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Usa. Howard h. Aiken and the computer

Коврик для запекания, силиконовый "Пекарь".
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Раздел: Ночники

HOWARD H.AIKE A D HE COMPU ER Howard Aike ’s co ribu io s o he developme of he compu er - o ably he Harvard MarkI (IBM ASSC) machi e, a d i s successor he MarkII - are of e excluded from he mai s ream his ory of compu ers o wo ech icali ies. he firs is ha MarkI a d MarkII were elec ro-mecha ical ra her ha elec ro ic; he seco d o e is ha Aike was ever co vi ced ha compu er programs should be rea ed as da a i wha has come o be k ow as he vo euma co cep , or he s ored program. I is o proposed o discuss here he origi s a d sig ifica ce of he s ored program. or I wish o deal wi h he rela ed problem of whe her he machi es before he s ored program were or were o “compu ers”. his subjec is complica ed by he co fusio i ac ual ames give o machi es. For example, he E IAC, which did o i corpora e a s ored program, was officially amed a compu er: Elec ro ic umeral I egra or A d Compu er. Bu he firs s ored-program machi e o be pu i o regular opera io was Maurice Wiles’ EDSAC: Elec ro ic Delay S orage Au oma ic Calcula or. I seems o be ra her se seless o de y ma y ruly sig ifica i ova io s (by H.H.Aike a d by Ecker a d Mauchly), which played a impor a role i he his ory of compu ers, o he arbi rary grou d ha hey did o i corpora e he s ored-program co cep . Addi io ally, i he case of Aike , i is sig ifica ha here is a curre compu er ech ology ha does o i corpora e he s ored programs a d ha is desig a ed as (a leas by EXAS I S RUME Sâ) as “Harvard archi ec ure”, hough, i should more properly be called “Aike archi ec ure”. I his ech ology he program is fix a d o subjec o a y al era io save by i e - as i some compu ers used for elepho e swi chi g a d i ROM. OPERA IO OF HE E IAC Aike was a visio ary, a ma ahead of his imes. Grace Hopper a d o hers remember his predic io i he la e 1940s, eve before he vacuum ube had bee wholly replaced by he ra sis or, ha he ime would come whe a machi e eve more powerful ha he gia machi es of hose days could be fi ed i o a space as small as a shoe box. Some weeks before his dea h Aike had made a o her predic io . He poi ed ou ha hardware co sidera io s alo e did o give a rue pic ure of compu er cos s. As hardware has become cheaper, sof ware has bee ap o ge more expe sive. A d he he gave us his fi al predic io : “ he ime will come”, he said, “whe ma ufac urers will gave away hardware i order o sell sof ware”. ime alo e will ell whe her or o his was his fi al look ahead i o he fu ure. HE DEVELOPME OF COMPU ERS I HE USA I he early 1960s, whe compu ers were hulki g mai frames ha ook up e ire rooms, e gi eers were already oyi g wi h he he - ex ravaga o io of buildi g a compu er i e ded for he sole use of o e perso . by he early 1970s, researches a Xerox’s Polo Al o Research Ce er (XeroxPARC) had realized ha he pace of improveme i he ech ology of semico duc ors - he chips of silico ha are he buildi g blocks of prese -day elec ro ics - mea ha soo er or la er he PC would be ex ravaga o lo ger. hey foresaw ha compu i g power would someday be so cheap ha e gi eers would be able o afford o devo e a grea deal of i simply o maki g o - ech ical people more comfor able wi h hese ew i forma io - ha dli g ools.

i heir labs, hey developed or refi ed much of wha co s i u es PCs oday, from “mouse” poi i g devices o sof ware “wi dows”. Al hough he work a XeroxPARC was crucial, i was o he spark ha ook PCs ou of he ha ds of exper s a d i o he popular imagi a io . ha happe ed i auspiciously i Ja uary 1975, whe he magazi e Popular Elec ro ics pu a ew ki for hobbyis s, called he Al air, o i s cover. for he firs ime, a ybody wi h $400 a d a solderi g iro could buy a d assemble his ow compu er. he Al air i spired S eve Wos iak a d S eve Jobs o build he firs Apple compu er, a d a you g college dropou amed Bill Ga es o wri e sof ware for i . Mea while. he perso who deserves he credi for i ve i g he Al air, a e gi eer amed Ed Rober s, lef he i dus ry he had spaw ed o go o medical school. ow he is a doc or i small ow i ce ral Georgia. o his day, researchers a Xerox a d elsewhere pooh-pooh he Al air as oo primi ive o have made use of he ech ology hey fel was eeded o bri g PCs o he masses. I a se se, hey are righ . he Al air i corpora ed o e of he firs si gle-chip microprocessor - a semico duc or chip, ha co ai ed all he basic circui s eeded o do calcula io s - called he I el8080. Al hough he 8080 was adva ced for i s ime, i was far oo slow o suppor he mouse, wi dows, a d elabora e sof ware Xerox had developed. I deed, i was ’ u il 1984, whe Apple Compu er’s Maci osh burs o o he sce e, ha PCs were powerful e ough o fulfill he origi al visio of researchers. “ he ki d of compu i g ha people are ryi g o do oday is jus wha we made a PARC i he early 1970s,” says Ala Kay, a former Xerox researcher who jumped o Apple i he early 1980s. Researchers oday are proceedi g i he same spiri ha mo iva ed Kay a d his XeroxPARC colleagues i he 1970s: o make i forma io more accessible o ordi ary people. Bu a look i o oday’s research labs reveals very li le ha resembles wha we hi k of ow as a PC. For o e hi g, researchers seem eager o aba do he keyboard a d mo i or ha are he PC’s rademarks. I s ead hey are ryi g o devise PCs wi h i erpre ive powers ha are more huma like - PCs ha ca hear you a d see you, ca ell whe you’re i a bad mood a d k ow o ask ques io s whe hey do ’ u ders a d some hi g. I is impossible o predic he i ve io ha , like he Al air, crys allize ew approaches i a way ha cap ures people’s imagi a io . Список литературы

