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Искусство, Культура, Литература Искусство, Культура, Литература

The collection of French art in the Hermitage

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Раздел: Наклейки для оценивания, поощрения

Министерство образования Российской Федерации Санкт-Петербургский государственный инженерно-экономический университетИнститут туризма и гостиничного хозяйстваКурсовая работаНа тему « he collec io of Fre ch ar i he Hermi age» по дисциплине «ИЭД»Выполнила студентка 5014 гр., 2 курса Измакова Мария Проверила Н.А. Лаковская 2002 год I roduc io . he Hermi age is o e of he grea es museums i he world. Pu oge her hroughou wo ce uries a d a half, he Hermi age collec io s of works of ar (over 3,000,000 i ems) prese he developme of he world cul ure a d ar from he S o e Age o he 20 h ce ury. oday he Museum is crea i g i s digi al self-por rai o be displayed arou d he world. he collec io of Wes er Europea ar is regarded as o e of he fi es i he world, a d forms he ucleus of he Hermi age display. I occupies 120 rooms i he four museum buildi gs, a d reflec s all he s ages i he developme of ar from he Middle Ages o he prese day. he collec io i cludes umerous works by ou s a di g mas ers from I aly, Spai , Holla d, Fla ders, Fra ce, E gla d, Germa y, a d o her Wes er Europea cou ries. he collec io of Fre ch ar i he Hermi age is excep io ally rich a d is he fi es ou side Fra ce amo g he museums of he world. More he for y rooms are used o house he displays of pai i g, sculp ure a d various i ems of applied ar . Fre ch Ar : 15 h-18 h ce uries. he Hermi age collec io of he 15 h-18 h ce ury Fre ch pai i g is rich a d variable. I e ables us o race he developme of differe s yles a d schools of ha ime. Rooms 272 a d 273. 15 h-16 h ce ury ar . A he e d of he fif ee h ce ury he separa e feudal provi ces were u i ed i o a si gle Fre ch s a e gover ed by he ki g wi h i he framework of his a io al s a e here developed co di io s favourable o he grow h of cul ure. I he ow of Limoges he produc io of e amels was revived af er a lo g i erval of ime, o champleve as i he Middle Ages bu pai ed. he very rich collec io i he Hermi age allows us o race he developme of he s yle of fif ee h a d six ee h ce ury Fre ch e amellers. Religious subjec s were gradually replaced by my hological o es, medieval co ve io gave way o a realis ic ha dli g of hemes, a d grisaille (a pai i g execu ed e irely i mo ochrome, i a series of greys) superseded polychrome pai i g, hus maki g i possible o co vey volume, bo h of figures a d of space. he Re aissa ce ar is s ur ed from objec s co ec ed wi h religious worship o he crea io of decora ive secular ar icles, such as dishes, jugs a d pla es. Room 273. I a large cabi e here are some faie ces by Ber ard Palissy (1510-1589), he i ve or of a colored, ra spare glazi g which gave po ery addi io al beau y a d durabili y. A o e ime his decora ive dishes wi h relief desig s of fish, s akes a d crayfish were reme dously popular; his was called Palissy’s rus ic po ery. I a case by he wi dow here are exquisi e six ee h ce ury faie ce vessels made i he small Fre ch ow of Sai -Porchaire. hey have bee preserved up o he prese day o ly as separa e i ems, o as par of a se . Room 274. Six ee h ce ury Fre ch cour ar ; he so-called Fo ai ebleau school, developed u der he sig ifica i flue ce of I alia Ma erism ( he I alia Ma eris s Prima iccio a d Rosso worked i Fra ce a d pai ed decora ive murals i he royal palace a Fo ai ebleau).

