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How to use dictionary

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Pla 1. I roduc io 2. ypes of dic io aries a d heir co e 3. Ki ds of dic io aries: 3.1. ge eral dic io aries; 3.2. special dic io aries: 3.2.1. bili gual dic io aries; 3.2.2. expla a ory dic io aries; 3.2.3. e ymological dic io aries; 3.2.4. dic io aries of sy o yms; 3.2.5. phraseological dic io aries; 3.2.6. pro ou ci g dic io aries; 3.2.7. spelli g dic io aries 4. How o use a dic io ary. Dic io aries e ries. 5. he e cyclopedic ma erial of some America dic io aries. 6. Co clusio s 7. he lis of li era ure. Dic io ariesare ools, a d hey are much more complica ed, a d capable of ma y more uses he we suspec . All of us k ow s ude s eed e courageme a d guida ce i he use of dic io aries. Some s ude s are able o use heir dic io aries wi h a y hi g like efficie cy. Cer ai ly here mus be very few of hose who come up hrough he grades hese days who are o familiar wi h he de ails of looki g up words i dic io aries, bu i is o e hi g o fi d a word i a dic io ary a d qui e a o her o u ders a d fully i forma io here give abou i . Li guis s a d lexicographers have a ma er wi h dic io aries. Every li guis wi h a i eres i he qua i a ive proper ies of la guage will o some occasio be faced wi h some form of he ul ima e ques io i he word umbers game: ”How ma y words did Shakespeare use?”,“How ma y words are here i he E glish la guage?” “How ma y words should a dic io ary have?” he firs ques io ,a leas , has a defi i e al hough o simple a swer: Shakespeare’s comple e works co sis of a o al of 884647 words of ex co ai i g a gra d o al of 29066 differe words i cludi g proper ames.Bu o he ques io ”How ma y words should a dic io ary have” i is very difficul o a swer.Every dic io ary has a differe umber of words. O he co rary lexicographers have a ask o record he mea i gs of words, he ask of arra gi g hese mea i gs i he order hey hi k will be of mos help o hose who use heir work. Differe edi ors solve his problem of arra geme i differe ways. I he prefa ory par of a y dic io ary you will fi d some i dica io of he pla ha has bee followed i arra gi g he mea i gs. I he Werriam-Webs er dic io aries he mea i gs are arra ged as far as possible, i he order i wich hey arose. I hose dic io aries, he firs mea i gs give are he earlies a word is k ow o have had, a d he more moder mea i gs come la er. he arra geme of mea i gs is difficul , ha ’s why he o ly safe course is o exami e he forema er of he dic io ary o see wha pla has bee followed. Dic io ary is a book ha co ai s a selec ed lis of words arra ged i alphabe ical order. I explai s heir mea i gs a d gives i forma io abou hem. I a dic io ary a perso ca look up a word quickly, discover wha i mea s a d lear how i is pro o ced. Dic io aries give he mea i gs of ma y ki ds of words. Mos moder dic io aries describe he fac s of a la guage as educa ed speakers a d wri ers use i . hey are called descrip ive dic io aries because a dic io ary edi or does o cha ge he fac s of a la guage. Ma y older dic io aries ried o prescribe rules, some of wich did o agree wi h he way people commo ly alked or wro e. hese books are called prescrip ive dic io aries.

Mos ge eral dic io aries i clude: 1) he ordi ary words of everyday life, such as bread, ru a d wi h; 2)li erary words used as aggrega io , despoil, i co rover ible; 3) hech ical word, such as s arboard, ge e a d ra io; 4) words used chiefly o i formal occasio s, such as gap a d wimp; 5) words used i wri i g o give a old-fashio ed flavor, such as aweary a d avau ; 6) words o used oday bu fou d i he wri i gs of some au hors, such as plais er for plas er; 7) words or phrases form o her la guages, such as coup d’e a from Fre ch, ofu from Japa ese a d barrio from Spa ish. 8) Idioms, such as spli hairs a d u er he humb of; 9) Abbrevia io s, such as U.S.A., Ka s., a d p.; 10)Impor a proper ames, such as Buddha a d Jupi er. o dic io ary records all he words of our la guage. I fac , o o e k ows exa ly how ma y words here are. Besides ordi ary words used i evereryday speech, he E glish la guage i cludes housa ds of geaografical ames; hu dreds of housa ds of ech ical erms, i cludi g more ha 750000 ames of i spec s alo e. ew words are coi ed for ewscie ifiv a d ech ical discoveries, a d sla g words a d specific vocabularies co s a ly spri g up. As a io s draw closer oge her hrough rade a d ravel, sa elli e commu ica io , a d shari g of ech ology, la guages e d o borrow more a d more words from each o her. ha is why dic io ary edi ors mus be selec ive i he words hey decide o i clude. Mos dic io aries ell us much more ha jus he mea i gs of words. Ma y lis pro u cia io s, deriva io s, refixes a d suffixes, illus ra ive quo a io s, sy o yms a d o her i forma io . he illus ra io ar icles i dic io aries show i de ail wha dic io aries co ai . Dic io aries may be clasified as ge eral dic io aries a d special dic io aries. A ge eral dic io ary co ai s i forma io o everyday words such as i a d he. Bu i also defi es ma y ech ical erms, such as chroma ografhy a d columella. A specialized dic io ary omi s mos everyday erms, a d limi s i self o i forma io o words used i a par icular field, such as biology. Ge eral dic io aries ra ge i size from small pocke dic io aries o large mul ivolume or able dic io aries. he umber of e ries i ge eral dic io ary depe ds, o i s purpose. Each dic io ary is desig ed o a swer he ques io s of a cer ai ype of reader. he World Book Dic ioa ry is a example of a dic io ary desig ed for family use. he larges ge eral dic io aries may co ai over 400000 e ries whe a dic io ary has his ma y e ries, ma y absole e a d ech ical erms are i cluded. O her ge eral dic io aries may have from 15000 e ries o 200000 e ries. Specialized dic io aries are desig ed o give more i forma io i par icular fields ha ge eral dic io aries ca .Dic io aries of his ki d ca be divided i o such group as: 1) Expla a ory dic io aries 2) E ymological dic io aries 3) Dic io aries of sy o yms 4) Phraseological dic io aries. Besides, such dic io aries ca be me io ed as his orical dialec al. Bili gual or ra sla i g dic io aries rerese he mos ordi ary, widespread ype. hey co ai words a d expressio s of he a ive la guage a d heir foreig equivale s, or vice-versa.

