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Walt Whitman. Philosophical basics of his work

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Eka eri burg, 2009 I roduc io Whe havi g o hi k abou he philosophy of America ess, who else could come o o e's mi d o her ha Wal Whi ma . O e of he mos read, mos e joyable wri ers of America Li era ure so much deba ed a d gossiped abou , precedi g his ow folk's a d he world's age by ligh -years ahead, hrowi g himself i he face of his co emporary readers, a las k ocki g dow all he remai s of he lo g-suffered puri a es ablishme s a d values ha he cou ry has carried as a burde for far oo lo g. O e simply ca o exclude Whi ma wi hou havi g o make a comme abou his poe ry – his ar – he simply ca o be ig ored, for he a d his ar does o allow ha . he aim of our work is o a alyze fea ures of Wal Whi ma ’s s yle. We will s udy his li erary ech iques, such as alli era io , a aphora, «free» verse e c. I our work we will ry o show philosophical basics of his works. Our asks are: o i ves iga e he u ique ess of his s yle o a alyze some of his works i order o charac erize his poe ic ech iques o co duc a de ailed a alysis of philosophical basics of his works We will also propose some of his poems because we wa ed o show peculiari ies of his s yle. «Leaves of Grass» If we wa o alk abou philosophical basics of Wal Whi ma , we should a alyze hem all i commo because hey are all co ec ed a d you ca fi d several of hem i o e poem a he same ime. Firs of all we will s ar our i ves iga io wi h o e of his grea es poems «Leaves of Grass». he i le «Leaves of Grass» is used by Whi ma o symbolize he immor ali y of he soul, he mecha ical u iverse, a d ha all hi gs are i a s a e of flux Whi ma says i he las chap er: «I bequea h myself o he dir o grow from he grass I love» He loves he grass so much as par of a ure, assimila es himself o a ure, a d co siders he immor ali y of he soul i a ure because of his belief a d his ow i spira io a d i dividuali y. Whi ma 's idea of a ure ca be accep ed co cer i g he world of dea h si ce a ure is i ex ricably li ked wi h mor al bei gs a d i harmo y wi h he mi d. ha grea es harmo y is hough o be he immor ali y of he soul i a ure. I o her words, i s harmo iza io is based o he medieval idea ha « he will of God crea es a ure». He hough ha his is a dark mys erious world, a d ha huma bei gs co ribu e o he world of dea h by heir domi a io of a ure. he world of huma bei g is a lo ely crea ure i a chao ic u iverse. Firm i his belief, Whi ma i his philosophical approach o ihilism described himself as he immor ali y of he soul i he grea u iverse. He said i his firs chap er: «I celebra e myself, a d si g myself, A d wha I assume you shall assume, For every a om belo gi g o me as God belo gs o you.» (P. 1). his is he libera io of he mi d from he philosophy of a co rolli g God, which was curre i he pla a io period of J. Edwards (1703–1758). o expou d his heme, Whi ma wro e his poem, i which he propou ded his ideas. « he a mosphere is o a perfume, I has o as e of he dis illa io , a d i is odorless, I is for my mou h forever, I am i love wi h i , I will go o he ba k by he wood a d become u disguised a d aked, I am mad for i o be i co ac wi h me.»