he Ve us a d Cupid relief was crea ed by o e of he leadi g represe a ives of he Fo ai ebleau school, Jea Goujo (1510-1568). he sculp or has skillfully worked i o his composi io , carved o a oval medallio , he graceful, somewha elo ga ed figure of he goddess prese ed i a fa ciful pose. he dis i c ive origi ali y of six ee h ce ury Fre ch ar is see more clearly i por rai pai i g. wo fi e examples of he la er are Por rai of a Ma by a u k ow pai er a d Por rai of a You g Ma by Pierre Dumous ier. Room 275-278. Early a d mid-17 h ce ury ar . Duri g he seve ee h ce ury a umber of differe re ds developed i Fre ch ar . A pai i g by Simo Voue (1590-1649), Por rai of A e of Aus ria as Mi erva, is a ypical example of cour ar a he ime of Louis XIII. Of grea impor a ce i seve ee h ce ury Fre ch ar was he work of he Le ai bro hers, who por rayed peasa life wi h grea sympa hy a d respec for he commo ma . he Dairywoma ’s Family was pai ed by Louis (1593-1648), he mos ale ed of he bro hers. he figures of he peasa s i i are full of dig i y, a d he compac group s a ds ou boldly agai s he greyis -silvery expa se of he mas erfully pai ed la dscape. Also i his room is A Visi o Gra dmo her, a ribu ed o Ma hieu Le ai . Room 279. he Hermi age has a very large a d valuable collec io of he works of icolas Poussi (1594-1665), he fou der of eoclassicism i seve ee h ce ury Fre ch pai i g. I he ce er of Poussi ’s visio s a ds Ma , e dowed wi h reaso , will a d spiri ual beau y. Such are he heroes of his umeous pai i gs o biblical, my hological a d li erary hemes he sefless Ermi ia i ra ced a d Ermi ia, he fearless Es her of Es her before Ahasuerus, a d Moses, he wise ribal chief i Moses S riki g he Rock. Poussi ’s ra io alism a d philosophical ou look are revealed i his deligh ful La dscape wi h Polyphemus (1649). Polyphemus, he o e-eyed Cyclops, is si i g o he op of a rock playi g a pipe, wi h ymphs, sa yrs a d a ploughma illi g he la d, all dri ki g i his so g of a ure. I his search for a ideal represe a io of a ure Possi does o pai from life, bu builds up his from separa e de ails observed i a ure. Room 280. Claude Lorrai (1600-1682) was a leadi g expo e of he classical la dscape. Composed accordi g o he rules of Classicism, Claude’s ca vases are sa ura ed wi h ligh , which le ds hem a par icular emo io al quali y. he famous series he Four ime of he Day (Mor i g, oo , Eve i g a d igh ) reflec s he ar is ’s i eres i ligh , which was some hi g ew for Fre ch ar . Room 281. la e 17 h ce ury ar . he official ar of Fra ce duri g he golde age of he absolu e mo archy served he ask of glorifyi g Louis XIV. Ar is ic life was regula ed by he Academy, a he head of which was he premier pei re o he ki g, Charles Lebru (1619-1690), a d af er him Pierre Mig ard (1612-1695). Mig ard’s work is represe ed by he mo ume al Mag a imily of Alexa der he Grea . Af er his vic ory over he Persia emperor Darius, Alexa der e ers his e where he e cou ers he family of he va quished emperor beggi g for mercy. Wi h a ges ure of he ha d he vic or gra s he cap ives heir lives.

he choice of subjec was o for ui ous; i he figure of Alexa der is glorified le roi soleil, Louis XIV. If Mig ard ex olled he ki g i he figure of he grea ge eral, he sculp or Fra cois Girardo (1628-1715) por rayed him as Roma emperor. Girardo ’s small bro ze model for he u preserved eques ria s a ue prese s he ki g i he a ire of a a cie Roma soldier a d i a wig, such as wor i he seve ee h ce ury. I room 282 here is a u ique collec io of seve ee h a d eigh ee h ce ury Wes er Europea silver, for he mos par Fre ch. Rooms 290-297 co ai i ems of Fre ch applied ar , i cludi g fur i ure, Gobili apes ries, faie ce, bro ze, a d porcelai . his collec io is k ow hroughou he world o accou of i s excep io al weal h. Room 283. his exhibi io i roduces he visi or o he Fre ch por rai pai i g of he seco d half of he seve ee h ce ury. he emi e por rai pai er Hyaci he Rigaud (1659-1743) is represe ed by he Por rai of a Scholar. he wo ebo y cupboards, decora ed wi h bro ze a d or oise-shell a d used for keepi g medals i , were made i he workshop of A dre-Charles Boulle (1642-1732), a well-k ow fur i ure-maker. A origi al Boulle cupboard ca be see i room 293. Room 284-289. 18 h ce ury ar . his room co ai s several pieces by o e of Fra ce’s mos emi e ar is s, A oi e Wa eau (1684-1721) who, i his search for a realis approach, broke wi h hidebou d academic co ve io . I his small pai i gs he Hardships of War a d he Recrea io s of War Wa eau por rayed he everyday life of a soldier ra her ha os e a ious ba le sce es as his predecessors had do e. he Savoyard wi h a Marmo (1716), a pic ure of a simple-hear ed you g raveli g musicia , also co firms Wa eau’s i eres i he simple phe ome a of life. he blue expa se of he clear, fresh sky, he buildi gs of he small ow , a d he silhoue es of he bare rees make up a la dscape i which he glowi g colours of au um are domi a . Wa eau became famous as a pai er of so-called fe es gala es. A example of his ype of pai i g is he Embarrassi g Proposal, pai ed abou 1716. Some member s of fashio able socie y are amusi g hemselves cha i g i he shade of he gossamery foliage; he casually graceful pos ures of he you g ladies a d heir admirers co vey sub le, almos impercep ible shades of emo io . Exquisi e colouri g a d delica e execu io dis i guish o e of he ar is ’s mas erpieces, a small pai i g A Capricious Woma , i which he spec a or e cou ers he same world of superficial feeli gs. he exhibi io i room 285 a d 286 prese s examples of Rococo cour ar whose o ly raiso d’e re, accordi g o he ar remark of a co emporary, was o please. Ve uses, cupids, shepherd boys a d shepherd girls are he ce ral figures of he ma y works of Fra cois Boucher (1703-1770), a cour pai er of Louis XV. Boucher’s Pas oral Sce e, he riumph of Ve us a d he oile of Ve us, co fi ed i heir colours o a rac ive pi ks a d blues, are very ypical of Rococo ar , of which he was a dis i guished expo e . I room 285 par icular me io should be made of he work of E ie e-Maurice Falco e (1716-1791), who execu ed he eques ria s a ue of Pe er he Grea (“Bro ze Horsema ”) i S Pe ersburg.

