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The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

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S .Pe ersburg S a e U iversi y Facul y Of Eco omics he erm paper he His ory Of Smar -Cards a d heir Place I Moder Russiaau hor: Vic or ravi Co e s I roduc io 3 Wha are plas ic cards? Wha ki ds of cards exis ?3 Cards wi h mag e ic li e a d memory-cards3 Smar -cards: s ep forward5 he developi g of smar ech ology7 Smar -cards appear i Russia 8 Smar -cards as ba k’s cards8 Smar -cards as corpora e cards10 he place of smar -cards i moder Russia14 Plas ic card payme s i I er e 16 Co clusio 17 Sources a d li era ure19 I roduc io Russia smar -cards marke is o e of he fas es developi g sec ors of cou ry’s fi a cial marke . he rial period which was over by 1995 allowed i s par icipa s o lear ech ologies a d problems ha ca be hi upo while deali g wi h “cards” busi ess. he fac ha more he 500.000 i er a io al plas ic cards were issued i Russia for several las years o ly approves of he opicali y of such payme sys ems.Wha are plas ic cards? Wha ki ds of cards exis ? Cards wi h mag e ic li e a d memory-cards Cashless payme sys ems based o radi io al cards wi h mag e ic li e are domi a i g world wide. hey achieved o iceable improveme i supplyi g card ow ers wi h ma y ki ds of services. Bu he fac of i er al limi s i mag e ic li e cards leads o ma y ew problems. hese problems are: he i crease of fi a cial risks a d losses, admi is ra io expe ses, ech ical problems. his ki d of cards has a lo of disadva ages ha make heir opera io i Russia i same scale as i Europe impossible. he mos serious disadva age, i my opi io , is ha such sys ems require o -li e au horiza io i s ores a d, as a co seque ce, hey eed well bra ched high quali y commu ica io e s (e.g. elepho e li es).Because of his fac mag e ic li e cards sys ems have a serious res ric io for heir opera io i he cou ries wi h u sa isfac ory s a e of elecommu ica io sys ems. I also have o o ice a low securi y level of mag e ic li e cards a d he e ire ech ological chai of such sys ems. his of e leads o grea flow of u provided false ra sac io s. his aspec is a serious obs acle o developi g mag e ic card sys ems, especially i he cou ries wi h a high level of crimi ali y. Memory-cards belo g o chip-cards equipped wi h memory chip. Payme sys ems based o memory cards have impor a adva ages as compared wi h mag e ic li e cards. hey have a higher securi y level a d he op io of off-li e au horiza io i s ores. ech ical abili ies of chip buil i memory cards defi e res ric io s o heir opera i g i payme sys ems hough. We have jus he same problem here (as wi h mag e ic li e cards) – u sa isfac ory securi y level of a y si gle card a d sys em i ge eral. aki g crimi al si ua io i Russia i o co sidera io we have o admi ha his ki d of cards ca hardly fi d he appropria e place i moder Russia. his aspec cap ures a special place whe several ba ks are i volved i o e payme sys em, where special a e io should be paid o accide preve io a d au he ici y of fi a cial i forma io , differe ia io of respo sibili y for keepi g a secre i forma io wi h ra sac io members. Mai areas for memory-cards are sys ems of limi ed access o accommoda io a d compu er e works (ide ifica io cards); elepho e e works (cellular elepho e e work GSM); paypho e a d me ro cards, local payme sys ems (club cards).

Cer ai ly, memory-cards will fi d heir place, bu obviously hey will o be ruli g i fu ure. hus, mag e ic li e is a medium i mag e ic li e cards which lowers reliabili y a d makes mul i recordi g impossible a d requires o -li e access. he chip is a medium i memory-cards. Such cards ca be used wi h off-li e access, mul i recordi g is available, bu he procedure is s ill complex. Because of low securi y level ru i g memory-cards is da gerous.Smar -cards: s ep forward Mag e ic li e cards marke is ow formed i all developed cou ries. Gia i fras ruc ure was crea ed: processi g ce ers, mo ey access machi e, rade ermi als, hu dreds millio cards i use, i er a io al s a dards are formed a d admi ed. ha is why mag e ic li e cards will be s ill i use for ma y years. However, world leaders VISA, Europay, Mas erCard have already declared abou i evi able co versio o smar -card ech ology i fu ure. All of hem s ar ed developi g fu ure i er a io al s a dards for payme sys ems based o smar -cards. Eve i Europe where mag e ic li e cards are radi io ally popular smar -cards are wi i g o e projec af er a o her. he mos successful i roduc io of smar -cards is supposed o ake place i he cou ries where mag e ic cards hold a weak posi io ; i he cou ries wi hou high quali y well bra ched a d reliable commu ica io sys ems; i he cou ries wi h a high crimi al level where he popula io have a low credi reliabili y. hese days ma y Russia ba ks issue radi io al mag e ic cards of i er a io al payme sys ems. However, such issues are defi i ely orie ed o co cre e social co sumer group a d regio s of heir use are qui e limi ed. ow le s say some words abou a smar -card. he medium i smar -cards is a small processor chip. he ide ifica io area allows o ly o e record while perso alizi g he card a d la er available for readi g o ly. Access o o her areas available o ly af er he card holder e ered he proper “key”. he smar -cards securi y level is much higher ha he mag e ic cards o e. As o prices o smar -cards, hey are higher, bu hey become lower a d lower every year as heir ech ology is bei g improved a d produc io scale is bei g e larged he smar -cards are small compu ers is some way. Moder smar -card chips fea ures ca be compared wi h perso al compu ers i early 80’s. Par of he da a loca ed o a smar -card ca be used o ly i i er al card’s opera io s. his fac oge her wi h high level cryp ographic securi y makes smar -cards valuable asse for fi a cial sys ems dema di g addi io al securi y a d reliabili y. Because of ha smar -cards are ow co sidered o be he mos promisi g ki d of plas ic cards. hey ca be also co sidered o be he mos promisi g for heir fea ures. Smar -cards cou i g abili ies allow card holder o keep mul i-curre cy walle . As predic ed by VISA a d Europay/Mas erCard, smar -cards will replace mag e ic li e cards wi hi he 10 year period. he developi g of smar ech ology Firs smar -cards appeared i Fra ce i he middle 70’s. he mai adva ages as compared o mag e ic li e cards are higher reliabili y, securi y a d mul ifu c io ali y. he mai disadva age ha i is s ill difficul o ge over is high prime cos .