Emily had arrived safe and sound and his instructions had been carried out to the letter. On the computer screen on his desk was the message that his treacherous accountant had sent into the world-wide computer net for Peter Howard. Peter was once Banyon's best friend, but now Banyon had played right into his hands. Johnson had wondered how to ensure that Peter Howard knew that Emily was at Deuvar. This way Howard would get the information from a source that he trusted implicitly. Johnson was convinced Peter Howard was still alive. It was too damned convenient that he had died and Magenta had been lost with him. Too neat, too easy to be true. The door to his office opened slowly to reveal his own personal body slave, so painfully trained to his particular tastes. The girl was tall; supposedly a warrior princess, who had been given to him as a gift during a business deal with an Arab prince. Johnson had no way to check her pedigree, but her natural bearing and stance certainly suggested that she had once been of some great importance

1. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

2. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

3. Rome and the Roman Empire

4. Rome and the Roman Empire

5. Huey Lewis and the News

6. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements
Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements
7. Robin Hood and the Butcher
Robin Hood and the Butcher
8. Judaism and the Jewish People
Judaism and the Jewish People

9. Ireland and the Continent

10. Law Enforcement and the Youthful Offender

11. Melville’s “The March into Virginia” and “The College Colonel”: The Broken Youth.

12. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

13. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

14. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

15. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

16. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

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345 руб
Раздел: Лото детское
Логическая игра "Парковка. Пазл", арт. SG 434 RU.
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835 руб
Раздел: Игры логические
Рюкзак молодёжный "Pixie Crew" с силиконовой панелью для картинок (зелёная клетка).
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Раздел: Молодежные, подростковые

17. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

18. Flora and Fauna of the USA

19. The development of computers in the USA

20. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

21. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

22. The fastest computers of the world
The fastest computers of the world
23. The Irish and South America
The Irish and South America
24. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

25. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars

26. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

27. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars

28. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

29. Символ и таинство в богословии св. Максима исповедника (symbol and mystery in st.Maximus the confessor)

30. Computers and Health

31. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

32. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

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Раздел: Крем под подгузник
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Раздел: Деревянные
Игровой набор "Весы" с набором продуктов.
Размер весов: 280х122х130 мм. В комплекте 12 элементов.
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Раздел: Кассы, весы, игрушечные деньги

33. Cities of the USA

34. Washington is the capital of the USA

35. The cities of USA

36. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

37. History of democracy of the USA

38. Sports in the USA
Sports in the USA
39. Agriculture in the USA
Agriculture in the USA
40. Survey of the British Geography and Life
Survey of the British Geography and Life

41. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

42. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

43. Sport and recreation in the United States

44. Summary on the subject: Gender Issues and Hopewell Culture

45. Changes and specimens of the English language

46. The British Character and English Humour

47. The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French

48. The Life and Times of Shakespeare

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Раздел: Стульчики для кормления
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Раздел: Батуты, надувные центры
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Раздел: Каталки

49. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

50. The role played by the german and scandinavian tribes on english language

51. The USA economy

52. School education in the USA

53. The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus

54. The Global Money Markets and Money Management
The Global Money Markets and Money Management
55. Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation
Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation
56. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

57. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

58. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

59. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

60. Countries and cities

61. Россия и независимые государства (перевод из "Economic and Post-Soviet Economic Structure and Performance")

62. Two approches to the scientific management

63. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

64. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

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Раздел: Наборы для кормления
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Раздел: Настольные
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Раздел: Глобусы

65. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

66. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

67. История развития компьютеров (Silicon Valley, its history & the best companies)

68. Radio And TV In My Life

69. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

70. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact
Banking services in Russia: theory and fact
71. Epistemology and methodology: main trends and ends. (Эпистемология и Методология)
72. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

73. Knowledge, Innovation and Development

74. My modern image of the United States

75. Slang, youth subcultures and rock music

76. The basical macroeconomics indicators

77. The Castles of England

78. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

79. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

80. The People Trade

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Раздел: 13-24 цвета
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Раздел: Одеяла
Форма для выпечки "Имбирный домик".
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Раздел: Товары с новогодним дизайном

81. The Renaissance

82. The royal family (Королевское семейство)

83. The US Economy after September 11th. Decline or Rapid Growth? (Экономика США после 11-ого сентября. Снижение или Быстрый Рост?)

84. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

85. Великобритания - традиции и современность. Личное представление. (UK - Tradition and modernity. A personal view)

86. Nikolaev and Yakutia (Николаев и Якутия)
87. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)
88. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)

89. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

90. Music and Ballet

91. Punks and Punk Rock

92. British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

93. The History of English

94. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

95. Urbanization and Urban Issues

96. The Tower of London

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Ручки шариковые "Replay. Пиши-стирай", 4 штуки, 1 мм.
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Раздел: Цветные
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Раздел: От тараканов и прочих насекомых

97. The diabetic diet

98. Missile Defense System - Buren for the United States

99. The Queen of the UK

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