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Leadership in Hospitality Industry

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Раздел: 7 и более цветов

I roduc io I he begi i g of his repor i would be esse ial o say wha leadership is a d i s his ory. Accordi g o James MacGregor Bur s, “leadership is o e of he mos observed a d leas u ders ood phe ome a o ear h” ( he s udy of leadership has bee impor a o huma s si ce he daw of he civiliza io . he co cep s of leadership, leader, a d follower are represe ed i Egyp ia hieroglyphics wri e 5000 years ago. Be wee 400 a d 300BC he Greek philosophers Pla o a d Aris o le wro e abou leadership a d he requireme s, charac eris ics, a d educa io of leaders ( Leadership is ce ral o he huma co di io (Wre , 1995) a d has bee fou d o be impor a o all socie ies, al hough specific pa er s of behavior vary over ime a d across cul ures (Bass, 1990)( Al hough we ca see ha leadership is bei g a a cie o io here was o evide ce of exis e ce of he word leadership i he E glish la guage u il he yearly i e ee h ce ury. Accordi g o Bass (1990), he appeara ce of he co cep of leadership i poli ical, sociological, a d orga iza io al wri i gs was usually accompa ied by a u ique a d ambiguous defi i io ( Bryma (1992) defi es leadership as “a social process i which leaders i flue ce followers o achieve group goals”. Al hough leadership described i ma y cases as a process, mos of he heories a d researches look a he perso o u ders a d he a ure of leadership.His ory of leadership Leadership ca be defi ed by hree phases: Leader’s rai s Leader’s behaviors; a d Leader’s quali ies From he ur of he we ie h ce ury hrough he 1940s, leadership research focused o ide ifyi g rai s ha dis i guish leaders from o -leaders ( As example we ca see S ogdill’s review of he leader rai research. his research was based o he idea ha leaders were bor , o made, a d he key o success was simply i ide ifyi g hose people who were bor o be grea leaders ( ever heless a lo of work was do e o ide ify he rai , he research failed o ide ify a u iversal se of rai s ha differe ia ed effec ive leaders. I he early 1950s a seco d major hrus appeared. his hrus looked a leader behaviors i a a emp o de ermi e wha successful leaders do, o how hey look o o hers (Halpi a d Wi er, 1957) ( wo primary, i depe de fac ors were ide ified by hese s udies: Co sidera io ; a d I i ia io s ruc ures. “ he impac of his work was i par he o io ha leadership was o ecessarily a i bor rai , bu i s ead effec ive leadership me hods could be augh o employees” (Saal a d K igh , 1988). A lo of progress was made i ide ifyi g wha behaviors differe ia ed leaders from followers so ha he behaviors could be augh ( A o her impac of his work has o do wi h he broade i g of ma ageme ’s focus o i clude bo h people-orie ed ac ivi ies alo g wi h ask-orie ed ac ivi ies ( hese s udies helped ca egorize leaders based o heir behavior. A o her approach deal wi h he i erac io be wee he leader’s rai s, he leader’s behaviors, a d he si ua io i which he leader exis s ( Co i ge cy heories make he assump io ha he effec s of o e variable o leadership are co i ge o o her variables.

