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The Renaissance

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he "dark" Middle Ages were followed by a ime k ow i ar a d li era ure as . he word "re aissa ce" mea s "rebir h" i Fre ch a d was used  o de o e a phaze i he  cul ural developme of Europe be wee he 14 h a d 17 h ce uries. he wave of progress reached he shores of E gla d o ly i he 16 h ce ury. he ideas of he Re aissa ce came o E gla d oge her wi h he ideas of he Reforma io ( he es ablishme of he a io al Church) a d were called he " ew Lear i g". Every year umbers of ew books were brough ou , a d hese books were sold ope ly, bu few people could read a d e joy hem. he u iversi ies were lacki g i eachers o spread he ideas of moder hough . So, ma y E glish scholars bega o go o I aly, where hey lear ed o u ders a d he a cie classics, a d whe hey came home hey adap ed heir classical lear i g o he eeds of he cou ry. Grammar schools (primary schools) i creased i umber. he ew poi of view passed from he schools o he home a d o he marke place. Ma y of he lear ed me i I aly came from he grea ci y of Co s a i opole.  I was besieged a d ake by urks i 1453. All he grea libraries a d schools i Co s a s i ople had bee broke up a d des royed. he La i a d Greek scholars were drive ou of he ci y, glad o escape wi h heir lives a d wi h such books as hey could carry away wi h hem.  Bei g lear ed me , ma y of hem fou d a welcome i he ci ies a d ow s i which hey s opped.  hey bega o each he people how o read he La i a d Greek books which hey had brough wi h hem a d also augh hem o read he La i a d Greek books which were kep i ma y ow s of Europe, bu which few people a ha ime were able o read.  Foreig scholars a d ar is s bega o each i E gla d duri g he reig of He ry VIII.  I pai i g a d music he firs period of he Re aissa ce was o e of imi a io .  Pai i g was represe ed by Germa ar is Holbei , a d music by I alia s a d Fre ch me .  Wi h li era ure he case was differe .  he E glish poe s a d drama is s popularized much of he ew lear i g.  he freedom of hough   of E glish huma is s revealed i self i a ifeudal a d eve a ibourgeois ideas, showi g he life of heir ow people as i really was.  Such a wri er was he huma is homas More. homas More (1478-1535) homas More, he firs E glish huma is   of he Re aissa ce, was bor i Lo do i 1478.  Educa ed a Oxford, he could wri e a mos beau iful La i . I was o he La i of he Church bu he origi al classical La i .  A Oxford More me a foreig huma is , a d made frie ds wi h him.  Erasmus believed i he commo se se of a ma a d augh ha me ough o hi k for hemselves, a d o merely o believe hi gs o be rue because heir fa hers, or he pries had said hey were rue.  La er, homas More wro e ma y le ers o Erasmus a d received ma y le ers from him. homas More bega life as a lawyer.  Duri g he reig of He ry VII he became a member of Parliame .  He was a ac ive-mi ded ma a d kep a kee eye o he eve s of his ime.  he rich la dow ers a he ime were co ce ra i g o sheep-raisi g because i was very profi able.  Small holders were o allowed o ill he soil a d were drive off heir la ds.  he commo s (public grou d) were e closed a d fields co ver ed i o pas ures. 