It also wouldn't have the artful vagueness that allows the unconscious to respond in a way that's natural to it. Dreaming is a very natural means for the unconscious to present material in a way that the conscious mind doesn't understand, and then to have it slowly evolve into something which is more meaningful consciously. Man: What can IdoifI want to come up with a solution to a problem that has so many factors I can't compute them all consciously? What would be a way of going about that? Let's do it this way. Let's go back to the dream. This is one of my favorite instructions. Let's have him dream six dreams, and each one will be the same dream, but will have a different content and different characters. However, he won't understand the first dream at all, because there will be too many things going on in that dream. He won't really understand the second dream either, but unconsciously, with each dream, he will begin to collect and distill the meanings and understandings of all the factors involved into a more and more coherent package

1. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

2. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

3. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century

4. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

5. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

6. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution
The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution
7. The role of art in our life
The role of art in our life
8. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

9. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

10. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

11. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

12. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

13. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

14. Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

15. The development of computers in the USA

16. The political role of Great Britain in modern world

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Раздел: Зубные щётки

17. Some problems of borrowing in the Russian language

18. HOW SIGNIFICANT WAS ALEXANDER DUBCEK IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF REFORMIST COMMUNISM?

19. Islam in the eyes of the West

20. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

21. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

22. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English
The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English
23. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time
24. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system
The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

25. The Economy of Great Britain

26. The Church of England

27. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

28. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

29. The Castles of England

30. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

31. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

32. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

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Качели пластмассовые "Малыш".
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Раздел: Качели

33. The Economy of Great Britain

34. The History of English

35. The profile of an effective manager

36. The Tower of London

37. The history of Old English and its development

38. The Queen of the UK
The Queen of the UK
39. The house of my dream
The house of my dream
40. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

41. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

42. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

43. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

44. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

45. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

46. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

47. The profile of an effective manager

48. The history of Australia

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Раздел: Без наполнения

49. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

50. The Taming of the Shrew

51. The practice of modern medicine

52. Education in the USA

53. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

54. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present
Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present
55. London - the capital of Great Britain
London - the capital of Great Britain
56. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”

57. The uniqueness of the British

58. The protection of the environment

59. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

60. The library of our institute

61. The lesson of English

62. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

63. Has the EU reached the limits of integration?

64. The sights of USA.

Набор альбомов для рисования "Дворец", А4, 32 листа, 10 штук (количество томов: 10).
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Раздел: Бутылочки

65. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

66. The cities of USA

67. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

68. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

69. Many strange children were found in the world

70. Sports in the USA
Sports in the USA
71. The Snows of Mars
The Snows of Mars
72. The system of english tenses
The system of english tenses

73. Agriculture in the USA

74. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

75. For the Beauty of the Earth

76. The Catcher in the Rye

77. The history of Ancient Egypt

78. The Formation of Youth Subcultures

79. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

80. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

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81. The map of England

82. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

83. Sport and recreation in the United States

84. Communication The Exchange of Information

85. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier

86. The category of Mood
The category of Mood
87. The explaining of the meaning of neologism
The explaining of the meaning of neologism
88. The history of Germany and tourism
The history of Germany and tourism

89. The history of grammatical study of the English language

90. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

91. The marking of the Russian Revolution

92. The origins of the International Socialists

93. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

94. The problem of violence

95. The Science Of Grammar

96. The system of English verbs

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97. Historical measurement of the science of governing

98. Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

99. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"


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