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Russia and the international economy

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1. Russia a d he i er a io al rade sys em  Accordi g o a medium- erm forecas for developme s i he area of he i er a io al eco omy, busi ess revival is cumula i g mome um af er he recessio i experie ced i early 1990s. I had a releva effec o he world rade. I 1994 he average i er a io al rade ur over showed a 9.5 perce grow h bei g a record figure i he las 20 years a d by 3 imes exceedi g he i crease i he i er a io al produc io . I 1995 he World rade Orga iza io es ima ed 8 perce i crease i rade ur over as compared wi h a 3 perce grow h i he world produc io . World Ba k exper s hi k ha i he ex 10 years a average i crease i foreig rade will make 6 perce a ually.  A eco omic ru -up i mos i dus rialized cou ries was followed by a growi g dema d for ma y produc s a d a co secu ive price hike o i er a io al marke s.  Oil marke s showed a bala ce of dema d a d supply i 1995. Average prices of Dubai oil were a $ 123 per me ric o , by 14.9 perce exceedi g 1994 averages. Ow i g o small i crease i he world oil co sump io a d prac ically u cha ged supply si ua io o percep ible cha ge of prices is expec ed.  A re d of a ural gas prices o marke s i Wes er Europe was prac ically he same as he oil price dy amics. I 1995 average prices were by 13.4 perce higher as compared wi h 1994.  Prices of o ferrous me als have rise drama ically. I 1995 average world prices were as follows: alumi um -- $ 1806 per me ric o (20.3 perce rise i compariso wi h 1994), copper -- $ 2933 (higher by 23.3 perce ), ickel -- $ 8063 (19.3 perce grow h).  As a resul of he 1994-95 record price surge i he whole period af er he World War II cellulose joi ed he leaders wi h a 50 perce price hike (up o more ha $ 1000 per me ric o ). Accordi g o a middle-ra ge ou look price s abiliza io accompa ied by a sligh price rise is expec ed.  As marke rela io s develop, process of i er al price s ruc ure forma io co i ues i Russia a d i gradually closes o he price sys em exis i g o world marke s. I 1995 co rac prices grew percep ibly, however, prices of a majori y of e ergy resources lagged behi d hose o he world rade marke s i erms of ra es of i crease. he ou come was a worse i g bala ce be wee co rac a d world prices.  A impor a role i developme of he i er a io al rade is played by he GA /W O which for 48 years ried o work ou he fu dame als of a fu ure world rade basi g o pri ciples of observa ce of he Agreeme 's ge eral regula io s aimed o keep up o -discrimi a io of i dividual s a es a d o a gradual elimi a io of barriers slowi g dow mu ual excha ge of commodi ies. Si ce 1950 he world rade ur over has i creased by 13 imes a d eigh rou ds of mul ila eral rade ego ia io s held u der he GA 's auspices have led o a e -fold cu of average cus oms du ies. A prese i makes a bi less ha 4 perce .  Russia's accessio o he W O will make i possible o ap all measures exis i g wi hi he framework of his orga iza io i order o pro ec Russia's eco omic i eres s. A prese direc or co cealed discrimi a io of Russia producers a d raders o marke s of cer ai cou ries is amo g fac ors affec i g Russia expor s dy amics.

