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HE U IVERSI Y OF HULL Depar me of Poli ics Compara ive a io al Securi y Policy HE EVOLU IO OF AMERICA A IO AL SECURI Y POLICY SI CE HE E D OF SECO D WORLD WARBy: Jo as Da iliauskas u or: Eric J. GroveMarch 10, 1995 he I roduc io . he aim of his work is o accou for he evolu io of he America a io al securi y policy si ce he e d of he World War II. Charles Kegley divided he his ory of he America foreig policy of co ai i g he Sovie U io i o he five chro ologically ordered phases: 1. Belligere ce, 1947-1952 2. ough alk, Accomoda ive Ac io , 1953-1962 3. Compe e ive Coexis e ce, 1963-1968 4. De e e, 1969-1978 5. Co fro a io , 1979 o wards he same pa er fi s for he US a io al securi y policy qui e well. O ly some addi io s mus be i roduced. he period of co fro a io e ded i 1986. he period be wee 1987 a d 1990 could be called ‘E di g he Cold War’, a d he period from 1991 o wards - ‘ he Pos -Cold War Era’. he period be wee 1945 a d 1946 could be amed ‘ oward Co ai me ’. So, he goal of he US a io al securi y policy for early for y years was he co ai me of he Sovie U io by all possible mea s. Bu i he 1991 he US fou ded i self i he co fusi g si ua io . he major hrea - he SU - simply dissapeared. he US lef he o ly superpower. here are o large specific mili ary hrea s faci g he US. he US a io al securi y policy mus be cha ged, a d i is cha gi g. he problem is ha here is o clear co se sus i he US over he hrea s o he securi y a d eco omic well-bei g of he US. oward Co ai me , 1945-1946. he World War II showed ha he US mus cha ge i s role i he world poli ics. he World War II reafirmed ha he US could o pre e d o be immu e from he global urmoil a d gave bir h o he o io of he US as a “superpower”. he firs problem was how o deal wi h he Sovie s. he immedia e pos war America policy owards he SU was based o he belief ha he SU could be i egra ed i he pos war securi y s ruc ure. Preside Roosevel developed he ‘Four Policeme ’ idea, which was based o he visio ha he US, Grea Bri ai , he SU, a d Chi a would impose order o he res of he pos war world. Bu i fac , experie ce showed ha here was li le he US could do o shape S ali ’s decisio s. I was realized ha ei her rus or pressure had made a y differe ce. I less ha a year Preside ruma realized ha he Sovie s would expa d as far as hey could u less effec ive cou ervaili g power was orga ized o s op hem. S ali obviously placed a higher value o expa di g he Sovie sphere of co rol he o mai ai i g good rela io s wi h he US. Ma y America defe se officials i 1945 hoped o avoid he escala io wi h he SU. Bu a he same ime heir aim was o preve Europe from falli g u der Commu is regime. he America objec ive was o avoid Sovie hegemo y over Eurasia. I wi er 1945-1946 he SU i creased pressures o Ira a d urkey. he US viewed his as a hrea o he global bala ce of power. he ba leship Missouri was se o Is a bul. I Oc ober 1945 he firs pos war base sys em was approved by bo h he Joi Chiefs of S aff (JCS) a d he civilia secre aries. I i cluded Icela d as a primary base area. So, whe Wi s o Churchill delivered his famous “Iro Cur ai ” speech i March 1946, he US was o he pa h of he Cold War allready.

