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Economic and sociological analysis of suicide

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here are ma y reaso s why people commi suicide. People ca decide o commi suicide hemselves or be pushed o do i . Mos of he fac ors, i reali y ca be explai ed by he Cos /be efi heory of Eco omics of Huma Behaviour which says ha people will do a y hi g u il Margi al cos s will exceed Margi al be efi s. RELIGIOUS FAC OR - O e of he mos powerful social fac ors de ermi i g a level of suicides is he religio . Si ce accordi g o Cos /be efi heory people ry o mi imize heir cos s while maximizi g be efi s a d will o ly do some hi g if Margi al be efi s exceed Margi al cos s. We ca assume ha if religious leaders would promise be er life a d god’s forgive ess of all si s people commi ed, some people u der psychological s ress would believe hem a d commi suicide si ce for he expec ed be efi s would exceed expec ed cos s. his is widely prac iced i Islam. Accordi g o Islam o die for Allah is he grea es hi g a livi g Muslim ca do. I Judaism o he o her ha d, value of life is emphasized, a d co seque ly for he sake of preserva io of life he devou Jews are allowed o break all religious laws, excep for refusal of he god, murder a d sexual rela io ship be wee rela ives. he be efi s of life are emphasized i Judaism a d for Jews cos s of suicide are large ha be efi s si ce belief i af erlife is o prac iced. I Chris ia cou ries i is a shame o a emp o des roy yourself accordi g o he words of Bible. People who a emp ed suicide faced refusal of socie y o accep hem a d were buried o he edges of ceme eries or by he roads whe died. hus social a d religious cos s of commi i g suicide i hose cou ries is very high a d are grea er ha be efi s of faci g God i Heave . his is o e of he mai reaso s of he lowes level of suicides ow i I aly, Spai a d umber of he La i America cou ries - he huge i flue ce of Ca holicism i hese cou ries. I is es ablished by he moder researchers, ha as a whole i cou ries, where he i flue ce of religio is weaker a d religious orms co ec ed i par icular wi h suicide are more huma ely , he perce age of suicide a emp s is higher. Because i cou ries wi h high religious i flue ce God’s pu ishme for killi g yourself is much higher a d people are afraid o “si ” by eve hi ki g abou suicide. I World His ory here were a lo of people who had he gif of persuasio . hese people could persuade a yo e o do a y hi g a d eve commi suicide. hese i dividuals of e ga hered ci ize s u der some idea, a acked hese ci ize s emo io ally o break heir will i order o gai full co rol over he mi ds of hese people. hese evil mas ermi ds of e a emp ed mass suicide i co ec io o some impor a “religious” da e or eve public holiday. People believed hese i dividuals because of he promises of grea be efi s of dyi g or of simply belo gi g o some par icular religious group a d rejec i g he res of he world. Af er some ime he percep io of persuaded people was so grea ly dis or ed ha he be efi of simply seei g ‘ he mas er’ was u surpassed by a y of he cos hey migh have i curred. he cos of suicide also i creases whe co sideri g public opi io abou suicide: “Wha will o her people hi k of me? “.

