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The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

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he pri cipal purpose of his paper is o sugges he approach of ra sperso al psychology for a alysis of some impor a aspec s of he aois doc ri e, ha is, he co cep of he ao as a female u iversal pri ciple a d he aois a i ude " o be like a i fa " or eve as a "embryo." o u ders a d hese aois pri ciples, we mus begi from he very begi i g-from he ce ral co cep of aoism, ha is, ao ( he Way, he rue Way). his co cep desig a es he prime grou d of he World, he source of all life a d he limi of every exis e ce, as well as he rule a d measure of bei gs. he female, ma er al image of ao is he crucial poi o u ders a di g he psycho ech ique (or psychoprac ical) approach of aoism. I is possible o demo s ra e i s impor a ce by ci i g some passages from he ao e chi g ( he Ca o of he Way a d i s Power) or he"Lao- zu," a famous aois classic: 1. §6: he valley spiri ever dies-i is called he mys erious female"; he ga e of he mys erious female is called " he roo of heave a d ear h." Gossamer i is, seemi gly i subs a ial, ye ever co sumed hrough use. 2. §25: here was some hi g fea ureless ye comple e, bor before heave a d ear h; Sile -amorphous-i s ood alo e a d u cha gi g. We may regard i as he mo her of heave a d ear h. o k owi g i s ame, I s yle i he "Way." 3. §28: K ow masculi i y, Mai ai femi i i y, a d be a ravi e for all u der heave . 4. §61: A large s a e is like a low-lyi g es uary, he female of all u der heave . I he co gress of all u der heave , he female always co quers he male hrough her s ill ess. Because she is s ill, i is fi i g for her o lie low. E. M. Che (1974), i her ar icle dedica ed o he role of he female pri ciple i Chi ese philosophy, o es ha some aspec s of Lao- zu's co cep of ao makes i possible o propose ha he forma io of he eachi g abou ao as a philosophical idea was preceded by he cul of some Mo her-Goddess which was co ec ed wi h he ge esis of aoism (Che , 1974, p.53; Krav sova, 1994, pp.208-213). She o es ha i he descrip io of ao i he ao e chi g here are all he mea i gs which are esse ial for he Mo her-Goddess cul : ao is like a emp y vessel (§4); void ess (§5); mys erious dark ess (§1); i is o bor , bu , ever heless, i is he predecessor of he Heave ly Lord (§4); i is he Mys erious Female which is he ga e of Heave a d Ear h (§6); mo her (§1, 20, 25, 52); female (or he -§10, 28); female (§61); a d Mo her of all u der heave (§25, 34). I addi io , ao is of e described as wa er (§8, 78) a d as valley (§6, 28, 32, 39, 41). Clearly his valley is he pri ciple of ge era io which bears all bei gs i i s dep h. he ao e chi g speaks much abou he pre-exis e ial, o ma ifes ed aspec of ao which is he philosophical opposi io o he ma ifes ed phe ome al exis e ce as some po e ial bei g (wu). I his regard, § I is ra her i eres i g. I describes his o ma ifes ed or mys erious (occul ) aspec of ao as he womb of he u iversal embryo, he womb which ge era es Heave a d Ear h, which is he source of life. Briefly speaki g, i is o hi g bu he Mys erious Mo her of he world: he ameless is he origi of he myriad crea ures; he amed is he mo her of he myriad crea ures.