I fac , he origi s of he Cold War were i Europe. Mar i Walker wro e: “ he Cold War s ar ed i Europe because i was here ha US a d Sovie roops me i May 1945, over he corpse of azi Germa y, a d discovered ha heir co cep s of Europe’s pos war fu ure were da gerously i copa ible.” Five S ages of Co ai me :1. Belligere ce, 1947-1952. here are differe opi io s abou he da e whe he Cold War bega . I fac , here is o da e of he begi i g of he Cold War. I did ’ begi i o e igh . I bega s ep by s ep. A d i bega from bo h sides. I February 1946, S ali gave a speech i which he spoke abou “ he i evi abili y of co flic wi h he capi alis powers”. O February 22, 1946, George F.Ke a , a ha ime charge d’affaires i he US embassy i Moscow, se o Washi g o his famous “lo g elegram” assessi g he mo iva io s of he Sovie s. La er he published his well-k ow ar icle “X” i he Foreig Affairs (1947). I i , Ke a argued ha Sovie leaders would forever feel i secure abou heir poli ical abili y o mai ai power agai s forces bo h wi hi Sovie socie y a di he ou side world. heir i securi y would lead o a ac ivis - a d perhaps hos ile - Sovie foreig policy. I March 1947, he ruma Doc ri e was a ou ced. his was a drama ic depar ure from radi io al US foreig , defe se, a d securi y policy. I was based o a view of i er a io al poli ics as a co es for world domi a io , wi h he SU as a imperial power be o world co ques . his was he s ar of co ai me policy. Co ai me was desig ed o circumscribe Sovie expa sio ism i order o (1) save he i er a io al sys em from a revolu io ary s a e, a d (2) force i er al cha ges i he SU. Co ai me was a desired co di io i US-Sovie rela io s. I was a geopoli ical ra her ha ideological or mili ary s ra egy. I s ul ima e objec ive was a s able a d peaceful i er a io al sys em. Soo he firs resul s of he co ai me appeared. he a io al Securi y Ac (1947) crea ed a u ified Depar me of Defe se wi h a au o omous Air Force, a Joi Chiefs of S aff sys em, he Ce ral I ellige ce Age cy, a d he a io al Securi y Cou cil. I Ju e 1947, he Marshall Pla for he eco omic recovery of Europe was a ou ced. I July 1947, i ellige ce a alys s i he War Depar me mai ai ed ha he ruma Doc ri e a d he Marshall Pla provoked a more aggresive Sovie a i ude oward he US. So, he resul of he begi i g of co ai me was he escala io . A o her s ep o deeper hos ili y was he docume called SC-68 (approved by Preside ruma o Sep ember 30, 1950). SC-68 was desig ed o (1) bols er he co ve io al capabili ies, (2) s re gh e he s ra egic uclear forces, (3) assis he US allies, especially i Europe. he aim of SC-68 was “ o check a d roll back he Kremli ’s drive for world domi a io .” he firs mili ary a emp o co ai he commu ism was he Korea War (1950), which had pushed he budge appropria io s for defe se up o a peak of almos $57 billio (67 per ce of he whole budge ) for fiscal year 1952. he Korea War marked a globalisa io of co ai me i erms of opera io al commi me s as well as rhe oric. his period was also marked by he crea io of or h A la ic rea y Orga isa io ( A O). he A O Pac was sig ed i April 1949.

his was ope - e ded, mul ila eral, peace ime allia ce amo g he US, Ca ada, a d Wes Europea a io s ha commi ed he US o co sider a a ack o a y member a io as a a ack o i self. he crea io of A O was a respo se o Sovie ac io s i Czekoslovakia, Berli , a d Greece. Also he US sig ed bila eral mu ual defe se rea ies wi h Japa a d he Philippi es a d a rila eral pac wi h Aus ralia a d ew Zeala d ( he A ZUS rea y). All hree were sig ed i 1951.2. ough alk, Accomoda ive Ac io , 1953-1962. his was he period of he America superiori y i erms of he uclear capabili ies. Bu Preside Eise hover u ders ood ha America resources are o e dless. he idea of his policy was securi y a d solve cy - o regai America i i ia ive i foreig policy wi hou ba krup i g he a io . His policy had wo eleme s. he firs was “ ew Look” defe se policy, a d seco d - he forma io of a global allia ce sys em. he “ ew Look” was based o hree co cep s: rollback, bri kma ship,a d massive re alia io . Rollback s a ed he goal he US was o pursue: rejec merely co ai i g he spread of commu is i flue ce a d i s ead “roll back” he iro cur ai . Bri kma ship was a s ra egy for deali g wi h he Sovie s by backi g hem i o he cor er wi h he hrea of uclear amihila io . Massive re alia io was a cou ervalue uclear weapo s s ra egy ha sough o achieve America foreig policy objec ives by hrea e i g mass des ruc io of he Sovie popula io a d i dus rial ce ers. All his was called compelle ce s ra egy, which las ed u il1961. I he early 1960s he America superiori y decli ed. his pushed owards de erre ce s ra egy. De erre ce mea s discouragi g a adversary from aki g mili ary ac io by co vi ci g him ha he cos a d risk of such ac io would ou weigh he po e ial gai . he co cep of flexible respo se was formula ed. I mea s he i crease of co ve io al war capabili ies. I 1962 he capaci y o wage “ wo-a d-o e-half “ wars was embraced as he official s ra egy. he forma io of he global allia ce sys em co i ued. he US sig ed bila eral agreeme s wi h Sou h Korea (1953), he Republic of Chi a ( aiwa ) (1954), Ira (1959), Pakis a (1959), a d urkey (1959). I 1954 Sou h Eas Asia rea y Orga isa io (SEA O) was crea ed. I 1959 he US became a member of Ce ral rea y Orga isa io (CE O). Also he Middle Eas became he area of co cer , especially af er he Suez crizis (1956). Fear of Commu is i cursio s i his area led o he formula io of Eise hower Doc ri e. Of course, he mos impor a eve duri g his period was he Cuba crisis (1962). I was he mos da gerous eve of he Cold War, a d a good lesso for he officials of bo h superpowers. A uclear excha ge was so close ha bo h Whi e House a d Kremli officials fra kly expec ed he bombs o fall. hey recog ized ha he superpowers mus cha ge heir policies.3. Compe e ive Coexis e ce, 1963-1968. Because of growi g pari y of America a d Sovie mili ary capabili ies he fac was ha he al er a ives were coexis e ce or o coexis e ce. he powers bega o look for he ways o coexis e ce. O e of he firs sig s was he i s alia io of he “ho li e” li ki g he Whi e House a d he Kremli Wi h a direc commu ica io sys em i 1963.

