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Problem of meaning ambiguity in a language

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Fu c io al Re-evalua io of Gramma ical Forms i Co ex . Pla he mea i g of ambigui y Lexical ambigui y S ruc ural ambigui y Sema ic ambigui y Re-evalua io of Verb. Aspec mea i g Mea i g of ca egory of Voice Ca egory of e se 8. he mos co roversial ca egory –Mood 9. Sy o ymy i Grammar Co clusio Li era ure “U ders a di g a se e ce is much more aki o u ders a di g a heme i music ha o e may hi k.” —Ludwig Wi ge s ei Wha does ambigui y do? How is poe ic i de ermi acy co s i u ive of proposi io al co e ? Do rhe orical a d poe ic ropes orga ize commu ica ive ac s i order o make hem more u ders a dable? Or do hey ra her dis-orga ize hem i order o make hem more u ders a dable? Wha , he , is “u ders a di g”? Does “ he call of he pho eme” (Culler 1988) clarify a d crys allize sema ic refere ce? Dis rac us from he clari y of sema ic refere ce? Simply dis rac us? he po e ial a rac io a d dis rac io of ambigui y is ever-prese i discourse. La guage is a orga izer of he world i o mea i gful u i s a d gives form o experie ce. However, his orga izi g role of la guage is, by a umber of accou s, he roo cause of bo h he possibili y of mea i g a d he i evi abili y of ambigui y. Because la guages are i evi ably smaller ha he worlds of experie ce hey describe, words have ge more ha o e mea i g. he problem of po e ial polysemy i grammar is o e of he mos impor a , he o e which is very complex a d seems o be releva o a umber of aspec s. Observa io s i his area have proved he efficie cy of co ex ual, dis ribu io al a d ra sforma io al me hods of li guis ic a alysis. We dis i guish here he i erdepe de ce of word-forms wi hi he sy ac ic s ruc ure, he i erdepe de ce of eleme s wi hi he word-forms a d he i flue ce of o her levels of he same la guage. 1. he mea i g of ambigui y A word, phrase, or se e ce is ambiguous if i has more ha o e mea i g. he word 'ligh ', for example, ca mea o very heavy or o very dark. Words like 'ligh ', ' o e', 'bear' a d 'over' are lexically ambiguous. hey i duce ambigui y i phrases or se e ces i which hey occur, such as 'ligh sui ' a d ' he duchess ca ' bear childre '. However, phrases a d se e ces ca be ambiguous eve if o e of heir co s i ue s is. he phrase 'porcelai egg co ai er' is s ruc urally ambiguous, as is he se e ce ' he police sho he rio ers wi h gu s'. Ambigui y ca have bo h a lexical a d a s ruc ural basis, as wi h se e ces like 'I lef her behi d for you' a d 'He saw her duck'. he o io of ambigui y has philosophical applica io s. For example, ide ifyi g a ambigui y ca aid i solvi g a philosophical problem. Suppose o e wo ders how wo people ca have he same idea, say of a u icor . his ca seem puzzli g u il o e dis i guishes 'idea' i he se se of a par icular psychological occurre ce, a me al represe a io , from 'idea' i he se se of a abs rac , shareable co cep . O he o her ha d, gra ui ous claims of ambigui y ca make for overly simple solu io s. Accordi gly, he ques io arises of how ge ui e ambigui ies ca be dis i guished from spurious o es. Par of he a swer co sis s i ide ifyi g phe ome a wi h which ambigui y may be co fused, such as vague ess, u clari y, i explici ess a d i dexicali y.