(P. 2). Whi ma 's a ure is good, o evil. he s ream of his idea is accep ed by J. Rousseau (1712–1778) «As a huma a ure is good i a ure» which is a absolu ely op imis ic a d ever fro ier spiri . Whi ma pursues each perso al develop – mea by showi g how people rela e. For example: looki g for h o paveme a d la d, or ou side of paveme a d la d, «Belo gi g o he wi ders of he circui of circui s.» (P. 78). From his poi of view, he looks over he a ural phe ome o of circui s, a d God is defi ed by he rela io ship of huma a ure o he circui s. Whi ma hough ha i spira io was equal o he dualism of he soul a d he perso ali y, a d wro e: «Apar from he pulli g a d hauli g s a ds wha I am, S a d amused, complace , compassio a i g, idea, u i ary, Looks dow , is erec , or be ds a arm o a impalpable cer ai res . Looki g wi h side-curved head curious wha will come ex . Bo h i a d ou of he game a d wa chi g a d wo deri g a i . Backward I see i my ow days where I swea ed hrough fog wi h li guis s a d co e ders. I have o mocki g or argume s, I wi ess a d wai .» (P. 6). Whi ma co sidered he rela io of phe ome o a d he perso ali y. His mi d was o closed o he reali ies i which his perso ali y asser ed he me hod of he audie ce a d passive s a e co di io a d ried o co ac he refusi g phe ome o . «Leaves of grass» belo gs o o par icular accep ed form of poe ry. Whi ma described i s form as «a ew a d a io al declama ory expressio .» Whi ma was a poe bubbli g wi h e ergy a d burde ed wi h se sa io s, a d his poe ic u era ces reveal his i ova io s. His poe ry seems o grow orga ically, like a ree. I has he reme dous vi ali y of a oak. I s grow h follows o regular pa er : «So g of Myself», for example, seems a firs almos recklessly wri e , wi hou a y a e io o form. Whi ma ’s poe ry, like ha of mos prophe ic wri ers, is u pla ed, disorga ized, some imes abor ive, bu ever heless dis i c ively his ow . Wal Whi ma ’s Poe ical ech iques I his poems he used some special poe ical ech iques. Alli era io «Ou of he Cradle E dlessly Rocki g»: «'A d he ceforward all summer i he sou d of he sea.' his use of alli era io of he crea es a sou d of he sea which is very effec ive. his is by o mea s he o ly use of alli era io i he poem. O her groupi gs such as 's erile sa ds,' 'briers a d blackberries, ' 'Lis e ed lo g a d lo g,' 'swee es so g a d so gs,' a d 'si ger soli ary' occur hroughou he poem» (Kimmel 9/16/96). A aphora A aphora: repe i io of words or phrases a begi i gs of li es. «Crossi g Brookly Ferry»: «'O hers will e er / O hers will wa ch / O hers will see' a d also 'Jus as you feel / Jus as you are refresh'd / Jus as you s a d / Jus as you look '» (Barham 9/17/96). «O e of he firs cases i which he uses a aphora ex e sively i Drum- aps is i he sec io i led «Poe ,» i which he firs four li es begi wi h 'I hear, ' a d li es 8–12 begi wi h 'I see, ' while he e ire firs 13 li es begi wi h 'I.' He is crea i g o e large audio a d visual image i hose li es, wi h each li e bei g a separa e image, bu all ied oge her by heir commo begi i g. I his case, li es all begi i g wi h he same word also help o se up a rhy hm, as he reader is i cli ed o read all of he 'I's wi h he same amou of s ress, like readi g off i ems o a lis .