ever heless, i early 90’s rapid grow h of smar -cards marke ook place. hus, a he las smar - ech ology forum (Smar Card Forum), hos ed i he USA, s a is ical repor s showed ha he majori y of mag e ic li e cards ow er would use smar -cards as elec ro ic walle if heir ba k issued such cards. Bu fi a cial i s i u es ha worki g wi h smar -cards have a lo of ques io s a he mome . Ma y of hese ques io s s ill do o have a swers. Here are he mos popular o es: How high is he level of smar -cards securi y? Wha schemes should be used for ra sac io s: ope or secured? How available a d reaso able is he comple e replaceme of cash wi h elec ro ic mo ey? Wha au horiza io mode is be er: o -li e or off-li e? he fac of exis e ce of hese ques io s demo s ra es ha here is a high i eres i smar -cards co ec ed wi h a abili y o ra sform li le sum payme s i o cashless payme s. Visa researches show ha a ually more he 1,8 rillio dollars happe o less he 10 dollars ra sac io . Obviously opera io of hese payme hrough elec ro ic cards is more ha a rac ive. Bu he orga iza io of such ra sforma io hi s upo serious problems eve i well developed cou ries. I his case solvi g his problem wi h a help of elec ro ic walle s seems o be he mos effec ive. Accordi g o Jea Jacques Debo e, he preside of Europea bra ch of Visa I er a io al “ he developme of smar -cards, allowi g he clie o make less he 8 dollar payme s, will reble ba k’s cards profi ”Smar -cards appear i Russia Smar -cards as ba k’s cards BGS Smar card Sys ems AG is he official dealer a d dis ribu or of Visa I er a io al smar - ech ologies is Russia a d he former USSR marke . I was fou ded i 1997 a d holds righ for sof ware a d ech ologies of cashless payme s based o U.E.P.S s a dards. U.E.P.S. – u iversal elec ro ic payme sys em is a sys em based o smar -card ech ology. he mai ech ological fea ure of U.E.P.S. is ha all ra sac io opera io s are do e i off-li e mode rough direc co ac of wo smar -cards. BGS i roduced several large projec s for Sberba k of Russia, Proms royba k, I komba k a d some o her ba ks a d ba k’ u io s i Russia, he leadi g ba ks of Uzbekis a , Ukrai e a d Kazakhs a . I Sep ember 1996 BGS sig ed he agreeme wi h Visa I er a io al o developi g a d migra io of smar -card produc COPAC i cludi g U.E.P.S. as a basis. he ma er for grea er i eres is joi projec wi h Sberba k o crea i g he u i ed smar -card sys em (SberCard cards). aki g scale of spreadi g a d rece issue da e i o co sidera io we ca say ha SberCard is o of he mos promisi g card i Russia. O Sep 13 1996 duri g a ual mee i g of ba ks-members of i er a io al payme sys em VISA I er a io al a ou ced a ew produc – a ew plas ic card wi h microprocessor Chip Off-li e Preau horized Card. his produc has o special bra d ame ye , abbrevia io COPAC was ake as a worki g versio of a bra d ame. Si ce 1992 BGS compa y has exclusive righ for dis ribu io U.E.P.S ech ology i he former USSR, Wes er Europe a d Aus ria. VISA I er a io al declared i he seco d quar er of 1997 of he ew pilo projec wi h Sberba k of he Russia Federa io a d I komba k (U io Card) o i roduci g COPAC ech ology.

CEU Press, Budapest, London, New York, 1995. 86 Подробнее см. главу 13. 87 Русский вестник. 1875. №7. С. 414 88 Основа. 1861. № 1. С. 263-264 89 Witos W. Moje wspomnienia. T.1. Paryz. 1964. S. 132-134 90 Problems of Terminology and Periodlzation... P. 240. 91 Rudnytsky I. The Role of Ukraine in Modern History // I. Rudnytsky. Essays in Modern Ukrainian History... P. 25. (Украинский перевод этой ключевой работы Рудницкого см. в: Лисяк-Рудницький. Історичні есе. Т.1 Київ. 1994) 92 Rudnytsky I. The Role of Ukraine in Modern History... P. 12. 93 Weeks T. R. Nation and State in Late Imperial Russia. Nationalism and Russification on the Western Frontier, 1863—1914. DeKalb: Nothern Illinois Un, Press. 1996. P. 125. Название книги Викса заметно шире, чем ее содержание, - исследование касается только ХХ века. Предшествующий период лишь кратко описан, основываясь на имевшейся литературе, с повторением многих свойственных ей ошибок. 94 Krauchenko B. Social Change and National Consciousness in Twenteeth-Century Ukraine. New York, 1985. P. 3. 95 В схожем ключе эта проблема применительно к белорусам рассматривается в статье Д. Фурмана и О

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