I o her words, mea i g ha leadership could be differe i every si ua io . Al hough he fou d ha cer ai leadership s yles were more effec ive i cer ai si ua io s, he co i ge cy approach was more heore ical. Cul ure as well plays a impor a role i leadership research. Accordi g o Schei , 1985, cul ure rela ed issues mus be clearly ide ified i order for leaders o be successful. I is impor a o o ice ha o e of he aspec s of he cul ure is cha ge. herefore, leaders mus be able o adap o he cha ge i order o be more successful. Also some words have o be said abou cul ure ma ageme as a o her impor a aspec of leadership. “Cul ure ma ageme deals wi h he abili y of leaders o k ow a d u ders a d wha he orga iza io al cul ure is, modifyi g ha cul ure o mee he eeds of he orga iza io as i progresses” (Hor er, herefore, i is obvious ha leaders eed o work wi hi he cul ure o be mos successful. Leadership a d mo iva io he s udy of mo iva io is ex remely impor a as all he above heories depe d o i . his s udy “sugges s ha leadership is less a specific se of behaviors ha i is crea i g a e viro me i which people are mo iva ed o produce a d i he direc io of he leader. By crea i g he righ e viro me , o e i which people wa o be i volved a d feel commi ed o heir work, leaders are able i flue ce a d direc he ac ivi ies of o hers” (Hor er, Herzberg (1964) differe ia ed be wee eleme s i he work place ha led o employee sa isfac io a d eleme s ha led o employee dissa isfac io . hese eleme s ca be hough as mo iva ors as employees are mo iva ed o achieve hem. For example, Herzberg labeled hygie e fac ors as hey are ecessary o keep employees from dissa isfac io (Hor er, Moreover, here are some eed heories ha people have eeds for cer ai resul s. O e of hese heories is Maslow’s hierarchy of eeds, which sugges s ha some eeds are more basic ha he o hers a d people are mo iva ed o sa isfy hem (Hor er, Cer ai ly, work sa isfy some of hese eeds, bu some people have more adva ced eeds a d i is esse ial o k ow whe her leaders ca develop a e viro me ha will sa isfy hose eeds. O e more heory by Alderfer (1969) sugges s ha here are o ly hree eeds ha ca be. hey are: exis e ce eeds, rela ed ess eeds, a d grow h eeds. His heory was based o he hough ha people ca move up a d dow he hierarchy a d ca be mo iva ed by ma y eeds a a y o e ime. Le ’s look ow a a o her eed heory, which called Murray’s (1938) ma ifes eeds heory. His view abou people’s eeds wha ha ha people ca experie ce a varie y of eeds, such as eed for achieveme or eed for power a d ha is o ecessary ha everyo e would have he same eeds. here are also some addi io al mo iva io heories such as expec a cy heory, equi y heory, goal se i g, a d rei forceme . Each of his has implica io s for he approach leaders ca ake o deali g wi h followers (Hor er, he reaso why mo iva io heories are added o leadership issue is ha because of he emphasis o he followers hemselves a d wha causes hem o ac , i s ead of focusi g o he leaders. herefore, “leadership is o o ly he process a d ac ivi y of he perso who is i leadership posi io , bu also e compasses he e viro me his leader crea es a d how his leader respo ds o he surrou di gs, as well as he par icular skills a d ac ivi ies of he people bei g led” (Hor er, he ra sforma io al- ra sac io al leadership “ ra sac io al leadership s ems from more radi io al view of workers a d orga iza io s, a d i i volves he posi io power of he leader o use followers for ask comple io ” (Bur s, 1978).

“ ra sforma io al leadership, however, searches for ways o help mo iva e followers by sa isfyi g higher-order eeds a d more fully e gagi g hem i he process of he work” (Bass, 1985). “ ra sforma io al leaders ca i i ia e a d cope wi h cha ge, a d hey crea e some hi g ew ou of old. hey build s ro g rela io ships wi h o hers while suppor i g a d e couragi g each i dividual’s developme ” (Hor er, A very i eres i g heory of “Super Leadership is offered by Ma z a d Sims (1991). hey challe ge he radi io al paradigm of leadership as o e perso doi g some hi g o o her people (Ma z a d Sims, 1991). I s ead, hey sugges , “ he mos appropria e leader is o e who ca lead o hers o lead hemselves” (Ma z a d Sims, 1991, p.18). hey sugges ha leaders become grea by u leashi g he po e ial a d abili ies of followers, co seque ly havi g he k owledge of ma y people i s ead of relyi g solely o heir ow skills a d abili ies (Hor er, o u ders a d be er wha is ra sformi g leadership le s look a i as a he “body”, which co sis s of he hear , a d head a d ha ds. here are hree aspec s of leadership: supervisory, s ra egic a d i spira io al. hey are goi g o be discussed more de ailed fur her dow . he hear “ he mos u iversally e cou ered aspec of leadership is he “i spira io al” leadership of he hear . he esse ial, dis i guishi g he fea ure of i spira io al leadership is ha i ever resor s o he use of coercive power or au hori y” ( icholls, o e ergize e husias ic followers, i spira io al leaders crea e a compelli g “visio ”, which cha ges peoples view a he world arou d hem. A o her cha ge ha “visio ” crea es is ha people cha ge way hey rela e o o e a o her. here are wo ways of affec i g people mi ds by crea i g a “visio ”. Firs o e is ha i clarifies u ders a di g, a d he seco d o e is ha i e courages alig me . So we ca see ha by i s impac o he people’s perso al beliefs, he leader’s visio builds he psychological grou d for commo ac io ( icholls, ichols defi es i as “ ha ac ivi y which s imula es purposeful ac ivi y i o hers by cha gi g he way hey look a he world arou d hem a d rela e o e a o her”. he head A s ra egic leadership ca be called a “ omi al” head of he orga iza io . he leader’s respo sibili y i his ki d of leadership is he crea io of a effec ive orga iza io ( icholls, here are wo pri cipal compo e s of he s ra egic leadership: pa h-fi di g a d cul ure-buildi g. Firs rela es a orga iza io o he busi ess e viro me a d he seco d o e helps o people i o membership of a orga iza io . he role of he orga iza io al leadership is o ide ify wha orga iza io i will be a d where i is goi g. A very impor a hi g o say is ha ma agers mus look beyo d he rou i e daily opera io s i order “ o fi d a be er way” ( icholls, I s ra egic leadership ma agers mus use heir head o e sure he effec ive ess of he orga iza io . he ha ds A supervisory leadership is he job of he ma gers ha ds. Every ma ager is familiar wi h his ki d of leadership i his or her par icular si ua io .

