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Linguistic Pecularities Of Contracts in English

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Co e s I roduc io 4 Chap er 1. Co rac s. Ge eral charac eris ics a d ypes7 E glish of docume s’ wri i g 7 heore ical problems of he la guage of docume s 13 he s ruc ure of co rac a d i s esse ial clauses 15 ypes of co rac s. Abbrevia io 19 Chap er 2. Li guis ic peculiari ies of co rac 23 2.1. Co rac as a ype of ex a d i s s ylis ic charac eris ics 23 2.2. Gramma ical peculiari ies of co rac 26 2.3. Lexical peculiari ies of co rac 32 Co clusio 38 Refere ces42 I roduc io he i eres o he problem of drawi g up co rac s is o occasio al. owadays more a d more people are ge i g i volved i he world of busi ess rela io ships. As a resul of i , busi ess people eed specialis s possessi g k owledge of he E glish la guage used for wri i g docume s. A y serious deal should be s ruck wi h he help of co rac s a d agreeme s. A wri e form of agreeme s is a guara ee ha differe people, for example Buyers a d Sellers, will coopera e i accorda ce wi h a cer ai busi ess s ra egy, a d heir i eres s will be ake i o co sidera io by heir par ers. A co rac makes clear such hi gs as qua i y a d quali y of goods, heir prices, delivery erms, order of payme , a d o her erms. Co rac serves o make a busi ess opera io smoo h a d logic. I also proves serious ess of co rac i g par ies a d defi es heir respo sibili ies before each o her. A ho es word of a busi essma , as well, should be reflec ed i a co rac of a differe ki d. I is called i e io s agreeme a d is a ma ifes a io of a wish o do busi ess. ha is, every s ep a d s age of a busi ess deal should be suppor ed i a legal way, i a official form. he chose problem has appeared o be very urge , because li guis ics lacks i s precise descrip io . here is a clear-cu be wee formal a d i formal s yles of E glish, bu here is o s ric differe ce be wee spoke a d wri e busi ess E glish. Obviously, busi essme do o commu ica e wi h heir compa io s usi g i rica e phrases a d bookish words. S ill, hey are obliged o use some formal clichйs which may sou d s ra ge o o -busi ess people, bu are esse ial for co duc i g busi ess. A yway, i he research we have bee ryi g o i ves iga e he wri e par of busi ess procedure, a d o a alyse ex s of co rac s co sideri g heir specific peculiari ies. A o her hi g o be me io ed is ha here are very few scie ific researches devo ed o he problem of drawi g up busi ess docume s. As a resul of i , heory of wri i g busi ess papers, o he o e ha d, reflec s highly subjec ive approaches. O he o her ha d, such approaches are o u ified i accorda ce wi h exis i g rules of formal E glish which is also grea ly i flue ced by i formal E glish. Such i flue ce really exis s, bu here are o accep ed cri eria abou wha cha ges should be ake i o co sidera io . ha is why people who draw up co rac s suffer qui e u ders a dable problems: How should hey do i o sou d correc i he foreig la guage? o wha degree should hey be formal i he ex of co rac , if eve E glish-speaki g people mee difficul ies of a special ki d i drawi g a li e be wee formal a d i formal E glish? However, hese problems are side problems of maki g up co rac s here.

he objec of he research, hus, is a co rac as a par of a busi ess deal a d a ype of wri e busi ess E glish. I s subjec comprises i ves iga io of li guis ic peculiari ies of a co rac which make ech ique of i s wri i g obliga ory for people i volved i drawi g up busi ess docume s. he purpose of he research is o i ves iga e peculiari ies i ex s of co rac s. I is performed hrough comprehe sio , i erpre a io a d a alysis of co rac ual esse ial clauses, all of hem illus ra ed by examples from ex s of co rac s. he solu io of he aim claims for doi g away wi h a umber of cer ai asks, such as: o poi ou mai fea ures of formal E glish as he la guage of busi ess correspo de ce; o describe he s ruc ure of co rac a d o si gle ou i s mai clauses which are charac eris ic of his ype of docume s; o expose peculiari ies of co rac dividi g hem i o hree ge eral groups of s ylis ic, gramma ical a d lexical peculiari ies. I order o solve hese asks he au hor of he research has used me hods of s udyi g a d a alysis of heore ical li era ure a d prac ical ma uals o he problem; he me hods of observa io , descrip io , mea s of sy ac ic a d sema ic a alyses. he research has bee performed i four i errela ed s eps. A alysis of li era ure o he problem has logically bee he firs s age. Af er i , heore ical basis of he research has bee compiled. he he au hor has picked up examples illus ra i g gramma ical, lexical a d s ylis ic peculiari ies of co rac s. A las , ge eralisa io of resul s of he research a d drawi g up fi al co clusio s have bee performed. I fac , li guis ic peculiari ies of co rac s i compariso wi h heir s ruc ure a d fu c io i g i he busi ess world have o bee i ves iga ed horoughly e ough ye . here are ei her eco omic papers o forms a d ypes of co rac s, or li guis ic researches o s ylis ic peculiari ies of formal E glish. o s a e a co ec io be wee hose ki ds of da a a d make li ks be wee hem describi g ex s of co rac s a d o a alyse heir dis i guishi g fea ures are he mai fac ors of scie ific ovel y of he research. he prac ical sig ifica ce of he research is i possible applica io of i s resul s i prac ice by people who are i eres ed i drawi g up co rac s a d i he way of doi g i correc ly. I ca be also be of a i eres for people s udyi g problems of s yle i E glish a d fu c io al usage of formal a d i formal s yles. he resul s of he research ca be ake i o co sidera io by s ude s a d i s ruc ors of E glish a d E glish s ylis ics. As well hey ca be used as ma erial for special courses o busi ess E glish for s ude s of li guis ic a d eco omic depar me s. he examples for a alysis have bee selec ed by he me hod of overwhelmi g excerp io from ex s of co rac s da ed differe years. his fac ca be a basis for compariso of li guis ic devices used i hem. I order o make a alysis of examples more precise, he au hor has used da a o o ly of li guis ic, bu hose o es of eco omic dic io aries as well. he s ruc ure of he research i cludes i roduc io , wo chap ers, seve paragraphs, co clusio a d refere ces. he o al volume of he research is 43 pages. Chap er 1. Co rac s.