hus, o ly he ba o Russia ura ium expor s o he USA has led o losses for Russia, as es ima ed by some exper s, a $170 millio a year. he o al umber of a i-dumpi g procedures imposed upo Russia has reached 41. More ha a half of hem (22) are qualified as ope ly discrimi a ory cases or u jus ified claims by he Mi is ry of Foreig Eco omic Rela io s.   I he summer of 1995 he firs rou d of ego ia io s be wee he Russia delega io a d he W O's Worki g Group o Russia ook place i Ge eva. Members of he Worki g Group apprised i forma io o foreig rade regula io s s a ed i he Russia Memora dum as exhaus ive e ough.  A ou come of he seco d rou d aki g place from December 4 o 7 of 1995 was he comple io of discussio of he Russia Memora dum o he foreig rade regime as co cer s rade i goods. Besides, he firs discussio o special a exes o he Memora dum embraci g pro ec io of i ellec ual proper y righ s, rade i services a d rade-rela ed i ves me measures was held. A he same ime, he W O member cou ries have reserved he righ o rever o a de ailed discussio o hree key issues: if s a e-ow ed rade orga iza io s exis i Russia (Moscow de ies his); impor lice si g; subsidizi g of ex er al opera io s. However, eve ow hey agree i pri ciple ha he Russia legisla io is i accorda ce wi h he W O's rules a d orms i hese areas of he foreig rade regula io .  here are o appare oppo e s o Russia's accessio o he W O, si ce he world rade, especially i he area of rade i raw ma erials, ca o be regula ed wi hou par icipa io of Russia. However, he admissio of Russia may be surrou ded by a umber of addi io al obliga io s o direc ly followi g from he W O requireme s. Bila eral co sul a io s held i Ge eva have show ha Russia will face some complica io s i he course of ariff ego ia io s.  O he whole, he ou come of he seco d rou d of Ge eva alks has bee successful for Russia.  2. Regula io of Ex er al Eco omic Ac ivi ies   I 1995 cer ai cha ges were i roduced o he mecha ism of he s a e regula io of he foreig rade. I he firs half of 1995 he s a e regula io of oil expor s was subs a ially ame ded: quo as a d lice ses i oil expor s were abolished alo gside wi h prefere ces (wi h exclusio of supply pursua o i ergover me al agreeme s) while expor du ies o oil a d oil produc s were sig ifica ly reduced; cer ai oil produc s were excluded from he lis of s ra egically impor a commodi ies. Producers' access o cha els allowi g ra spor a io of oil o o her cou ries (pipeli es a d ermi als i sea por s) became a a ural res rai o expor s.  he lis of s ra egically impor a raw commodi ies was shor e ed a d he i s i u io of special expor ers was abolished al oge her. he sys em of co rac s' regis ra io became he mai i s rume of co rol over expor s. I dividual prefere ces gra ed o par icipa s of ex er al eco omic ac ivi ies were abolished, excludi g hose issued i accorda ce wi h he laws of he Russia Federa io .  he law "O S a e Regula io of Foreig rade" adop ed i July came i o force i Oc ober. he law s ipula ed wha au hori y i his area shall be wi h he Preside , he Gover me a d he Mi is ry of Foreig Eco omic Rela io s.

he exclusive ess of he MFER's posi io was emphasized by he fac ha o ly i was ves ed wi h he righ o lice se impor a d expor ra sac io s subjec o qua i a ive res ric io s or o approval procedures.  As pursua o he law, he Russia Gover me shall submi a program of foreig rade developme oge her wi h a draf of he Federal budge for he Parliame 's approval. Alo gside wi h o her provisio s his program shall embrace cus oms ariff ra es pla ed for he year i ques io as well as he ba d of heir possible fluc ua io , hus maki g he foreig rade more predic able. he Gover me has he righ o i roduce expor a d impor qua i a ive res ric io s o a io al securi y grou ds, o comply wi h i er a io al agreeme s or o pro ec he domes ic marke , however, hese measures shall be a ou ced o less ha 3 mo hs prior o heir ac ual i roduc io . he law e visages a possibili y o i roduce s a e mo opoly for rade i cer ai produc s. I his case a special procedure of lice si g impor a d expor opera io s exclusively o s a e-ow ed e erprises shall be applied.  As he above me io ed law was effec ua ed, he Commissio of he RF Gover me o Safeguard Measures i Foreig rade became fully legi ima e a d i December i received "Procedures of I ves iga io Prior o Applica io of Safeguard Measures" approved by he MFER (Russ.abbr. MVES). A possibili y o apply safeguard measures agai s compe i ive impor ed produc s complies wi h usual prac ices applicable i he world rade. I his area Russia is la e i worki g ou a d applica io of such measures, especially aki g i o accou ha Russia expor s are of e a d i mos cases u jus ifiably subjec o discrimi a io o foreig marke s. So, he RF impor regime loses i s excep io al liberalism which has bee charac eris ic of i u il rece ly.   ariff regula io . From Sep ember hrough December expor du ies levels were gradually lowered u il heir comple e aboli io si ce Ja uary 1, 1996, wi h a excep io of a small group of goods i cludi g oil, a ural gas a d some o her raw commodi ies. I Ju e a d i Oc ober, 1996 impor du y ra es were cha ged. O he whole, cha ges were made i direc io of a i crease i ariffs. Earlier goods axable a 1 perce have co s i u ed a ra her sig ifica par of he lis , a prese his ra e is o ly applicable o cer ai goods wi hi Group 10 of he Ex er al Eco omic Ac ivi y commodi y ome cla ure (grai ) a d 1701 (ca e sugar, bee firm sugar a d sucrose). A 10 perce ariff is ow applied o medici es which earlier have bee exemp from du ies while fish a d fish produc s are subjec o a double rise of du ies (from 5 o 10 perce ) a d du ies o vege ables were ripled (from 5 o 15 perce ). For foods uffs earlier exemp ed from du ies ew ariffs made 5 perce o ba a as a d ci rus frui s, 10 perce o ee a d coffee, 15 perce o fresh cucumbers, however, ra es of impor du ies i Russia s ill remai co siderably lower ha i he EU cou ries (16 perce agai s 21 perce ). here were effec ua ed provisio s s ipula i g a 30 perce du y o goods such as luxuries, obacco produc s, alcoholic beverages a d weapo s.   ax regula io . As before, close a e io was paid o produc s subjec o excise axa io .