This is what has happened in Hong Kong, where a tree-lined harbor filled with quaint junks gave way to a cityscape of dazzling office towers, one of the wonders of the modern world. The same may well happen in Shanghai and Bangkok, where developers have treated the charming old city centers brutally, but where dramatic new buildings are rising from the dust-hotels, restaurants, office towers, and apartments that vie with the best in Hong Kong or New York. This did not happen – and is not happening – in Japan. The ugly view from the top of the Grand Hotel in Kyoto is less a consequence of the loss of the old than a result of the low quality of the new. Nothing could run more contrary to the trend of Western commentary on Japan for the past fifty years than the argument that Japan has failed in its pursuit of modernity. However, that is the truth. Instead of an advanced new civilization, Japan has tenement cities and a culture of cheap industrial junk. Homes are cramped and poorly built; public environments, whether in hotels, zoos, parks, apartment buildings, hospitals, or libraries, are sadly lacking in visual pleasure and basic comforts, at least compared with those available in other advanced nations

1. "Career in hotel industry"

2. Globalization and Hospitality Industry

3. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

4. Спецподразделения Армии Израиля: "Голани" (Special forces in Army of Israel Golani)

5. Luther Martin in krestjanskoy voyne w Germanii

6. Democracy in Russia
Democracy in Russia
7. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)
8. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

9. Radio And TV In My Life

10. AIDS IN AFRICA (СПИД в Африке)

11. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

12. Education in Moscow school

13. Korea in Focus

14. The cinema in Russia today

15. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

16. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

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Раздел: Одеяла для детей

17. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

18. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

19. Sport: general, in Britain

20. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

21. Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies

22. Control in management
Control in management
23. Types of tests used in English Language Teaching Bachelor Paper
Types of tests used in English Language Teaching Bachelor Paper
24. Indirect speech acts in modern English discourse. - Косвенные речевые акты в современном английском дискурсе

25. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

26. Navruz - A Celebration of Life. Public holidays in Uzbekistan

27. Education in the Middle Ages

28. Humane approches to toxicological evaluations of industrial chemicals

29. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

30. Infant Industry Argument: Theory and Practice

31. The role of art in our life

32. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars

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Раздел: Качели, кресла-качалки, шезлонги
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Раздел: Точилки

33. Navruz - A Celebration of Life. Public holidays in Uzbekistan

34. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

35. Continuity and change in Stravinskiy`s ballets. Стравинский и его балеты

36. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

37. Education in the Middle Ages

38. Militant Islam’s Expansion in the Southern Philippines
39. Christmas in Britain (Рождество в Британии)
40. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

41. Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies

42. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

43. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

44. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

45. Excursion in old Riga

46. Why was the United States unsuccessful in Vietnam?

47. Sport in Our Life

48. Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind... Пастернак и нравственная дилемма послереволюционной интеллигенции

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49. The government role in the market economy

50. Alice in Chains

51. Education in the USA

52. The Value Based Leadership Theory

53. Religion in Britain

54. Dissociation of Benzene Molecule in a Strong Laser Field
Dissociation of Benzene Molecule in a Strong Laser Field
55. Creating Market Economy in Eastern Europe
Creating Market Economy in Eastern Europe
56. Under what conditions will the oligopolists agree to co-operate in their decisions
Under what conditions will the oligopolists agree to co-operate in their decisions

57. Судопроизводство in jure и in judicio

58. Исследование апоптотической активности лимфоцитов периферической крови in vitro при инфекционном мононуклеозе и мононуклеозоподобном синдроме

59. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

60. Presents in Russia and America

61. Bread in our life

62. Education in Russia

63. TV in my life

64. What is better watching sports or participating in sports?

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Раздел: Без наполнения

65. Music in our life

66. Books in Our Life

67. Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland

68. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

69. My career in the future

70. Advertising in our Life
Advertising in our Life
71. In der Mensa
In der Mensa
72. In der Bibliothek
In der Bibliothek

73. Was wollte der Autor in seinem Marchen sagen?

74. The weather in Great Britain

75. Theatre in Great Britain

76. Education in GB

77. Education in Russia

78. Holidays in Great Britain

79. Sport in our life

80. Education in GB

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81. Zaporozhye: The city in which I live

82. Zivilprozes in der BRD

83. Eyck, Jan van: altarpiece in Ghent

84. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

85. Conflicts of interest in corporate transactions

86. Internet helps in development of education and democracy
Internet helps in development of education and democracy
87. My Ideas On Living In A Foreign Country
My Ideas On Living In A Foreign Country
88. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

89. Education in Russia

90. Holiday in Russia

91. Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

92. Sports in the USA

93. The development of computers in the USA

94. The political role of Great Britain in modern world

95. Science in our life

96. TV in Russia. My favorite TV programme

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97. Animals need help. Earth is in danger

98. Holidays in Russia, Britain and the USA

99. Music in our life

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