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Some problems of the russian spelling

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S.B. eveji a his ar icle deals wi h he leas i ves iga ed or hographic aspec of borrowi gs from Europea la guages. A brief a alysis of foreig words from "Ves y-Kura y. 1600-1639." - a busi ess wri e la guage mo ume of he XVII ce ury - has bee give from he poi of view of heir spelli g. here is o ech ique of or hographical a alysis of he borrowi gs represe ed i a medieval wri e la guage mo ume ye . As a rule spelli g of borrowi gs is s udied o expose pho e ic a d morphological fea ures of mo ume s. Spelli g phe ome a are exami ed o i dica e cha ges i pro u cia io or grammar bu o o demo s ra e he sys em rela io s i or hographical sphere. his ar icle could be co sidered as a a emp o approach solu io of he problem by a alyzi g he foreig word or hographic fea ures from he poi of view of heir correla io wi h he Russia or hographical sys em as a whole. Or hography is k ow o be: 1) he his orically es ablished sys em of u iform spelli gs used i a wri e la guage; 2) he rules providi g for spelli g u iformi y i he cases varia s are possible. O e of he ce ral ideas i or hography is he co cep io of a or hogram. he or hogram is " he way of spelli g havi g bee chose or bei g chose i cases whe he choice o le er a sou d (a pho eme) is give o a wri er." Pho emes may be le ered variously bu he choice of le ers is always based o cer ai ideas, so-called or hographic pri ciples, which exis i he la guage sys em objec ively (i.e. may be o fixed). he Russia scrip is he sou d (pho e ic) scrip usi g morphological, pho e ic, radi io al a d symbolical pri ciples. ( he las pri ciple is o accep ed by all scholars). Co sideri g morphological pri ciple from he poi of view of pho eme al er a io V. F. Iva ova defi es i as he pri ciple of morpheme graphic u iformi y provisio owi g o desig a io of pho emes i weak posi io s by he le ers ha are adequa e o pho emes i s ro g posi io s. You see, he , he fu dame al idea of morphological pri ciple is he co cep of co rol by he s ro g posi io . Bu how o classify a majori y of u checked spelli gs i foreig words? V. F. Iva ova offeres all of hem o be ra ed he display of radi io al pri ciple. Le me o agree wi h her because posi io al al er a io s are he par icular case of posi io al cha ges o he whole. ha is why i would be sui able o accep he followi g morphological pri ciple defi i io : i is he pri ciple reflec i g o - posi io al pho eme cha ges a d o reflec i g posi io al cha ges of pho emes, i.e. whe " he choice of he le er for posi io al al er a i g pho eme is de ermi ed o by he s ro g posi io bu he origi of pho eme". As for foreig word ma erial he origi of pho eme is de ermi ed o he basis of i s (pho eme) wri e form i a la guage-source or o he basis of i s reflexes i a borrowi g la guage. he pho e ic pri ciple is he pri ciple reflec i g bo h posi io al a d o -posi io al cha ges of pho emes. radi io al pri ciple is he pri ciple o reproduci g cha ges a all. I is he co serva io of habi ual wri i gs already o reflec i g la guage reali y. (For he XVII ce ury i was spelli gs of double le ers: Ь - е, и - i, о - ,  - ф, Ю - А - я /а / because he real opposi io of he pho emes le ered by hem had bee los a d he choice of hem was de ermi ed by he radi io o ly.