Al hough people are some imes said o be ambiguous i how hey use la guage, ambigui y is, s ric ly speaki g, a proper y of li guis ic expressio s. A word, phrase, or se e ce is ambiguous if i has more ha o e mea i g. Obviously his defi i io does o say wha mea i gs are or wha i is for a expressio o have o e (or more ha o e). For a par icular la guage, his i forma io is provided by a grammar, which sys ema ically pairs forms wi h mea i gs, ambiguous forms wi h more ha o e mea i g 2. Lexical ambigui y Lexical ambigui y is more commo . Everyday examples i clude ou s like 'chip', 'pe ' a d 'sui ', verbs like 'call', 'draw' a d 'ru ', a d adjec ives like 'deep', 'dry' a d 'hard'. here are various es s for ambigui y. O e es is havi g wo u rela ed a o yms, as wi h 'hard', which has bo h 'sof ' a d 'easy' as opposi es. A o her is he co ju c io reduc io es . Co sider he se e ce, ' he ailor pressed o e sui i his shop a d o e i he mu icipal cour '. Evide ce ha he word 'sui ' ( o o me io 'press') is ambiguous is provided by he a omaly of he 'crossed i erpre a io ' of he se e ce, o which 'sui ' is used o refer o a ar icle of clo hi g a d 'o e' o a legal ac io . he above examples of ambigui y are each a case of o e word wi h more ha o e mea i g. However, i is o always clear whe we have o ly o e word. he verb 'deser ' a d he ou 'desser ', which sou d he same bu are spelled differe ly, cou as dis i c words ( hey are homo yms). So do he ou 'bear' a d he verb 'bear', eve hough hey o o ly sou d he same bu are spelled he same? hese examples may be clear cases of homo ymy, bu wha abou he ou 'respec ' a d he verb 'respec ' or he preposi io 'over' a d he adjec ive 'over'? Are he members of hese pairs homo yms or differe forms of he same word? here is o ge eral co se sus o how o draw he li e be wee cases of o e ambiguous word a d cases of wo homo ymous words. Perhaps he differe ce is ul ima ely arbi rary. Some imes o e mea i g of a word is derived from a o her. For example, he cog i ive se se of 'see' seems derived from i s visual se se. he se se of 'weigh' i 'He weighed he package' is derived from i s se se i ' he package weighed wo pou ds'. Similarly, he ra si ive se ses of 'bur ', 'fly' a d 'walk' are derived from heir i ra si ive se ses. ow i could be argued ha i each of hese cases he derived se se does o really qualify as a seco d mea i g of he word bu is ac ually he resul of a lexical opera io o he u derived se se. his argume is plausible o he ex e ha he phe ome o is sys ema ic a d ge eral, ra her ha peculiar o par icular words. Lexical sema ics has he ask of ide ifyi g a d charac erizi g such sys ema ic pheme a. I is also co cer ed o explai he rich a d sub le sema ic behavior of commo a d highly flexible words like he verbs 'do' a d 'pu ' a d he preposi io s 'a ', 'i ' a d ' o'. Each of hese words has uses which are so umerous ye so closely rela ed ha hey are of e described as 'polysemous' ra her ha ambiguous. 3. S ruc ural ambigui y S ruc ural ambigui y occurs whe a phrase or se e ce has more ha o e u derlyi g s ruc ure, such as he phrases ' ibe a his ory eacher', 'a s ude of high moral pri ciples' a d 'shor me a d wome ', a d he se e ces ' he girl hi he boy wi h a book' a d 'Visi i g rela ives ca be bori g'.

