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The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

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Fra ce always played a impor a role i he life of Europe. I was old ha o u ders a d Europe you have o k ow Fra ce. he s ory of Europe is he s ory of Fra ce. Every hi g Fra ce ook par i is a par of life of differe Europea cou ries. he impac of Fre ch Revolu io o Europe is so huge, ha i made i s impac o he whole XIX ce ury. I made i s s ep o ki d ess wi h he help of he clever ideas, freedom a d equali y. I brough ligh i he ideas of ma y cou ries a d horrified some of hem. Socialism of he XIX ce ury was also he idea of Fre ch Revolu io , i also was a reac io o Fre ch Revolu io , a d he reac io agai s ha Fra ce did o make i s promises: liber y a d equali y. he reac io o Fre ch Revolu io was i differe . he ac io s happe i g i Fra ce showed ha revolu io i self bri gs a archy a d error. he s ruggle of people for be er life, for liber y a d fair ess bri gs o repressio , error, va dalism a d dea h. o alk abou impac of o e ac io , happe i g o o e a io o he life of o hers a d heir his ory is o easy, eve hough i is such a grea eve as revolu io . Fre ch Revolu io for a lo g ime made impac o Europe wi h i s ideas a d became he reaso o some ac io s of he people for a ce ury. ha is why, o alk abou he impac of he revolu io is o alk how he ideas of he release from he o -gover me al s a es were brough from o e a io o a o her. ha is how ideas of he rebel a d he s ruggle agai s old reforms emerged o all he cou ries. he a emp o make he cha ges i he his ory awakes people for ac ive deeds. Revolu io i self garde s a d pro ec s. I poi s how da gerous i is for a y form of gover me he combi a io he masses of people who are agai s some hi g, because hey are o u der co rol, how revolu io is u predic able a d how i ca ur for ma y i o he crush of hopes a d des i ies. “Fre ch Revolu io was very complex eve which raises so ma y differe a d co radic ory assessme s. Ma y differe groups of people of various public moveme s, differe classes have ried o fi d a be er life for hemselves a d heir ow way o resolve issues of jus ice a d freedom hrough revolu io . reme dous passio of people o free hemselves from he oppressio of he rich, from he i jus ice ca o o o evoke sympa hy. How o make all of hem free, happy a d prosperous? Eve Rousseau, Helve ius, Mably, Didero , a d o hers co sider a i equali y of s a es a d he accumula io of weal h i he ha ds of a few people he major obs acle o he es ablishme of democra ic freedom. A d i he years of revolu io , hese a i udes bega o speak wi h grea er force. Ma y of he Revolu io is s mai ai ed ha equali y of poli ical righ s is o hi g, if o righ i prac ice. he la er, said Co dorce , represe s &quo ; he la es arge of public ar &quo ;, si ce he i equali y of weal h, i equali y of s a es a d i equali y of educa io - he mai premise of all evil. A very commo formula he firs years of he revolu io : &quo ;Big s a es represe a obs acle o freedom.&quo ; I large ci ies, people i he eeds of life i self firs appeared commu is ideas. Chief amo g hem: he dis ribu io of mea s of subsis e ce a d he ge eral membership o he grou d, as well as he righ o educa io for all.

I was assumed, alo g wi h he righ of all he produc s a d he produc s of he firs a d seco d ecessi y, as a perso al righ o surplus” (Karlyle, 2002). his opic will help o u ders a d, wha revolu io is, how i appears, how i is impor a for he o her cou ries: wha ki d of philosophical, eco omical a d social ideas i brough o he huma i y wha is i s role i he his ory. I every s a e here are people who are o happy wi h heir lives. Revolu io appears whe he masses of people, who are o happy wi h laws, gover me a d heir lives, come oge her. Revolu io mea s o co ec differe classes of people. hey all have differe aims, differe i eres s, bu here is o e will – is o ge rid of life hey live a he mome . he rebel agai s exis i g laws is he co ec or of all he revolu io s. here were wo massive flows i Fra ce, which prepare a d made revolu io . Bourgeoisie, which had i s ow views o he gover me , a d prole aria , which were aimi g for be er life. Whe wo of hese flows came oge her, i he begi i g, wi h o e aim, a d he helped each o her, he revolu io s ar ed. “ he gover or should be o ly he emblem o a io al u i y, allegi g he will of Parliame , a d from ime o ime holdi g he bala ce be wee he par ies. he real power is bou d o be elec ed a d remai i he ha ds of Parliame , i which he educa ed bourgeoisie, represe i g a ac ive a d hough ful par of he a io , would have predomi a ed over all he es a es. I his case he Gover me mus e rich i dividuals a d he accumula io of huge weal h. Ma y believed ha he e richme of i dividuals is he way o e rich people. he eco omic desires of ha ime could reflec he o io of “freedom of i dus ry a d rade, sugges i g he prese ce of a large mass of workers, due o release farmers from feudal depe de ce a d he removal of s a e i erve io ha hider busi essma . Accordi g o he aspira io s, k owledge a d skills i poli ical affairs, by i s ow co scie ce a d co sis e cy, bourgeoisie, of course was superior o ordi ary folk, who did o crea e a public a d eco omic ideal, al hough he grea ideas of freedom a d equali y came o he darkes cor ers of he cou ry. Al hough i he mi ds of a ligh had flashed i dig a io a d rebellio , a d hope o close he cha ge forced he hear bea eve he mos dow rodde people, he ideas of a io al libera io a d eco omic cha ges were ma ifes ed i he people o ly i he form of a usual de ial a d vague desire for some hi g. Ma y favouri es hough : &quo ;Why ell people how fu ure will pa ou ? his is jus cool revolu io ary fervour. Le people have he s re g h o a ack he old i s i u io s, a d we'll see how o live&quo ;. his lack of people clear idea of wha o expec from he Revolu io , led he o a varie y of collisio s a d led o a archy a d spo a ei y” (Ge z, 2002). “Fre ch Revolu io had a grea impac o Europea a io s a d i spired mos ly all of he cou ries, which ook par i he eve s of revolu io begi i g i Europe i he XIX ce ury. Repressio s s ar ed o ake par i E gla d si ce 1892. Dissa isfac io of he gover me was risi g i E gla d, here were more speeches of poor people a d massive discomposure of he sailors.