Наконец, во второй половине 90-х годов сложилась ситуация, когда только 5 процентов торговых потоков, начинающихся или заканчивающихся на территории одного из 29 государств--членов ОЭСР, выходят вовне этой совокупности стран[413], ------------------------------------- [406] - См.: Kenwood A.G., Lougheed A.L. The Growth of the International Economy 1820-1990. An Introductory Text. L.-N.Y., 1992. P. 286. [407] - См.: Korten D.C. When Corporations Rule the World. P. 18. [408] - См.: Hopkins Т.К., Wallerstein E., et al. The Age of Transition. Trajectory of the World System 1945-2025. L., 1996. P. 71. [409] - См.: Yergin D., Stanislaw J. The Commanding Heights. P. 370; Kiplinger K. World Boom Ahead. Why Business and Consumers Will Prosper. Wash., 1998. P. 27. [410] - См.: Judy R. W., D'Amico C. Workforce 2000. P. 23. [411] - См.: Piore M.J., Sabel Ch.F. The Second Industrial Divide. Possibilities for Prosperity. N.Y., 1984. P. 186. [412] - См.: Krugman P. Peddling Prosperity. Economic Sense and Nonsense in the Age of Diminishing Expectations. N.Y.-L., 1994. P. 231; Kenwood A.G., Lougheed A.L

1. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

2. Economy of Russia and Economic crisis

3. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

4. The US Economy after September 11th. Decline or Rapid Growth? (Экономика США после 11-ого сентября. Снижение или Быстрый Рост?)

5. Country Study, Slovenia: Winning the Transitional Economies Race

6. Huey Lewis and the News
Huey Lewis and the News
7. Presents in Russia and America
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8. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

9. Alcohol and the Workplace

10. Robin Hood and The Sheriff

11. Usa. Howard h. Aiken and the computer

12. The Higher school and the ways to science

13. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

14. The Sound and the Fury

15. World War I and the Armenian Genocide

16. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

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17. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

18. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

19. The USA economy

20. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

21. Ghandi and the myth of non-violent action

23. Biopolitics in Russia: History and Prospects for the Future
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24. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia
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25. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

26. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

27. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

28. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

29. The cinema in Russia today

30. The Irish and South America

31. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

32. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

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33. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars

34. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

35. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars

36. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

37. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

38. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA
39. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)
40. International organizations and international co-operation
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41. Flora and Fauna of the USA

42. Internal Structure of a Proton and New Method of Receiving of Energy

43. The USA: its history, geography and political system

44. Survey of the British Geography and Life

45. The Medieval Tower: A refuge and a base for royal power

46. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

47. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

48. Sport and recreation in the United States

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49. Summary on the subject: Gender Issues and Hopewell Culture

50. Changes and specimens of the English language

51. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

52. The British Character and English Humour

53. The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French

54. The Life and Times of Shakespeare
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55. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.
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56. The role played by the german and scandinavian tribes on english language
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57. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

58. The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus

59. The Global Money Markets and Money Management

60. Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation

61. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

62. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

63. The great Britain

64. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

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65. Россия и независимые государства (перевод из "Economic and Post-Soviet Economic Structure and Performance")

66. Two approches to the scientific management

67. Democracy in Russia

68. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

69. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

70. The history of railways (История железных дорог)
71. Economic and sociological analysis of suicide
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72. Personnel selection and choice
Personnel selection and choice

73. The enviromental problems which concern the Mankind

74. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

75. Does the crime pay or not ?

76. Higher Education in The U.K.

77. International company Middlesex

78. Irish and America

79. Monopolistic competition and economic efficiency (Монополистическая конкуренция и экономическая)

80. Regulation in telecommunications industries: Why, What and How to Regulate?

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81. The Archangel Cathedral

82. The capturing

83. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

84. The great Britain

85. The Khabarovsk territory

86. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)
87. The role of art in our life
The role of art in our life
88. The Tower of London
The Tower of London

89. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

90. Великобритания - традиции и современность. Личное представление. (UK - Tradition and modernity. A personal view)

91. Nikolaev and Yakutia (Николаев и Якутия)

92. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)

93. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

94. Music and Ballet

95. Punks and Punk Rock

96. British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

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97. The History of English

98. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

99. Urbanization and Urban Issues

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