hrough he use of a aphora i his way, Whi ma ca express o e heme i several differe li es, wi h several differe ideas, while havi g a defi i e li k be wee each hough . I he firs sec io of 'Give Me he Sple did Su , ’ Whi ma begi s he firs eleve li es wi h 'Give me.' Al hough i each li e he is aski g for a differe hi g, he e ire hough expressed i he li es oge her is his desire for ' a ure's primal sa i ies.' Wi h he commo begi i g i hese li es, he is expressi g all of his values a o ce i eleve li es, wi h eleve differe ideas» (Mi is 9/17/96). «Free» verse Defi i io : verse ha , while free of rhyme a d a co sis e rhy hm, may employ o her s ruc ural a d sou d eleme s, such as a aphora a d chiasmus. Whi ma may have picked up o Emerso 's li e i « he Poe »: «For i is o me ers, bu a me er-maki g argume ha makes a poem.» Bu he also may have fou d models i «Proverbial Philosophy,» a free verse poem ha upper published i 1838, a d i a poem by George Lippard (Rey olds). Ca alogs «I ma y of Whi ma 's poems, like Childre of Adam, he lis s ma y hi gs a o ce. I Childre of Adam, sec io 9, he lis s over 80 par s of he body, bo h male a d female. He does his lis i g ech ique agai i So g of he Ope Road, whe he ells of all he hi gs he passes a d sees o his jour ey» (Baldwi 9/17/96) hey show a childish joy i ami g hi gs (Ma hiesse 518). Perhaps hey also be ray a desire o i corpora e every hi g i a poem, as Melville ried o do i Moby-Dick. Whi ma may have borrowed he idea from co emporary ravel li era ure, i cludi g books called Mississippi i Gobs a d ew York i Chu ks (Rey olds). «I 'Drum- aps' he smaller passages which make up he whole poem seem o give all differe perspec ives of he war. he perspec ive of he mo her, fa her, child, wou d dresser, slave woma , a d eve a ba er are all give . I ur , he reader is fed a ca alog of various feeli gs abou war. Also, i 'Drum- aps' a d par icularly i he passage 'Firs O So gs for a Prelude, ' here is a ca alog. Whi ma lis s a d lis s all differe people wi h varyi g occupa io s a d how hey are ge i g ready for war. hy lawyer, he mecha ic, a d salesma are all me io ed. I would be easy o see Whi ma ’s use of he ca alog as simply 'show childish joy i ami g hi gs' (Ma hiesse 518). However, I see i as Whi ma 's way of prese i g u iversali y. Everyo e is goi g hrough his same eve , a d everyo e is feeli g emo io s abou he war. he ca alog shows commo li ks amo g huma s» (Plo k 9/19/96). Chiasmus Defi i io : a mirror pa er i words, sou ds, or o her eleme s. See «Ou of he Cradle E dlessly Rocki g,» li es 71–74: «SOO HE! Soo he! Soo he!» / CLOSE o i s wave soo hes he wave BEHI D / A d agai a o her BEHI D embraci g a d lappi g, everyo e CLOSE, / Bu my love SOO HES o me, o me.» See «By he Bivouac's fi ful flame»: «By he Bivouac's fi ful flame / A processio / A solem a d slow processio / By he Bivouac's fi ful flame» (Daig eaul 9/20/96). See Psalm 124:7: «Our soul is ESCAPED as a bird ou of he S ARE of he fowlers: he S ARE is broke , a d we are ESCAPED.» Circles a d Cycles Drum- aps: «He begi s he poem wi h a shor prelude a d he begi s elli g of he year 1861 a d how all he me were havi g o leave heir jobs a d wives o go figh i he war.

But instead, he was destroying the most intimate of her possessions… her sensuality! It was sometime during that period of desperation that she'd offered to do his final typing in one last effort to drown her frustration in his work, and try to save their marriage. "Hey… this is pretty raw stuff for you, baby," Jay had replied to her offer, a big grin broadening his reddish, hairy face. "Maybe you should read a book or two, first…" "Oh… come on, Daddy. I'm twenty-six remember? Your little Beth knows all the nasties…" Oh, but had she been wrong! The vintage of her erotica, she'd quickly discovered, was early teenage… schoolgirl… and at that, a dozen years behind the time! Jay's first two books had enlightened her there, and then some. Maybe he was no fireball in bed, but what he couldn't conceive of with the lust-inciting, written word, had sent her avidly pouring through his following novel, plus the two after that! Whewww! She'd always considered herself a normal, desirous female with basic tendencies, but her forty-six year old husband's pornographic tales had generated unknown fiery tingles of forbidden temptation inside her the likes of which she'd never even dreamed of! She'd even attempted to experiment with some of his wanton females' antics, taking them to bed with her to try on him, but for some reason she'd never, never understand, that had been futile too

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97. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

98. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

99. Customs and traditions of English speaking countries

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