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Establishment of the Federal judicial system

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a d he se i g of he bala ce be wee he Federal a d he local judicial bra ches of power Wi h he Judiciary Ac of 1789, Co gress firs impleme ed he co s i u io al provisio ha “ he judicial power of he U i ed S a es, shall be ves ed i o e supreme cour , a d i such i ferior cour s as he Co gress may from ime o ime ordai a d es ablish.” Al hough subseque legisla io al ered ma y of he 1789 Ac ’s specific provisio s, a d he 1891 Circui Cour s of Appeals Ac effec ed a major cha ge, he basic desig es ablished by he 1789 Ac has e dured: a supreme appella e cour o i erpre he federal Co s i u io a d laws; a sys em of power federal cour s, separa ed geographically by s a e bou daries a d exercisi g basically he same jurisdic io ; a d relia ce o s a e cour s o ha dle he bulk of adjudica io i he a io . However, Ar icle III a d i s impleme i g legisla io also reveal he clash of major disagreeme s over he op imal ex e of federal jurisdic io a d he op imal federal cour s ruc ure o accommoda e ha jurisdic io . . he Co s i u io al Co ve io ’s decisio s i 1787 abou he a io al gover me ’s cour sys em were few bu impor a . he framers agreed ha here would be a separa e federal judicial power a d ha o exercise i here would be a Supreme Cour a d here could be o her federal cour s. hey specified he jurisdic io hose cour s could exercise, subjec o co gressio al excep io s. hey prescribed he appoi me procedure for Supreme Cour judges, a d hey sough o pro ec all federal judges from reprisals for u popular decisio s: Judges’ compe sa io could o be reduced, a d judges could o be removed from office o her ha by legisla ive impeachme a d co vic io . Pu i g flesh o his skele o fell o he Firs Co gress. he Judiciary Ac a d he Bill of Righ s same forces ha co e ded over he wri i g a d ra ifica io of he Co s i u io i 1787 a d 1788 sparred i he Firs Co gress i 1789 over he a io ’s judicial sys em. Federalis s ge erally suppor ed he Co s i u io a d he policies of Preside Washi g o ’s admi is ra io , a d hey wa ed o es ablish a lower federal judiciary. A i-Federalis s opposed he Co s i u io — or a leas wa ed sig ifica cha ges i i — a d favored a bes o ly a very limi ed federal judiciary. Af er he Co s i u io we i o effec i 1789, ou righ opposi io o i dimi ished quickly. Democra ic Republica s, or “Jefferso ia s,” emerged as a cou er o he Federalis s i power. depar me will be oppressive.” he s ar chamber of Bri ish legal his ory li gered i some people’s mi ds, a d ma y more remembered how s a e cour s issued judgme s agai s deb ors duri g he eco omic urmoil u der he Ar icles of Co federa io . Charles Warre ide ified four mai cha ges ha oppo e s sough i he Co s i u io ’s judiciary provisio s: guara eei g civil as well as crimi al rial juries, res ric i g federal appella e jurisdic io o ques io s of law, elimi a i g or radically cur aili g co gressio al au hori y o es ablish lower federal cour s, a d elimi a i g he au horiza io for federal diversi y jurisdic io . Ma y who had suppor ed he Co s i u io , however, believed a federal cour sys em was ecessary bu doub ed he eed for a bill of righ s.

o hem, he Co s i u io , i Hamil o ’s famous phrase, “is i self, i every ra io al se se, a d o every useful purpose, a bill of righ s.” he Co s i u io as ra ified co ai ed specific limi a io s o he a io al gover me (e. g., Ar icle III’s provisio for crimi al jury rials), a d i a broader se se, i es ablished a e erge ic a io al gover me , ex e di g over a large republic, ha would be capable of pro ec i g people from he oppressio of local fac io s. Cour s would also pro ec righ s. As Chief Jus ice Joh Jay la er old he gra d juries of he Eas er Circui , “ o hi g bu a s ro g gover me of laws irresis ibly beari g dow arbi rary power a d lice ious ess ca defe d agai s hose wo formidable e emies.” o ma y Federalis s, s a e cour s u der he Ar icles of Co federa io had oo easily yielded o popular pressures; he Federalis s believed ha a separa e se of federal cour s was ecessary o achieve “a s ro g gover me of laws.”. hus, he Firs Co gress faced hese i errela ed ques io s: Wha provisio s should a bill of righ s co ai ? Should Ar icle III’s provisio s gover i g federal judicial orga iza io a d jurisdic io be al ered? How should Ar icle III be impleme ed? From April o Sep ember of 1789, he Firs Co gress addressed hem all. Early i he firs sessio of he House of Represe a ives, James Madiso , he pri cipal archi ec of he Co s i u io , pu oge her a proposed bill of righ s draw from s a e proposals a d co s i u io al provisio s. Madiso had opposed a bill of righ s a year earlier, claimi g ha “parchme barriers” were o pro ec io agai s “ he e croachi g spiri of power,” bu he k ew he impor a ce of ho ori g commi me s made i he ra ifica io deba es. More over, he old he House, if a bill of righ s is i corpora ed i o he Co s i u io , “i depe de ribu als of jus ice will co sider hemselves i a peculiar ma er he guardia s of hose righ s.” Madiso guided his proposed ame dme s hrough legisla ive revisio s a d arou d colleagues who hough hey were u ecessary or u wise, a d he eluded o her legisla ors who wa ed o add provisio s o cur ail severely he co empla ed federal judicial sys em. Mea while, he Se a e quickly ook up he orga iza io a d jurisdic io of he federal cour s. he pri cipal draf ers of Se a e Bill were hree lawyers: Oliver Ellswor h of Co ec icu , William Pa erso of ew Jersey, a d Caleb S ro g of Massachuse s. Ellswor h a d Pa erso had served i he Co s i u io al Co ve io , a d Ellswor h served o he commi ee of he Co i e al Co gress ha heard appeals i prize cases. He had a special apprecia io of he role ha a federal judiciary, properly co s i u ed, migh serve. (Ellswor h a d Pa erso we o o serve o he U. S. Supreme Cour , Ellswor h as Chief Jus ice.) O Sep ember 24, 1789, Washi g o sig ed “A Ac o Es ablish he Federal Cour s of he U i ed S a es” a d se his omi a io s for he firs federal judges o he Se a e. O he same day, he House accep ed he co fere ce repor o he proposed Bill of Righ s. he Se a e followed sui he ex day, a d welve ame dme s we o he s a es for ra ifica io . e of hem became par of he Co s i u io i 1791. . he Federalis s made impor a co cessio s o ge a federal judicial sys em.