he mass of he agricul ural popula io were doomed o pover y.  homas More se o work o fi d he reaso of his evil.  He was he firs grea wri er o social a d poli ical subjec s i E gla d. Four ee years af er He ry VIII came o he hro e, More was made Speaker of he House of Commo s.  he udor mo archy was a absolu e mo archy, a d Parliame had very li le power o resis he ki g.  here was, however, o e ma er o which Parliame was very de ermi ed.  ha was he righ o vo e or o refuse o vo e for he mo ey.  O ce whe he Ki g wa ed mo ey a d asked Parliame o vo e him 800.000, he members sa sile .  wice he Ki g's messe gers called, a d wice hey had o leave wi hou a a swer.  Whe Parliame was called oge her agai , homas More spoke up a d urged ha he reques be refused. Af er a lo g discussio a sum less he half he amou reques ed by he Ki g was vo ed, a d ha sum was o be spread over a period of four years. homas More was a ear es Ca holic, bu he was o liked by he pries s a d he Pope o accou of his wri i gs a d he ideas he augh . Af er He ry VIII quarrelled wi h he Pope he ga hered arou d himself all he e emies of he Pope, a d so i 1529 More was made Lord Cha cellor (highes judge o he House of Lords). He had o wa ed he pos because he was as much agai s he ki g's absolu e power i E gla d as he was agai s he Pope. More soo fell a vic im o he Ki g's a ger. He refused o swear ha he would obey He ry as he head of he E glish Church, a d was hrow i o he ower. Parliame , o please he Ki g, declared More guil y of reaso , a d he was beheaded i he ower i 1535. he Works of homas More homas More wro e i E glish a d i La i . he huma is s of al1 Europea cou ries commu ica ed i he La i la guage, a d heir bes works were wri e i La i . he E glish wri i gs of homas More i clude: Discussio s a d poli ical subjec s. Biographies. Poe ry. His s yle is simple, colloquial e d has a u affec ed ease. he work by which he is bes remembered oday is "U opia" which was wri e i La i i he year 1516. I has ow bee ra sla ed i o all Europea la guages.         "U opia" (which i Greek mea s " owhere") is he ame of a o -exis e isla d. his work is divided i o wo books.  I he firs , he au hor gives a profou d a d ru hful pic ure of he people's sufferi gs a d poi s ou he socia1 evils exis i g, i E gla d a he ime.  I he seco d book More prese s his ideal of wha he fu ure socie y should be like. he word "u opia" has become a byword a d is used i Moder E glish o de o e a u a ai able ideal, usually i social a d poli ical ma ers. Bu he wri er H.G. Wells, who wro e a i roduc io o he la es edi io , said ha he use of he word "u opia" was far from More's esse ia1 quali y, whose mi d abou ded i sou d, prac ical ideas. he book is i reali y a very u imagi a ive work.  "U opia" describes a perfec social sys em buil o commu is pri ciples. "U opia" Firs book While o busi ess i Fla ders, he au hor makes he acquai a ce of a cer ai Raphael Hy hloday, a sailor who has ravelled wi h he famous explorer Amerigo Vespucci. He has much o ell abou his voyages, homas More, Raphael Hy hloday a d a cardi al mee oge her i a garde a d discuss ma y problems.

Raphael has bee o E gla d oo a d expresses his surprise a he cruel y of E glish laws a d a he pover y of he popula io . he hey alk abou crime i ge eral, a d Raphael says:  " here is a o her cause of s eali g which I suppose is proper a d peculiar o you E glishme alo e."  "Wha is ha ?" asked he Cardi al.  "Oh, my lord," said Raphael, "your sheep ha used o be so meek a d ame a d so small ea ers, have ow become so grea devourers a d so wild ha hey ea up a d swallow dow he very me hemselves. he peasa s are drive ou of heir la d. Away hey go fi di g o place o res i . A d whe all is spe , wha ca hey do bu s eal a d he be ha ged?" Seco d Book he disas rous s a e of hi gs i E gla d pu s Raphael Hy hloday i mi d of a commo weal h (a republic) he has see o a u k ow isla d i a u k ow sea. A descrip io of "U opia" follows, a d Raphael speaks "of all he good laws a d orders of his same isla d." here is o priva e proper y i U opia. he people ow every hi g i commo a d e joy comple e eco omic equali y. Everyo e cares for his eighbour's good, a d each has a clea a d heal hy house o live i . Labour is he mos esse ial fea ure of life i U opia, bu o o e is overworked. Everybody is e gaged i usefu1 work i e hours a day. Af er work, hey i dulge i spor a d games a d spe d much ime i "improvi g heir mi ds" (lear i g)-All eachi g is free, a d he pare s do o have o pay a y schoo1 fees. (More wro e abou hi gs u k ow i a y cou ry a ha ime, hough hey are a ural wi h us i our days.) For magis ra es he U opia s choose me whom hey hi k o be mos fi o pro ec he welfare of he popula io . Whe elec i g heir gover me , he people give heir voices secre ly. here are few laws a d o lawyers a all, bu hese few laws mus be s ric ly obeyed. "Vir ue," says homas More, "lives accordi g o a ure." he grea es of all pleasures is perfec heal h. Ma mus be heal hy a d wise. homas More's "U opia" was he firs li erary work i which he ideas of Cor mu ism appeared. I was highly es eemed by all he huma is s of Europe i More's ime a d agai grew very popular wi h he socialis s of he 19 h ce ury. Af er More, a e de cy bega i li era ure o wri e fa as ic ovels o social reforms, a d ma y such works appeared i various cou ries. Seco d period of he re aissa ce. he predecessors of shakespeare he mos sig ifica period of he Re aissa ce i E gla d falls o he reig of Quee Elizabe h. E gla d's success i commerce brough prosperi y o he a io a d gave a cha ce o ma y perso s of ale o develop heir abili ies. Explorers, me of le ers, philosophers, poe s a d famous ac ors a d drama is s appeared i rapid successio . he grea me of he so-called "Elizabe ha Era" dis i guished hemselves by heir ac ivi ies i ma y fields a d displayed a i sa iable hirs for k owledge. hey were of e called " he Elizabe ha s", bu of course he Quee had o ha d i assis i g hem whe hey bega li erary work; he poe s a d drama is s had o push o hrough grea difficul ies before hey became well k ow . owards he middle of he 16 h ce ury commo people were already s rivi g for k owledge a d he so s of ma y commo ci ize s ma aged o ge a educa io .