( he E glish-Russia dic io ary by V. K. Miller, e c) Expla a ory dic io aries give defi i io s of word mea i gs. I fac o a cer ai ex e hey acquai us wi h he his ory of vocabulary developme . he expla a io are give i he same la guage, so hey are o e-la guage dic io aries, as i were. For example “Webs er’s ew World dic io ary of he America la guage”, Webs er’s “ ew I er a io al dic io ary of he E glish la guage”are usually co sidered o be he mos available a d popular edi io s. Bu he grea es au hori y, a urally, a d he mos comprehe sive is he ew E glish dic io ary o His orical Pri ciples. E ymological dic io aries s a e he origi of words. If borrowed, he source of borrowi g a d he origi al form are give , wi h all he subseque cha ges i mea i g a d usage. If a ive, he A glo-Dako form is give oge her wi h he his ory of word developme paralel forms i o her Gema ic la guages. Skea ’s E ymological dic io ary is believed o be o e of he mos widely used. Dic io aries of sy o ymes give ei her groups of sy o yms wi hou a y expla a io s of differe ce i shades of mea i g or usage, as co cise dic io aries usually do, or as i full-size sy o ymic dic io aries, o e ca fi d le g hy defi i io s of every sy o ym ha he group co ai s wi h eve direc io s as o how o use hem. he dic io ary of his ki d is he Webs er’s dic io ary of sy o yms. I does o give a y e ymological or his orical i forma io bu i supplies very de ailed a d ex e sive expla a io s of he sub les shades of mea i g ha sy o yms differ i . he lis s of sy o ymes are much more exhaus ive ha i he earlier dic io aries of sy o ymes (e. g. amiable, lovable, gracious, cordial, affable, ge ial, warm-hear ed, warm, respo sive, ki d, e der, ki dly, begig a , be ig ). Phraseological dic io aries deal wi h phraseological group of a cer ai la guage(“E glish Idioms” by W. G. Smi h, “E glish Idioms a d how o use hem” by W. McMordie e c) he bes k ow pho e ical dic io ary is “A E glish Pro ou ci g Dic io ary” by Jo es.Amo g dialec al dic io aries he “Sla g Dic io ary” by Cha o a d Wi dus is famous. I is also called “E hymological, His orical a d A ecdo al”. Before usi g a dic io ary, o e should become familiar wi h he me ods, pri ciples, a d scope of he book because various dic io aries are arra ged i differe ways. Ma y America dic io aries are arra ged i differe ways. Ma y america dic io aries arra ge all e ries i a si gle alphabe ical lis . O hers pu abbrevia io s, geographical a d biographical ames, a d foreig words a d phrases i separa e lis s, usually a he e d of he book. All good dic io aries oday have i roduc ory sec io s ha explai wha he book co ai s a d how i is arra ged. Firs of all le us ow look carefully a some dic io ary e ries i a effor o secure from hem all he i forma io hey co ai . We shall begi by looki g closely a he e ry a ecdo e i he College edi io of Webs er’s ew World Dic io ary. a .ec.do e(a ’ik-do ’), , [Fr. ;ML. A ecdo a;Gr. A ekdo a, eu . Pl. of a ecdo s u published;a -, o ekdo os 1) pl. Origi ally, li le-k ow , e er ai i g fac s of his ory or biography; he ce, 2) a shor , e er ai i g accou of some happe i g, usually perso al or biographical.

Chiang acceded to Russian demands to let MaoБЂ™s men hang on to their territorial gains and stay in the heartland of China near Nanjing and Shanghai. Mao had been quick to see how helpful Western journalists like Snow could be to his cause, but slow to appreciate how useful the British and American governments could be in tying ChiangБЂ™s hands. His hostility to both states had been extreme. On 25 October 1940 he had told his top brass how he hoped Britain could be occupied by the Nazis, and the Japanese would continue to occupy China: БЂњthe most difficult, most dangerous and darkest scenario,БЂ« he said, was Chiang БЂњjoining the AngloUS blocБЂ«: We must envisage this: that the Japanese are unable to take Singapore БЂ¦ which will be taken by the US navy; London does not fall БЂ¦ Japan surrenders to America; Japanese army leaves China; America finances and arms the pro-Anglo-American Chinese БЂ¦ It canБЂ™t be darker than this. This scenario was to Mao worse than Japanese occupation. But all of a sudden there was a spectacular change in his attitude

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