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Политология, Политистория Политология, Политистория

THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR

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HE U IVERSI Y OF HULL Depar me of Poli ics Compara ive a io al Securi y Policy HE EVOLU IO OF AMERICA A IO AL SECURI Y POLICY SI CE HE E D OF SECO D WORLD WARBy: Jo as Da iliauskas u or: Eric J. GroveMarch 10, 1995 he I roduc io . he aim of his work is o accou for he evolu io of he America a io al securi y policy si ce he e d of he World War II. Charles Kegley divided he his ory of he America foreig policy of co ai i g he Sovie U io i o he five chro ologically ordered phases: 1. Belligere ce, 1947-1952 2. ough alk, Accomoda ive Ac io , 1953-1962 3. Compe e ive Coexis e ce, 1963-1968 4. De e e, 1969-1978 5. Co fro a io , 1979 o wards he same pa er fi s for he US a io al securi y policy qui e well. O ly some addi io s mus be i roduced. he period of co fro a io e ded i 1986. he period be wee 1987 a d 1990 could be called ‘E di g he Cold War’, a d he period from 1991 o wards - ‘ he Pos -Cold War Era’. he period be wee 1945 a d 1946 could be amed ‘ oward Co ai me ’. So, he goal of he US a io al securi y policy for early for y years was he co ai me of he Sovie U io by all possible mea s. Bu i he 1991 he US fou ded i self i he co fusi g si ua io . he major hrea - he SU - simply dissapeared. he US lef he o ly superpower. here are o large specific mili ary hrea s faci g he US. he US a io al securi y policy mus be cha ged, a d i is cha gi g. he problem is ha here is o clear co se sus i he US over he hrea s o he securi y a d eco omic well-bei g of he US. oward Co ai me , 1945-1946. he World War II showed ha he US mus cha ge i s role i he world poli ics. he World War II reafirmed ha he US could o pre e d o be immu e from he global urmoil a d gave bir h o he o io of he US as a “superpower”. he firs problem was how o deal wi h he Sovie s. he immedia e pos war America policy owards he SU was based o he belief ha he SU could be i egra ed i he pos war securi y s ruc ure. Preside Roosevel developed he ‘Four Policeme ’ idea, which was based o he visio ha he US, Grea Bri ai , he SU, a d Chi a would impose order o he res of he pos war world. Bu i fac , experie ce showed ha here was li le he US could do o shape S ali ’s decisio s. I was realized ha ei her rus or pressure had made a y differe ce. I less ha a year Preside ruma realized ha he Sovie s would expa d as far as hey could u less effec ive cou ervaili g power was orga ized o s op hem. S ali obviously placed a higher value o expa di g he Sovie sphere of co rol he o mai ai i g good rela io s wi h he US. Ma y America defe se officials i 1945 hoped o avoid he escala io wi h he SU. Bu a he same ime heir aim was o preve Europe from falli g u der Commu is regime. he America objec ive was o avoid Sovie hegemo y over Eurasia. I wi er 1945-1946 he SU i creased pressures o Ira a d urkey. he US viewed his as a hrea o he global bala ce of power. he ba leship Missouri was se o Is a bul. I Oc ober 1945 he firs pos war base sys em was approved by bo h he Joi Chiefs of S aff (JCS) a d he civilia secre aries. I i cluded Icela d as a primary base area. So, whe Wi s o Churchill delivered his famous “Iro Cur ai ” speech i March 1946, he US was o he pa h of he Cold War allready.

I fac , he origi s of he Cold War were i Europe. Mar i Walker wro e: “ he Cold War s ar ed i Europe because i was here ha US a d Sovie roops me i May 1945, over he corpse of azi Germa y, a d discovered ha heir co cep s of Europe’s pos war fu ure were da gerously i copa ible.” Five S ages of Co ai me :1. Belligere ce, 1947-1952. here are differe opi io s abou he da e whe he Cold War bega . I fac , here is o da e of he begi i g of he Cold War. I did ’ begi i o e igh . I bega s ep by s ep. A d i bega from bo h sides. I February 1946, S ali gave a speech i which he spoke abou “ he i evi abili y of co flic wi h he capi alis powers”. O February 22, 1946, George F.Ke a , a ha ime charge d’affaires i he US embassy i Moscow, se o Washi g o his famous “lo g elegram” assessi g he mo iva io s of he Sovie s. La er he published his well-k ow ar icle “X” i he Foreig Affairs (1947). I i , Ke a argued ha Sovie leaders would forever feel i secure abou heir poli ical abili y o mai ai power agai s forces bo h wi hi Sovie socie y a di he ou side world. heir i securi y would lead o a ac ivis - a d perhaps hos ile - Sovie foreig policy. I March 1947, he ruma Doc ri e was a ou ced. his was a drama ic depar ure from radi io al US foreig , defe se, a d securi y policy. I was based o a view of i er a io al poli ics as a co es for world domi a io , wi h he SU as a imperial power be o world co ques . his was he s ar of co ai me policy. Co ai me was desig ed o circumscribe Sovie expa sio ism i order o (1) save he i er a io al sys em from a revolu io ary s a e, a d (2) force i er al cha ges i he SU. Co ai me was a desired co di io i US-Sovie rela io s. I was a geopoli ical ra her ha ideological or mili ary s ra egy. I s ul ima e objec ive was a s able a d peaceful i er a io al sys em. Soo he firs resul s of he co ai me appeared. he a io al Securi y Ac (1947) crea ed a u ified Depar me of Defe se wi h a au o omous Air Force, a Joi Chiefs of S aff sys em, he Ce ral I ellige ce Age cy, a d he a io al Securi y Cou cil. I Ju e 1947, he Marshall Pla for he eco omic recovery of Europe was a ou ced. I July 1947, i ellige ce a alys s i he War Depar me mai ai ed ha he ruma Doc ri e a d he Marshall Pla provoked a more aggresive Sovie a i ude oward he US. So, he resul of he begi i g of co ai me was he escala io . A o her s ep o deeper hos ili y was he docume called SC-68 (approved by Preside ruma o Sep ember 30, 1950). SC-68 was desig ed o (1) bols er he co ve io al capabili ies, (2) s re gh e he s ra egic uclear forces, (3) assis he US allies, especially i Europe. he aim of SC-68 was “ o check a d roll back he Kremli ’s drive for world domi a io .” he firs mili ary a emp o co ai he commu ism was he Korea War (1950), which had pushed he budge appropria io s for defe se up o a peak of almos $57 billio (67 per ce of he whole budge ) for fiscal year 1952. he Korea War marked a globalisa io of co ai me i erms of opera io al commi me s as well as rhe oric. his period was also marked by he crea io of or h A la ic rea y Orga isa io ( A O). he A O Pac was sig ed i April 1949.