A ki d of he radi io al pri ciple is hypercorrec or hyperical spelli gs. hey appear as a resul of wro g ideas abou correc ess, as a resul of false e ymologizi g. Havi g bee fixed i a la guage such spelli gs become radi io al. I is prema urely o speak abou la guage fixa io wi h respec o he ma erial of "Ves y-Kura y. 1600-1639." Bu i is possible o se up hyperical pri ciple (reflec i g cha ges of spelli g co rary o cha ges of pho emes) as applied o foreig lexics i ge eral. So, all spelli gs i a y case are de ermi ed by ac io of hese or hographical pri ciples i he Russia la guage. Appare ly i is rue for foreig words oo. ow I would like o s udy i errela io of foreig words a d or hographical sys em of he Russia la guage i he XVII ce ury whe u codified spelli g s a dards exis ed i use o ly a d o fi d ou he specifici y of or hographic assimila io of borrowi gs. I is especially a rac ive because of havi g bee kep he "Kura y" i rough a d fair copies. Looki g hrough a d rewri i g rough copies a scriber correc ed hem a d his es ima io eleme migh be evide ce of he aspira io o follow a cer ai la guage usage. Spelli g usage could coi cide wi h livi g la guage phe ome a or o . ow here are a few words abou ech ique. he firs s ep was ma erial selec io . I co ec io wi h usi g some s a is ical me hod eleme s i he work he ma erial was limi ed o ames of places because mos of he appella ives some imes had oo i dividual ways of assimila io i he Russia la guage. he guided by graphic a d or hographical varia s of he words I made some a emps o defi e a la guage-source a d o res ore a spelli g form i i . I was res ored 316 ames of places i all. Af er he res ora io I observed i he ex s how he words reflec ed i he Russia la guage. Si ce or hographical varia s were i ves iga ed, hey could be differe i differe word-uses. So i was impor a o a umber of words bu a qua i y of word-uses i he ex s. here were 1790 o es i "Ves y-Kura y. 1600-1639." Le me pass o direc ly o he display of spelli g pri ciples i heir correla io wi h he Russia or hographical sys em. I would be more comfor able o begi wi h he radi io al pri ciple. As was said he radi io al pri ciple i he XVII ce ure ac ed as applied o he choice amo g double le ers a d he give spelli gs showed he choice havi g bee do e i favour of o e of varia s. hus, i he word "Боргъ" he scriber was give he choice o le er Oby o or  a d he chose o. his spelli g was de ermi ed by radi io or scriber prefere ce exclusively a d i did o reflec livi g la guage phe ome a. You could see 4 radi io al spelli gs of vowels i he word "Оверисел": o - , e - Ь, и - i, e - ь. o al umber of such radi io al spelli gs (for 1790 word-uses) was: o -  - 385, И - i - 588, e - Ь - 1263, я - А - Ю - - 102, кс -  - 18, ф -  - 118. Bu i was he firs s ep of radi io al spelli gs calcula io i he ex s. he seco d s ep was co ec ed wi h so-called double choice whe vowel was le ered. For example, choosi g a le er for he vowel pho eme аa wri er should choose bo h be wee o a d  a d be wee o a d а.

E. g.: he word 'Анзбах' (Ger. A sbach) had 2 or hograms i le eri g vowel pho emes: 1) he choice be wee a d o (accordi g o pho e ic or morphological pri ciple) a d, as co seque ce of he le er o - appeara ce, 2) he choice be wee o a d  (accordi g o radi io al o e). Bu he seco d s ep migh be realized af er a alysis of morphological, pho e ical a d hyperical spelli gs o ly. A weak posi io of pho eme is he s ar i g-poi i he choice of le er i favour of morphological or pho e ic pri ciple. Bu weak posi io s for vowel a d co so a pho emes have differe co di io s. ha is why I'll co sider hem o e af er a o her. I should be remarked ha reproduc io of vowel combi a io s a d diph ho gs, addi io al vowel appeara ce i co so a combi a io s (f. e.: 'Карлесбад, Карелсбад, Карисбад' from Germa 'Karlsbad') are o a ylized i qua i a ive aspec . For vowels he weak posi io is a u s ressed o e. herefore a s ress de ermi es prese ce or abse ce of he or hogram i a word. U for u a ely he "Kura y" ex s are o acce ed. Al hough i is clear he resul s of he a alysis depe d o s ress posi io I however have made bold o s ress give forms of he foreig words. here are some addi io al dificul ies: borrowi gs bei g periphery of he la guage sys em are o u der he pressure of la guage s a dards, various forms i he ex s are few i umber. I was guided by give varia s of he words a d by he idea ha a acce i Russia could be o a y syllable a d i foreig words i of e kep he place of he origi al la guage. hus, here was he firs syllable s ressed i Germa mai ly, he las syllable i Fre ch, he pe ul ima e syllable i I alia . E. g.: ‚Висмар (Ger. Wismar), Колбергъ (Ger. Kolberg), Анор (Fr. A or), (у) Вервен(а) (Fr. Vervi s), Песар (I . Pesaro), Фазано (I . Fossa o). Pho emes a d le ers Correla io wi h pri ciples morphological pho e ic hyperical radi io al &l ;а> af er hard co so a s a d a he absolu e begi i g heigh of words. Le ers О a d А 212 8 9 136 &l ;i> af er sof co so a s. Le ers Е a d И 563 67 5 629 &l ;у> af er hard co so a s ( he begi i g of words af er heigh proposi io ). Le ers И a d Ы 50 26 - 26 able 1. Ra io of morphological, pho e ic, hyperical a d radi io al or hographic pri ciples i vowel pho eme le eri g o foreig word ma erial from "Ves y-Kura y. 1600-1639". We have o possibili y o give he lis of acce ed forms i he paper. Ma y words have wo acce s (o e of hem, addi io al, appears by vir ue of pho e ic reaso s). he addi io al s ress posi io is he s ro g o e i he Russia la guage a d i may be o co sidered. Le me proceed o he or hographic a alysis direc ly. A s ressed varia of he word is compared wi h wri e a d spoke forms i he la guage-source a d he is classified as he demo s ra io of cer ai pri ciples. he pho emes а(i he posi io af er hard co so a s a d a he absolu e begi i g of words) a d i(i he posi io af er sof co so a s a d a he begi i g of words where i ca al er a e wi h y) are co sidered. So, аi hese posi io s may be le ered by O or A i Russia . If ais le ered by A a d ais a reflex of he pho eme desig a ed i a la guagesource by he le er reproduci g pho eme refllex ai is co sidered as he display of morphological pri ciple.