A Study of Sino-Russian Diplomacy. 18711881. - Oxford, 1965. 578. Hsu I. C. The Rise of Modern China. - N.Y., 1970. 579. Hudson G. Europe and China. - London, 1951. 580. Hu Shih. The Chinese Renaissance. - Chicago, 1934. 581. Klaproth L. Relations des la Dzoungarie et de la Petite Boukharie. Trad. De chinois. - Magasin Asiatique, 1826. V.II. 582. Lansdell H. Russian Central Asia. V.1. - L., 1885. 583. Lattimore O. Inner Asian Frontiers of China. - N.Y., 1940. 584. Lattimore O. Pivot of Asia. Boston, 1951. 585. Lattimore O. Studies in Frontier history. Collected paper. 19281958., P., 1962. 586. Lattimore O. The desert road to Turkestan. - N.Y., 1972. 587. Laufer B. The Sino-Iranica. - Chicago, 1919. 588. Legge S. The Heartland. - N.Y., 1970. 589. Legge S. A Record of Buddhist Kingdoms Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-hien. -- N.Y., 1972. 590. Leonard J. K. Wei Yuan and China's Rediscovery of the Maritime World. - Cambridge, Mass., 1984. 591. Levi S. Central Asiatic Studies. - JRAS, 1914. 592. Lin C. China's Strategy: Tradition within Evolution. - Lexington, 1988. 593. Liu Kwang-Ching

1. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

2. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

3. The Renaissance

4. The Italian Renaissance (1420-1600)

5. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

6. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
7. The Economy of Great Britain
The Economy of Great Britain
8. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

9. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

10. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

11. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

12. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

13. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

14. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

15. The enviromental problems which concern the Mankind

16. Does the crime pay or not ?

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17. Higher Education in The U.K.

18. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

19. Rome and the Roman Empire

20. Substance abuse: Alcohol Consumption and alcohol dependence among the youth (Социологическое исследование проблемы алкоголизма среди студентов)

21. The basical macroeconomics indicators

22. The Castles of England
The Castles of England
23. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society
The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society
24. The great Britain
The great Britain

25. The Irish and Australia

26. The Khabarovsk territory

27. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

28. The royal family (Королевское семейство)

29. The US Economy after September 11th. Decline or Rapid Growth? (Экономика США после 11-ого сентября. Снижение или Быстрый Рост?)

30. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

31. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

32. The Economy of Great Britain

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33. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

34. The New-York City, Places of interest

35. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

36. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

37. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

38. Missile Defense System - Buren for the United States
Missile Defense System - Buren for the United States
39. The Hero of Our Time
The Hero of Our Time
40. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

41. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

42. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

43. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

44. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

45. Ways of exploring the world

46. The role of art in our life

47. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

48. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

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49. The Smashing Pumpkins

50. Rome and the Roman Empire

51. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

52. The fastest computers of the world

53. The diabetic diet

54. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?
55. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)
56. "The Irish Question" ("Ирландский вопрос")

57. Militant Islam’s Expansion in the Southern Philippines

58. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

59. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

60. Russia and the international economy

61. The profile of an effective manager

62. Country Study, Slovenia: Winning the Transitional Economies Race

63. The basical macroeconomics indicators

64. The history of Australia

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Раздел: Полки напольные, стеллажи

65. Why was the United States unsuccessful in Vietnam?

66. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

67. The JAZZ Story

68. The Taming of the Shrew

69. Анализ деятельности the Coca-Cola company

70. The Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis
The Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis
71. Huey Lewis and the News
Huey Lewis and the News
72. At the gates
At the gates


74. The Value Based Leadership Theory

75. История английского языка по книге Bill Bryson The Mother Tongue

76. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

77. The balanced scorecard (новые возможности для эффективного управления)

78. Конкуренция в России NEW THE BEST

79. Метафорический потенциал слова и его реализация в поэме Т.С. Элиота The Waste Land

80. The United States of America

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Раздел: Классические игры
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Раздел: Внимание, память, логика

81. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

82. The US Educational System

83. The British Educational System

84. London - the capital of Great Britain

85. The History of Moscow

86. What type of toys do the kids prefer nowadays?
What type of toys do the kids prefer nowadays?
87. Choosing the future profession
Choosing the future profession
88. Culture of the youth
Culture of the youth

89. THE Growing Influence of English Mass Culture

90. Sports in Great Britain, the USA and Russia

91. The Fire Bird

92. The Scarlet Flower

93. Fenist The Bright Falcon

94. The United States Of America

95. The uniqueness of the British

96. Discovery of the New World

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Раздел: Прочие
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Раздел: Микрофоны

97. Europe in the Middle Ages

98. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

99. The British at leisure

100. A country across the channel

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