heir ge eral charac eris ics a d ypes E glish of docume s’ wri i g A docume i i s a y appeara ce has always bee a impor a par of busi ess doi g. Busi ess co rac s are impossible wi hou correspo de ce all over he world. I does o ma er, whe her you commu ica e wi h your par er o he pho e (orally) or hrough elexes (i wri i g). All decisio s a d erms mus be co firmed by docume s. All busi ess papers, bo h correspo de ce (le ers), elexes, e quiries, offers, claims (complai s) a d co rac s (agreeme s) are ormally associa ed wi h s riki g busi ess deals a d heir procedure. Such docume s are made up a d sig ed “by a judicious au hori y a d are of legal impor a ce” . As a resul of i , busi ess docume s are wri e i accorda ce wi h some officially accep ed forms, commo for everybody who wa s o do busi ess. he official busi ess la guage is some imes called officialese a d differs from o her ki ds of he E glish la guage, mos ly because of specific charac er of i s fu c io al usage, which ca be illus ra ed i classical erms of s yle, i s predes i a io , a d mai fea ures. A fu c io al s yle of a la guage is charac erised by he grea er or less ypifica io of i s co s i ue s a d supra-phrasal u i s, i which he choice a d arra geme of i erdepe de li guis ic mea s are calcula ed o secure he purpose of commu ica io . he s yle of official docume s is divided i o sub-s yles of he la guage of busi ess docume s, legal docume s, diplomacy, a d mili ary docume s. he aim of he s yle of official docume s is o s a e co di io s bi di g wo par ies i a u der aki g a d o reach agreeme be wee hem. Ge eral fea ures of he s yle of E glish of docume s’ wri i g are he followi g: co ve io ali y of expressio ; abse ce of emo ive ess; e coded charac er of he la guage sys em (i cludi g abbrevia io s); ge eral sy ac ical mode of combi i g several pro ou ceme s i o o e se e ce . he sy ac ical pa er of busi ess correspo de ce s yle is made up from composi io al pa er s of varia s of his s yle which have heir ow desig s. he form of a docume i self is i forma ive, because i ells some hi g abou he ma er deal wi h. From he viewpoi of i s s ylis ic s ruc ure, he whole docume is o e se e ce. I looks like separa e, shaped clauses of e divided by commas or semicolo s, a d o by full s ops, of e umbered. Every predica e co s ruc io begi s wi h a capi al le er i he form of a par icipial or a i fi i ive co s ruc io .e.g. 3. Claims 3.1. I case of o -co firmi y of he quali y of he goods ac ually delivered by Sellers wi h he co rac specifica io , a y claim co cer i g he quali y of he goods may be prese ed wi hi wo mo hs of he da e of delivery; 3.2. o claim o be co sidered by Sellers af er expira io of he above period; 3.3. o claim prese ed for o e lo of he goods shall be regarded by Buyers as a reaso for rejec i g a y o her lo or lo s of he goods o be delivered u der he prese co rac ; 3.4. . his s ruc urally illogical way of combi i g defi i e ideas has i s se se. I serves o show he equali y of he i ems a d similar depe de ce of par icipial a d i fi i ive co s ruc io s or predica e co s ruc io s.

In particular, the most distinctive Bantu languages, and the non-Bantu Niger-Congo languages most closely related to Bantu lan- HOWAFRICABECAME BLACK • 385 guages, are packed into a tiny area of Cameroon and adjacent eastern Nigeria. Evidently, the Niger-Congo language family arose in West Africa; the Bantu branch of it arose at the east end of that range, in Cameroon and Nigeria; and the Bantu then spread out of that homeland over most of subequatorial Africa. That spread must have begun long ago enough that the ancestral Bantu language had time to split into 500 daughter languages, but nevertheless recently enough that all those daughter languages are still very similar to each other. Since all other Niger-Congo speakers, as well as the Bantu, are blacks, we couldn't have inferred who migrated in which direction just from the evidence of physical anthropology. To make this type of linguistic reasoning clear, let me give you a familiar example: the geographic origins of the English language

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