radi io al hough would i clude God as o e of “ he o her perso s” who migh have a d express disapprovi g a i udes1. Fi ally, a e da ce a religious services po e ially gives i dividuals access o a suppor e work. hose wi hou a suppor e work are mos likely o commi suicide.2 he suppor e work bri gs a lo of be efi s o people, hi gs like ew frie dships, affilia io , u ders a di g. his i creased be efi s of life compared o be efi s of suicide a d made people cha ge heir mi d o s ay alive. HE SOCIAL FAC ORS - O her ki d of suicide fac ors is direc ly co ec ed o he social reaso s, is his case, public si ua io of a y group of people or co cre e i dividual for ma y i depe de or perso al reaso s is so hard a d i olerable, i o her words he cos of livi g hrough a o her day becomes so high a d exceeds be efi s by such a grea amou ha he suicide becomes he o ly real way o ge free from sufferi gs. hi gs ha raise hough s of suicide ca be: eed of mo ey a d work, eed for affilia io , dea h of a beloved perso , realiza io of bei g u able o cha ge hi gs a d ever-e di g s ruggle for exis e ce. he ra e of suicide i he world ca be reflec ed by he world eco omic s abili y. Duri g recessio s ma y people loose heir jobs a d busi esses a d have o sell heir homes a d are forced o follow poor s yle of life. I 1840-1850 he claim ha suicide was a urba phe ome o i Paris a d ha i was rela ed o pover y a d occurred more freque ly amo g labori g poor were repea ed by ma y wri ers3. For hese people o o ly emo io al bu also mo e ary cos s were e ormous. his migh have caused depressio , sorrows a d have led o suicide a emp s. I has also prove ha i big ci ies ra e of suicide is much higher ha i cou ryside. Accordi g o S . homas Aqui as “Every ma belo gs o he commu i y. He ce by killi g himself he i jures he commu i y”4. hus, suicide of perso imposes high margi al cos o his frie ds a d rela ives. I is very impor a o us wha o her people hi k of us a d hus we will weigh cos s a d be efi s of dyi g before a emp i g suicide. Cos s a d be efi s of love may be a o her social fac or of suicide. I Joha Goe he’s &quo ; he Sorrows of You g Wer her&quo ; he mai charac er decides o die because he woma ha he loves does o love him back. For him he cos of realiza io ha his expec ed be efi s of bei g oge her wi h her is very high a d i addi io o ha he cos of seei g her happy wi h someo e else made he charac er o shoo himself, for him ha was he o ly way o s op his sorrows a d he be efi of dyi g was much higher for him a ha poi . U for u a e love of Romeo a d Julie for example led o heir suicide, or i “E ha Frome” he mai charac er decides o slide i o a ree wi h his beloved woma whe his wife refused o le him go. For hese charac ers he cos of livi g apar from each o her was so high ha hey decided o die o be oge her i a o her life.5 Fi ally ma y you g people kill hemselves every year because of heir love o some celebri y. Ma y a emp suicide af er heir objec of affec io died or also commi ed suicide. hey do so because of a high expec ed be efi of bei g wi h him/ her i he af erlife a d high cos of livi g wi hou ha perso i heir lives.

E.g. wa chi g ha perso o V a d realizi g ha he/she is go e. I he pas , a perso had o kill himself/herself whe his/her spouse died. Examples are: wife of a well-k ow i he Roma his ory Caesar Bru swallowed pieces of bur i g coal whe she fou d ou abou dea h of her husba d. I I dia he cus om “sa i” - self-bur i g of he widow oge her wi h a body of he husba d dow o XIX of ce ury was o simply sample for imi a io , bu also obliga ory ri ual6 PSYCHOLOGICAL FAC ORS - such as depressio a d pa ic. Several s udies i rece years have sugges ed ha people wi h pa ic disorder are more likely o a emp suicide ha pa ie s wi h o her psychia ric co di io s. O e expla a io was ha pa ic disorder, whe combi ed wi h cli ical depressio , made people more pro e o suicide7. &quo ;Depressio is a very sig ifica predic or of whe her or o a pa ie wi h pa ic disorder will e gage i some ki d of suicide behavior. Bu depressio alo e does ' accou for i all&quo ; said professor Brad Schmid of U iversi y of Ohio8. he s udy also proved posi ive rela io ship be wee level of expec ed a xie y a d suicide a emp s ra e. For hese people he cos of doi g vir ually a y hi g is rise by he level of worry a d if for a lo g ime, margi al cos of livi g hrough a o her day is much higher ha be efi s, people ca decide o volu ary leave his world. A o her fac or is huma pride a d self-ho or. I some cou ries like Japa a d Korea ho or is very impor a self percep io , especially for me . here is s ill a radi io of “hara-kiri”, volu ary self-des ruc io because of failure o comple e some family or social obliga io . For me who “failed” he cos of livi g wi h heir “failure” was oo high. hey could ’ look i o he eyes of people who hey failed a d he o ly solu io ha was co sidered was “hara-kiri”. he be efi of escapi g from shame was so high ha hese me ( mos ly soldiers- samurai) did o eve hi k abou physical pai a d pai of heir frie ds a d rela ives. Duri g war imes high ra ked soldiers were give a cha ce o kill hemselves i order o save heir ho or a d die like a hero. ME HODS A D RE DS OF SUICIDE Me hods used o commi suicide vary o sex a d regio al bases. E.g. dea h by firearms is more commo i rural areas where he availabili y of gu s is higher.9 People a emp o lower he cos of he ac ual effor , hus use me hods ha are available o hem immedia ely i s ead of spe di g ime a d mo ey a d o her resources. he mos commo o -fa al suicide a emp s i bo h sexes are drug overdoses a d poiso i gs10. here are differe ces i he spread of ra e of suicide depe di g o age: he fac s abou se ior people are clear: he ill esses a d lo eli ess, decli e of vi al forces a d abse ce of iridesce hopes be er co di io of a body a d spiri cause drama ic emo io s &quo ;of socially ac ive old age &quo ;. A his age he choice is be wee ba li g a i creasi g avala che of diseases a d ill esses or i e io al dea h. Eve hough here are some be efi s (e.g. wa chi g gra dchildre grow), he cos of livi g is much higher. hus he radeoff be wee life a d dea h is o so large.