he Judiciary Ac bowed o he A i- Federalis s i wo ge eral ways: I res ric ed federal jurisdic io more ha he Co s i u io required, a d i ied he federal cour s o he legal a d poli ical cul ures of he s a es. . he Ac limi ed federal rial cour jurisdic io mai ly o admiral y, diversi y, a d U. S. plai iff cases, a d o federal crimi al cases. here was li le dispu e abou he eed o crea e a io al admiral y cour s. Eve oppo e s of he Co s i u io recog ized he impor a ce of mari ime commerce a d he gover me ’s i abili y u der he Ar icles of Co federa io o provide a adequa e judicial forum for resolvi g admiral y dispu es. (Pursua o a au horiza io i he Ar icles of Co federa io , he Co i e al Co gress i 1780 had es ablished a U. S. Cour of Appeals i Cases of Cap ure, bu ha cour had bee u dermi ed by widespread refusal o ho or i s ma da es.) Whe proposals o abolish Co gress’s Ar icle III au hori y o es ablish federal cour s were made i he s a e ra ifyi g co ve io s a d i he Firs Co gress, here was usually a excep io for cour s of admiral y. A major co cessio o he A i- Federalis s co cer ed jurisdic io over cases arisi g u der he federal Co s i u io or laws: For he mos par , u less diversi y was prese , such federal- ques io cases could be filed o ly i s a e cour . he Ac made some specific gra s o federal cour s: he admiral y jurisdic io , for example, a d jurisdic io over rea y righ s cases. Sec io 14 au horized federal judges o issue wri s of habeas corpus co cer i g he legali y of federal de e io s. Co gress added i creme ally o federal cour s’ federal- ques io jurisdic io — s ar i g i 1790 wi h cer ai pa e cases —bu i did ’ gra federal cour s a ge eral federal- ques io jurisdic io u il 1875. he abse ce of such a gra mea less i 1789 ha i would mea oday or i 1875 because federal s a u ory law was so limi ed i he early years. O her provisio s of he Ac reflec ed he same fear of overbeari g judicial procedures ha was reflec ed i he Bill of Righ s. For example, o allevia e fears ha ci ize s would be dragged i o cour from lo g dis a ces, sec io 3 specified places a d erms of holdi g cour i each dis ric , a d sec io 11 provided ha civil sui s mus be filed i he defe da ’s dis ric of reside ce. Sec io s 9 a d 12 pro ec ed he righ o civil a d crimi al juries i he dis ric a d circui cour s, as he Six h a d Seve h Ame dme s would la er do, a d sec io 29 shielded juror selec io a d qualifica io s from federal judicial co rol by direc i g cour s o use he me hods of heir respec ive s a es. Sec io s 22 a d 25 pro ec ed jury verdic s from appella e review; hese sec io s respo ded o vigorous a acks o Ar icle III’s qualified gra o he Supreme Cour of “appella e jurisdic io , bo h as o law a d fac .” A d, as o ed earlier, sec io 14 au horized federal judges o issue wri s of habeas corpus o i quire i o i s a ces of federal de e io . A major a io alis vic ory i he Ac was he impleme a io of he co s i u io al au horiza io of jurisdic io i cases “be wee ci ize s of differe S a es” a d cases i volvi g alie s. U der sec io 11, he circui cour s, like he s a e cour s, could hear sui s whe “a alie is a par y, or he sui is be wee a ci ize of he S a e where he sui is brough , a d a ci ize of a o her S a e.”

San Francisco: Pacific Institute for Public Policy Research, 1984. P. 94-115. 59 О захвате Бенджамином Стронгом верховной власти в Федеральном резерве и о мероприятиях военного времени см.: Clark L. Е. Central Banking Under the Federal Reserve System. N. Y.: Macmillan, 1935. P. 64-82, 102-105; Chandler L. V. Benjamin Strong: Central Banker. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1958. P. 23-41, 68-78, 105-107; Willis H. P. The Theory and Practice ofCentral Banking. N. Y.: Harper & Brothers, 1936. P. 90-91. 60 О Морганах, их связях с Англией и их влиянии на вступление Америки в войну см.: Tansill Ch. С. America Goes to War. Boston: Little, Brown, 1938. 61 Кулидж Калвин (1872-1933) - 30-й (1923-1929) президент США, от республиканской партии. 62 Гардинг Уоррен Тамалиель (1865-1923) - 29-й президент США (1921-1923), от республиканской партии. 63 В частности, см.: Ferguson T. Industrial Conflict and the Coming of the New Deal: the Triumph of Multinational Liberalism in America // The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, 1930-1980

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3. The Tax System of the United States

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12. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

13. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

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89. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

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