her. herefore, legal ra sla i g is subjec o various difficul ies of ra sferri g a mea i g of a legal erm a d a ra sla or mus s rive for a fu c io al equivale ce. As i was me io ed before, a y ki d of ra sla io has o mee he pri cipal requireme s of adequacy, accuracy a d comple e ess. While accuracy a d comple e ess are mai ly aimed a he form of he legal ex , adequacy is referred o i s co e . Adequacy of he legal ra sla io is mos ly achieved by followi g he pri cipal rules of legal ermi ology i he arge la guage. ra sla i g implies ra sferri g he mea i g of he origi al, bu o o ly he words. While ra sla i g i is impor a o k ow he legal ermi ology i bo h la guages. he subs i u io of a legal erm of he source ex by i s sy o ym (a word of commo usage) i he arge la guage may resul i misi erpre a io i erms of law.

he dis or io of a mea i g of a law erm may i flue ce upo legal co seque ces. For example, he legal phrase " he par y domiciled abroad" is o equal o i s Russia ra sla io «зарубежная сторона» or «сторона, проживающая за рубежом». he correc way o express he same mea i g i Russia legal ermi ology will be «сторона, домицилированная за рубежом». I should be o ed ha a domicile as a legal erm mea s "a place of perma e livi g" (if a i dividual is implied) or "a sea of a corpora io /a pri ciple place of busi ess" (if juridical perso is implied), while he ge eral mea i g of his word is "a place where someo e lives" . Besides, as he legal erm par y (сторона) implies ei her a i dividual perso or juridical perso /e i y i volved i a legal agreeme or dispu e, he seco d way of i correc ra sla io me io ed above rela es o ly o a i dividual perso a d he ce, is u equal o he legal erm used i he source ex . I adequa e ra sla io obviously may i flue ce o he objec ive evalua io of jural fac s. hus, i should be ake i o co sidera io ha a legal ra sla or or i erpre er is liable for he correc ess, comple e ess a d adequacy of his legal ra sla i g. " he ra sla or mus appear before he cour a d ra sla e comple ely, correc ly a d i proper ime" ( he Arbi ra io Procedure Code of he Russia Federa io , 2002: ar icle 57 clause 4). O he o e ha d, he procedural codes me io ed above provide crimi al liabili y for a wi i gly false ra sla io ( he Arbi ra io Procedure Code of he Russia Federa io , 2002: ar icle 57 clause 6; he Crimi al procedure code of he Russia Federa io , 2001: ar icle 59 clause 5). O he o her ha d, i erpre ers are huma s a d maki g a mis ake is possible. Whe a i erpre er u i e io ally makes a mis ake, he or she is obliga ed o correc i immedia ely, a d is expec ed o do he same i case of wri e legal ra sla i g. he Russia law provides a righ of a cour i erpre er o ask ques io s i order o clarify he ra sla io . I deed, u professio al (i i s legal se se) ra sla io may cause i jus ices. Rarely, bu some cases have successfully bee appealed because of i erpre er issues. herefore, i is obvious ha he major drawback of radi io al la guage rai i g a d docume ra sla io services curre ly available is ha hese orga iza io s have li le or o experie ce a d k owledge of he law. I order o provide he effec ive commu ica io i E glish abou specific legal co cep s a d ideas i is crucial for legal ra sla ors a d i erpre ers o have a profou d k owledge of he legal ermi ology i bo h la guages. All me io ed above allow us o de ermi e he esse ial requireme s ha provide excelle ce i legal ra sla i g (i erpre i g) i he process of i er a io al commu ica io . Firs , o e of he impor a requireme s is a la guage proficie cy which implies ample vocabulary, k owledge of s a dard grammar a d s ylis ic compo e s of legal la guage. he mas ery of he arge la guage mus be equivale o ha of a educa ed a ive speaker. Seco d, he high level of excelle ce requires up- o-da e k owledge of he subjec ma erial a d legal ermi ology i bo h la guages. hese are due o he ra sla or's compe e ce i legal la guage.

The Rhetoric Of Argumentation. Chicago, 1980. 182. Brown G. Listening To Spoken English.- М., 1984. 183. Chadwick R.A. Bahr N.M., Albrecht S.L., Social Science Research Method.- Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, 1984. 184. Chomsky N. Aspects Of The Theory Of Syntax.- The M.I.T. Press, 1967. 185. Clark C., Holquist M. Mikhail Bakhtin.- Harvard University Press., Cambridge, Massachusetts And London., England 1984. 186. Cooh G. Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. 187. Coulthard M. An Introduction To Discourse Analysis., N-Y., 1995. 188. Craig A. The Speech Arts., N-Y. 1937. 189. Crystal D. Linguistics. L., 1977. 190. Crystal D. Rediscover Grammar With D. Crystal. L., Longman, 1988. 191. Danow D. The Thought Of Mikhail Bakhtin: From Word To Culture., N-Y., 1991. 192. Dascal M., Margalit A. A New 'Revolution' In Linguistics. 'Text Grammars' vs 'Sentence - Grammars'. In Theoretical Linguistics., 1974., Vol 1, No. 1, 2. 193. Emerson C. Problems With Bakhtin's Poetics.// Slavic And East European Journal, 1988, No. 4. 194. Enkvist E.(ed.) Reports On Textlinguistics. Abo, 1976. 195. Fairclough N

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