As Albion Small observed, "Today's sociology is still struggling with the preposterous initial fact of the individual. He is the only possible social unit, and he is no longer a thinkable possibility. He is the only real presence, and he is never present." Sociology's emphasis on social determination, its insistence that human consciousness was formed and existed in interaction alone, seemed to undermine an American tradition of individualism. But in fact the task of "reconstructing individualism" was a continuing preoccupation. Thus, for static analyses the question was: how could individuals be fit into the existing social system? For evolutionary analyses the question was: how do individual differences come about; are they products of inheritance or environment? For technologic analyses the question was: can education and scientific knowledge equip certain individuals with special powers for social betterment? In what follows I will discuss these three clusters of sociological analysis by way of specific American novels

1. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

2. Specificity of sociology and sociological knowledge

3. Analysis of Sufism Through Art of Sufi Poetry

4. A Country Report and Profile - Republic of Uzbekistan

5. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

6. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution
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7. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials
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8. Lexical and grammatical peculiarities of scientific-technical texts
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9. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier

10. Theoretical and methodological aspects of translation

11. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

12. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

13. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century

14. Stages and types of an applied sociological research. Sociological research process

15. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

16. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

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18. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

19. Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English

20. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

21. Uzbekistan-U. S. Economic Relations: Problems and Perspectives

22. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)
23. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA
24. The City of London and its role as a financial centre
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25. Protectionnism and Free Trade in Economical Doctrines

26. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

27. Climate and nature of Great Britain

28. Problems of city and country life

29. Period of lithuanian and polish rule (1360-1599)

30. Flora and Fauna of the USA

31. Allocation of powers between directors and shareholders

32. Customs and traditions of Great Britain

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34. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

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37. Description of a person and a place

38. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
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39. Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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40. Changes and specimens of the English language
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41. Economic system. Changes in economic situation of Russia

42. Education, its role in increase of economic potential

43. Internal diagnostics company, identification of strengths and weaknesses

44. Methods of Lexicological Analysis

45. Social interaction and social relation. Levels of social interactions

46. The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages

47. The Life and Times of Shakespeare

48. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

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52. National features of cuisine and table manners

53. Magnetic nanoparticles - fabrication, analysis and application

54. Economic methods of protection environment
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55. Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation
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56. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought Evolution
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57. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

58. Спецподразделения Армии Израиля: "Голани" (Special forces in Army of Israel Golani)

59. Short Overview of African Countries

60. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

61. Countries and cities

62. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

63. School Reform: Pros and Cons

64. The Church of England

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68. Personnel selection and choice

69. Подготовка к TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language

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71. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact
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72. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

73. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought Evolution

74. Irish and America

75. Lexico-sementic chartersticcs of business letter correspondence

76. Regulation in telecommunications industries: Why, What and How to Regulate?

77. Russia and the international economy

78. Socionical approach in studding of nations

79. The Castles of England

80. The fastest computers of the world

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82. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

83. The Tower of London

84. Лингвистический фон деловой корреспонденции (Linguistic Background of Business Correspondence)

85. Ten reasons for a tradition of modernity

86. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
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87. Nikolaev and Yakutia (Николаев и Якутия)
88. The Economy of Great Britain
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89. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

90. Music and Ballet

91. The New-York City, Places of interest

92. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

93. Translatioin of Political Literature

94. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

95. Urbanization and Urban Issues

96. Сравнительные степени прилагательных и наречий (Comparison) Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs) Цепочки существительных (Атрибутивная, номинативная группа) (Chains of nouns)

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97. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

98. Myth of managment

99. The Queen of the UK

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