he gover me a swered wi h arres s, execu i g of he people aki g par i rebellio , jails a d ba di g of a y democra ic commu i ies a d worki g a io s. Irela d, s ill bei g he colo y of E gla d, saw help i Fre ch Revolu io . he democra ic flow was s ar ed. All he e emies of E gla d were draw oge her i he head of bourgeoisie revolu io is s. hey wa ed o crea e i depe de Irish republic. hey were prepari g uprisi g, relyi g o he help of Fra ce. Fre ch Revolu io also had a impac o he appeari g he e ire poli ical eve s i he Europea cou ries. here, as well as i Fra ce, he revolu io ary ac io s s ar ed. Firs of all hey have s ar ed i Belgium. A d as he resul Belgium became a par of Fra ce i 1795. I had los i s sovereig y a d i s eco omy was u der co rol of Fre ch bourgeoisie” (Davies, 1996). “ here were cha ges also i he poli ical life o Swi zerla d. Fre ch Revolu io brough o he democra ic ac io s i Swi zerla d. Af er Fre ch roops were o he erri ory of Swi zerla d here was a ew co s i u io made, which broke old public rela io s a d ew bourgeoisie laws appeared. Germa y also became a cou ry Fre ch Revolu io had a grea impac o . Germa bourgeoisie was oo weak i eco omic se se a d o developed o overcome he divisio of heir cou ry a d become he head of i s gover me . I I aly, he idea o Fre ch Revolu io also fou d ma y followers. I he middle of hem, Philippe Buo arro i, who has moved o Fra ce duri g he Revolu io . He was closely co ec ed wi h ma y figures of I alia democracy, which relied o Fra ce i res ori g he u i y of I aly. Despi e he fac ha i he e d of Bo apar e’s campaig , here were serious erri orial a d poli ical co figura io s, ei her he direc or, or Bo apar e did o suppor he I alia Democra s o crea e a u ified I alia republic. he Fre ch i erve io had a aggressive charac er. All his led o a crea io of a secre revolu io ary socie y i Piedmo , direc ed agai s mo archy a d agai s Fre ch. he uprisi g, orga ised by his socie y was bru ally crushed by Fre ch roops. I he e d, whe he seco d coali io agai s Fre ch was formed, Fre ch Army could o lo ger rely o I alia folk. Af er Fre ch roops lef I aly, he old order was res ored”(Aliso ,2009). I deed, he revolu io has led o e ormous poli ical, eco omic a d educa io al reforms i he cou ry a d i Europe. he eco omic recovery i Fra ce le her make more ha 20 years of war. Wi hi four years of he revolu io , Fra ce was ra sformed. Fra ce became he s a e of weal hy farmers wi h high produc ivi y. a io has refreshed. his ma ifes ed i he obsessio wi h poli ical affairs a d i he i depe de ce of judgme s. he revolu io i he cou ry has ma aged o preserve he la d co fisca ed from he obili y a d he church, o keep freedom, reclaimed from he Mo archy. Eve af er comi g o power of he Bourbo s he old order was res ored. I he his ory of people comes ime which bri gs sig ifica cha ge i he whole sys em of heir life. A d he i seems likely wo ways: reform or revolu io . Some imes here is o e mome whe reforma io is s ill possible, bu if his mome is o used by he rulers of he cou ry, herefore he revolu io begi s.

Maurice of Nassau, Gustavus Adolphus, Raimondo Montecucoli, and the «Military Revolution» of the Seventeenth CenturyP// Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, 1986. Р.P35). 23Lynn J. The Trace Italienne and the Growth of Armies: The French CaseP// The Journal of Military History. Vol.P55. P3 (Jul., 1991). Р.P323. 24Lynn J.A. Tactical Evolution in the French Army. 15601660P// French Historical Studies. Vol.P14. Issue 2 (Autumn, 1985). Р.P176191. И Дж. Линн не одинок в этом мнении. Так, английский историк Р.PБржезинский полагает, что нововведения Густава Адольфа вовсе не носили столь уж революционный характер. По его мнению, король больше заслуживает внимания как государственный и политический деятель, нежели как полководец и военный реформатор, славу которых он заслужил только в результате стечения обстоятельств (см: Brzezinski R. The Army of Gustavus Adolfus (2): Cavalry. Oxford, 1993. P.P3435). 25См., например: Black J. European Warfare 14941660 and the Military RevolutionP// History Review. March 2003. P.P4752; The Medieval Military Revolution: State, Society and Military Change in Medieval and early Modern Europe. L., 1998 и др. 26Rogers C.J

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99. Ways of exploring the world


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