Part of this reticence was due to ignorance but part came from  the dismal history of the subject. In its early days, the study of human inheritance was the haunt of charlatans, nio.st of whom had a political axe to grind. Absurd pedigrees purporting to show family lines of criminality or genius were the norm. Ignorance and confidence went together. Many biologists argued that it was possible to improve humankind by selective breeding or by the elimination of the unfit. The adulteration of the science reached its disastrous end in the Nazi experiment, and for many years it was seen as at best unfashionable to discuss the nature of inborn differences among people. After the Second World War, the United Nations published a book — Statement of Race, by the American anthropologist Ashley Montagu — which tried to kill some of the genetical myths. I read this as a schoolboy and found it unpersuasive and hard in follow, although its liberal message was clear enough. Re-reading it a few years ago showed why: Ashley Montagu had tried, nobly, to make bricks without straw

1. The Future of American Youths

2. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

3. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

4. The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II

5. History of American Literature

6. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
7. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
Consequence of building the National Missile Defense
8. The pride of the nation
The pride of the nation

9. American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries

10. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)

11. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

12. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought Evolution

13. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

14. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

15. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

16. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

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Раздел: Глобусы

17. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

18. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

19. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

20. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

21. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

22. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought. Testosterone
Impact of Evolution on Human Thought. Testosterone
23. My modern image of the United States
My modern image of the United States
24. The Castles of England
The Castles of England

25. The fastest computers of the world

26. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

27. The Tower of London

28. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

29. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

30. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

31. The New-York City, Places of interest

32. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

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Раздел: Пелёнки

33. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

34. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

35. The Hero of Our Time

36. Evolution of Christianity

37. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

38. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia
The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia
39. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
40. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

41. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

42. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

43. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

44. Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles

45. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?

46. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

47. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

48. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

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Раздел: Карточные игры

49. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

50. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

51. The history of Australia

52. The Taming of the Shrew

53. The teaching of Hugo Gratius

54. The dark side of the moon
The dark side of the moon
55. History of the USA
History of the USA
56. The United States of America
The United States of America

57. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

58. London - the capital of Great Britain

59. The History of Moscow

60. Culture of the youth

61. Problems of the youth

62. The 8th of March

63. Discovery of the New World

64. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

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65. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

66. The United States of America

67. The lesson of English

68. Cities of the USA

69. The climate of Great Britain

70. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism
71. The sights of USA.
The sights of USA.
72. The native americans
The native americans

73. The political system of Great Britain

74. The constitution of Ukraine

75. The history of Christmas

76. Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony

77. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

78. The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century

79. Category of number of the noun

80. Historical Background of the Middle English Period

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Раздел: Стиральные порошки
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Раздел: Размер 50x60 и более

81. Lexicology of the English Language

82. Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

83. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

84. The House of Yorks

85. The declaration of independence

86. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia
The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia
87. The system of english tenses
The system of english tenses
88. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion
Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

89. Survey of the British Geography and Life

90. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

91. Prominent People of the Belarus

92. The working day of an engineer

93. Is the nature of quantum chaos classical?

94. For the Beauty of the Earth

95. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

96. The Grapes of Wrath

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Раздел: Качели
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Раздел: Насосы, компрессоры автомобильные

97. Valley of the Kings

98. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

99. The Formation of Youth Subcultures

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