On Adaptation // NYRB, December 4, 1969. Repr. in SO. On a Book Entitled Lolita // Anchor Review, 2 (June 1957). Repr. in Lolita. New York: Putnam's, 1958. On Inspiration // Saturday Review of the Arts, January 6, 1973, 30, 32. Repr. SO. On Learning Russian // Wellesley Magazine, April 1945, 191192. On Some Inaccuracies in Klot's Field Guide // Lepidopterists' News, 6 (1952), 41. Repr. SO. On Translating Pushkin: Pounding the Clavichord // NYRB, April 30, 1964, 1416. Repr. SO. Painted Wood // Carrousel, 2 (1923), 910. Pale Fire. New York: Putnam's, 1962. Pnin. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1957. Poems and Problems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. Postscript to the Russian Edition of Lolita. Trans.PEarl D. Sampson, in Rivers and Nicol, 188194. Pouchkine, ou le vrai et le vraisemblable // Nouvelle revue fran—aise, March 1937, 362378. Problems of Translation: 'Onegin' in English // Partisan Review, Automn 1955, 496512. The Real Life of Sebastian Knight. Norfolk, Conn.. New Directions, 1941. Rebel's Blue, Bryony White // Times Educational Supplement, October 23, 1970, 19. Repr. SO

1. Problems of the youth

2. On some problems of classification of political parties

3. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

4. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

5. Problem of Synonyms in the Translation

6. The problem of violence
The problem of violence
7. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)
8. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

9. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

10. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

11. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

12. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

13. The Queen of the UK

14. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

15. The fastest computers of the world

16. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

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17. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

18. The dark side of the moon

19. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

20. Culture of the youth

21. Problems of city and country life

22. The protection of the environment
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23. Cities of the USA
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24. The Russian Federation
The Russian Federation

25. Washington is the capital of the USA

26. The pride of the nation

27. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

28. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

29. Dawn of the digital information era

30. History of democracy of the USA

31. Political System of the USA

32. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

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33. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

34. Survey of the British Geography and Life

35. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Most Popular Poet of the Nineteenth Century

36. The making of the collection

37. American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries

38. Valley of the Kings
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39. Establishment of the Federal judicial system
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40. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors
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41. Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin

42. Relief of the UK

43. Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?

44. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

45. Islam in the eyes of the West

46. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

47. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century

48. Перевод реферата "Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children"

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49. Changes and specimens of the English language

50. Constellations of the star sky

51. Emblems of the UK

52. Problem of meaning ambiguity in a language

53. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)

54. Social structure of the society
Social structure of the society
55. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier
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56. The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties
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57. The Heraldic Symbolism of the Unicorn on the British Coat-of-Arms

58. The origin and history of the English language

59. The outline of the period

60. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"

61. The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development

62. Historical measurement of the science of governing

63. Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

64. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

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66. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

67. Working out of the search algorithm of failures of Air Conditioning System of TU-154

68. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

69. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

70. The Economy of Great Britain
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71. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
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72. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

73. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

74. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

75. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

76. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

77. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

78. The Tower of London

79. The Economy of Great Britain

80. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

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81. The History of English

82. The profile of an effective manager

83. The Tower of London

84. The Hero of Our Time

85. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

86. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia
The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia
87. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
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88. The role of art in our life
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89. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

90. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

91. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

92. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

93. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

94. The profile of an effective manager

95. The history of Australia

96. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

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97. The teaching of Hugo Gratius

98. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

99. The United States of America

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