his was ope - e ded, mul ila eral, peace ime allia ce amo g he US, Ca ada, a d Wes Europea a io s ha commi ed he US o co sider a a ack o a y member a io as a a ack o i self. he crea io of A O was a respo se o Sovie ac io s i Czekoslovakia, Berli , a d Greece. Also he US sig ed bila eral mu ual defe se rea ies wi h Japa a d he Philippi es a d a rila eral pac wi h Aus ralia a d ew Zeala d ( he A ZUS rea y). All hree were sig ed i 1951.2. ough alk, Accomoda ive Ac io , 1953-1962. his was he period of he America superiori y i erms of he uclear capabili ies. Bu Preside Eise hover u ders ood ha America resources are o e dless. he idea of his policy was securi y a d solve cy - o regai America i i ia ive i foreig policy wi hou ba krup i g he a io . His policy had wo eleme s. he firs was “ ew Look” defe se policy, a d seco d - he forma io of a global allia ce sys em. he “ ew Look” was based o hree co cep s: rollback, bri kma ship,a d massive re alia io . Rollback s a ed he goal he US was o pursue: rejec merely co ai i g he spread of commu is i flue ce a d i s ead “roll back” he iro cur ai . Bri kma ship was a s ra egy for deali g wi h he Sovie s by backi g hem i o he cor er wi h he hrea of uclear amihila io . Massive re alia io was a cou ervalue uclear weapo s s ra egy ha sough o achieve America foreig policy objec ives by hrea e i g mass des ruc io of he Sovie popula io a d i dus rial ce ers. All his was called compelle ce s ra egy, which las ed u il1961. I he early 1960s he America superiori y decli ed. his pushed owards de erre ce s ra egy. De erre ce mea s discouragi g a adversary from aki g mili ary ac io by co vi ci g him ha he cos a d risk of such ac io would ou weigh he po e ial gai . he co cep of flexible respo se was formula ed. I mea s he i crease of co ve io al war capabili ies. I 1962 he capaci y o wage “ wo-a d-o e-half “ wars was embraced as he official s ra egy. he forma io of he global allia ce sys em co i ued. he US sig ed bila eral agreeme s wi h Sou h Korea (1953), he Republic of Chi a ( aiwa ) (1954), Ira (1959), Pakis a (1959), a d urkey (1959). I 1954 Sou h Eas Asia rea y Orga isa io (SEA O) was crea ed. I 1959 he US became a member of Ce ral rea y Orga isa io (CE O). Also he Middle Eas became he area of co cer , especially af er he Suez crizis (1956). Fear of Commu is i cursio s i his area led o he formula io of Eise hower Doc ri e. Of course, he mos impor a eve duri g his period was he Cuba crisis (1962). I was he mos da gerous eve of he Cold War, a d a good lesso for he officials of bo h superpowers. A uclear excha ge was so close ha bo h Whi e House a d Kremli officials fra kly expec ed he bombs o fall. hey recog ized ha he superpowers mus cha ge heir policies.3. Compe e ive Coexis e ce, 1963-1968. Because of growi g pari y of America a d Sovie mili ary capabili ies he fac was ha he al er a ives were coexis e ce or o coexis e ce. he powers bega o look for he ways o coexis e ce. O e of he firs sig s was he i s alia io of he “ho li e” li ki g he Whi e House a d he Kremli Wi h a direc commu ica io sys em i 1963.

Part of this reticence was due to ignorance but part came from  the dismal history of the subject. In its early days, the study of human inheritance was the haunt of charlatans, nio.st of whom had a political axe to grind. Absurd pedigrees purporting to show family lines of criminality or genius were the norm. Ignorance and confidence went together. Many biologists argued that it was possible to improve humankind by selective breeding or by the elimination of the unfit. The adulteration of the science reached its disastrous end in the Nazi experiment, and for many years it was seen as at best unfashionable to discuss the nature of inborn differences among people. After the Second World War, the United Nations published a book — Statement of Race, by the American anthropologist Ashley Montagu — which tried to kill some of the genetical myths. I read this as a schoolboy and found it unpersuasive and hard in follow, although its liberal message was clear enough. Re-reading it a few years ago showed why: Ashley Montagu had tried, nobly, to make bricks without straw

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