hese ambigui ies are said o be s ruc ural because each such phrase ca be represe ed i wo s ruc urally differe ways, e.g., ' eacher' a d ' ibe a '. I deed, he exis e ce of such ambigui ies provides s ro g evide ce for a level of u derlyi g sy ac ic s ruc ure. Co sider he s ruc urally ambiguous se e ce, ' he chicke is ready o ea ', which could be used o describe ei her a hu gry chicke or a broiled chicke . I is arguable ha he opera ive readi g depe ds o whe her or o he implici subjec of he i fi i ive clause ' o ea ' is ied a aphorically o he subjec (' he chicke ') of he mai clause. I is o always clear whe we have a case of s ruc ural ambigui y. Co sider, for example, he ellip ical se e ce, 'Pero k ows a richer ma ha rump'. I has wo mea i gs, ha Pero k ows a ma who is richer ha rump a d ha Pero k ows ma who is richer ha a y ma rump k ows, a d is herefore ambiguous. Bu wha abou he se e ce 'Joh loves his mo her a d so does Bill'? I ca be used o say ei her ha Joh loves Joh 's mo her a d Bill loves Bill's mo her or ha Joh loves Joh 's mo her a d Bill loves Joh 's mo her. Bu is i really ambiguous? O e migh argue ha he clause 'so does Bill' is u ambiguous a d may be read u equivocally as sayi g i he co ex ha Bill does he same hi g ha Joh does, a d al hough here are wo differe possibili ies for wha cou s as doi g he same hi g, hese al er a ives are o fixed sema ically. He ce he ambigui y is merely appare a d be er described as sema ic u derde ermi a io . Al hough ambigui y is fu dame ally a proper y of li guis ic expressio s, people are also said o be ambiguous o occasio i how hey use la guage. his ca occur if, eve whe heir words are u ambiguous, heir words do o make wha hey mea u iquely de ermi able. S ric ly speaki g, however, ambigui y is a sema ic phe ome o , i volvi g li guis ic mea i g ra her ha speaker mea i g; 'pragma ic ambigui y' is a oxymoro . Ge erally whe o e uses ambiguous words or se e ces, o e does o co sciously e er ai heir u i e ded mea i gs, al hough here is psycholi guis ic evide ce ha whe o e hears ambiguous co ex of u era ce words o e mome arily accesses a d he rules ou heir irreleva se ses. Whe people use ambiguous la guage, ge erally i s ambigui y is o i e ded. Occasio ally, however, ambigui y is delibera e, as wi h a u era ce of 'I'd like o see more of you' whe i e ded o be ake i more ha o e way i he very same. 4. Sema ic ambigui y Se e ces whose sema ic co e s seem o differ i differe co ex s, i vir ue of co ai i g expressio s of such sor s as he followi g ( here may be o hers): • i dexicals/demo s ra ives: , I, oday, ow, here, we, you, she, hey, he , here, ha , hose • rela io al erms: eighbor, fa , e emy, local, foreig • perspec ival erms: lef , dis a , up, behi d, foregrou d, horizo , fai , occluded, clear, obscure • gradable adjec ives, bo h rela ive a d absolu e: all, old, fas , smar ; fla , emp y, pure, dry • philosophically i eres i g erms: k ow, migh , ecessary, if, ough , free • preposi io s: i , o , o, a , for, wi h • cer ai shor verbs: pu , ge , go, ake • possessive phrases, adjec ival phrases, ou - ou pairs: Joh ’s car, Joh ’s home ow , Joh ’s boss, Joh ’s compa y; fas car, fas driver, fas ires, fas ime; child abuse, drug abuse; vi ami pill, pai pill, die pill, sleepi g pill • implici emporal, spa ial, a d qua ifier domai res ric io • wea her a d o her e viro me al repor s: (I is) rai i g, humid, oo , summer, oisy, eerie • os e sibly u ary expressio s (whe used wi hou compleme s) ha de o e bi ary rela io s: ready, la e, fi ish, s ro g e ough • “predica es of perso al as e”: fu , bori g, as y, cu e, sexy, gross, cool • miscella eous: a d, or, cu , (is) gree he problems wi h hese co e misu ders a di gs are as follow: 1.C

So why do you need a separate data type? You don't, really. Strings only exist for efficiency. But it's lame to clutter up the semantics of a language with hacks to make programs run faster. Having strings in a language seems to be a case of premature optimization. If we think of the core of a language as a set of axioms, surely it's gross to have additional axioms that add no expressive power, simply for the sake of efficiency. Efficiency is important, but I don't think that's the right way to get it. The right way to solve that problem is to separate the meaning of a program from the implementation details. Instead of having both lists and strings, have just lists, with some way to give the compiler optimization advice that will allow it to lay out strings as contiguous bytes if necessary. Since speed doesn't matter in most of a program, you won't ordinarily need to bother with this sort of micromanagement. This will be more and more true as computers get faster. Saying less about implementation should also make programs more flexible

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