herefore, Always be wi hou desire i order o observe i s wo drous sub le ies; Always have desire so ha you may observe i s ma ifes a io s. Mys ery of mys eries, he ga e of all wo ders! his passage develops he leadi g idea of §1 abou wo aspec s or "hypos ases" of ao: abou ao as "mys erious womb" a d ao as mo her- urse of all bei gs. Here we ca recall he words of he famous comme a or a d hi ker, Wa g Pi (3 A.D.), ha "Mys erious" (or "U amed") ao ourishes a d bears all crea ures, a d phe ome al amed ao feeds hem; he a alogous descrip io Wa g Pi gives o he charac er of he i errela io s be wee ao a d e. Wha abou he las se e ce of he passage? I ca be said ha he charac er miao (mys ery) of he se e ce co sis s of wo eleme s: "woma " a d "li le." We ca suppose ha i s use here is o arbi rary. I is o oo difficul o "ascribe" i s e ymology (probably i is o a scie ific o e) as his: "some hi g, ha is li le i side a woma ," ha is, embryo hidde i he womb, like he pro o ypes of hi gs (see §21) are hidde i he "womb" of ao. his opi io may be suppor ed by he fac ha he images of he womb a d embryo are of e used by aois s o describe he " ao-world" rela io . So ao ca be me aphorically defi ed as he mo her of he world, he source of life a d bei g, a d he u iversal female arche ype. I is qui e esse ial o u ders a d he aois doc ri e of immor ali y as well, because his doc ri e co siders ao o be he life-givi g pri ciple which gives e er al life o he adep who has ob ai ed u i y wi h i . he ao e chi ig also says (§52): Havi g realized he mo her, you hereby k ow her childre . K owi g her childre , go back o abide wi h he mo her. o he e d of your life, you will o be imperiled. Le 's look a he child of he "Mys erious female of all u der he heave ." §55 of he ao e chi g says: He who embodies he flill ess of i egri y is like a ruddy i fa . Wasps, spiders, scorpio s, a d s akes will o s i g or bi e him; Rapacious birds a d fierce beas s will o seize him. His bo es are weak a d his si ews sof , ye his grip is igh . He k ows o he joi i g of male a d female, ye his pe is is aroused. His esse ce has reached a peak. He screams he whole day wi hou becomi g hoarse; His harmo y has reached perfec io . Harmo y implies co s a cy; Co s a cy requires i sigh . S rivi g o i crease o e's life is omi ous; o co rol he vi al brea h wi h o e's mi d e ails force. Some hi g ha grows old while s ill i i s prime is said o be o i accord wi h he Way; o bei g i accord wi h he Way leads o a early demise. Here, a i fa (a baby; he ex uses Ch 'ih zu, "red," or "ruddy" i fa , i.e., a jus ewbor child) represe s he image of he perfec sage hill of he vi al force. A i fa i he ao e chi g is some hi g like a a drogyrie who does o k ow he par i g of male a d female, a d who, because of his, is overflowi g wi h vi ali y. His e erge ic esse ce (chi g) does o flow below; i does o cha ge i o seme ye , a d so i is perfec . hus, a i fa is like he grea ao i self ao is a source of life, a d like a i fa also ca o be ired, because exhaus io is a resul of e erge ic deficie cy. A i fa e joys absolu e securi y; a ure is o da gerous o i because he or she is a he ce er of i s forces a d powers.

We should o e he followi g words: S rivi g o i crease o e's life is omi ous; o co rol vi al brea h wi h o e's mi d e ails force. Here we ca fi d a direc refere ce o he rela io exis i g be wee ideas of ob ai i g immor ali y a d religious psychoprac ice. aoism proclaims ha a huma bei g is o hi g more ha a i separable psychosoma ic u i y. So people ca ob ai i imor ali y o ly whe heir body-microcosm becomes a self-sufficie whole--a self-co ai i g reservoir of he vi al e ergy from o e side, a d whe i realizes i s po e ial, isomorphism wi h he world-body of he cosmos from a o her side. O e of he mos impor a mea s o he way o his exal ed s a e is he so-called "regula io of he vi al brea h" (or "regula io of he p euma a" - hsi g ch 'i), ha is, a complex of gym as ical a d brea hi g exercises, he aim of which is o ob ai mi d co rol over he flowi g of he e ergy s reams i he huma body. he mos impor a pri ciple of such ech iques is of e repea ed i medieval aois wri i gs: "P euma (brea h, ch'i) is led by will-co scious ess (yi)." his mea s he prese ce of some voli io al e forceme which leads he s reams of he vi al e ergy alo g he cha els of he body (a alogous o he meridia s of acupu c ure) i he desirable direc io . he ao e chi g is jus o e ex which clearly formula es his idea i a cie imes. I s ead of he "voli io al impulse" (yi), he ao e chi g speaks abou "mi d" or "hear -co scious ess" (Hsi ), bu i is he same idea. I was hough for a lo g ime ha he co cep rela i g he aois ideas of immor ali y a d differe prac ices was described o ly i medieval es s, bu rece archeological discoveries i Ch'a gsha Mawa g ui (Hu a provi ce) demo s ra e he profou d a iqui y of bo h. hus, he Mawa g ui ex s describe umerous respira ory exercises for he "regula io of he P euma a" (hsi g ch 'i) a d pos ures of he aois gym as ics ( ao yi ). Special pic ures pai ed o silk, which were k ow u der he ge eral i le, ao yi 'u (Schemes of Gym as ics), were eve dedica ed o such prac ices. So i may be co cluded ha hese prac ices were well-k ow i Chi a i he days whe he ao e chi g is ow regarded o have bee composed (4-3 B.C., ra her ha he radi io ally accep ed period of 6-5 B.C.). he ao e chi g everywhere prefers he sof ess a d weak ess of he i fa o he s ro g hard ess of adul s. S ric ly speaki g, a ewbor child is he co ce ra io or ma ifes a io of he vi al e ergy. his is qui e clearly demo s ra ed i §76: Huma bei gs are sof a d supple whe alive, s iff a d s raigh whe dead. herefore, i is said: he rigid perso is a disciple of dea h; he sof , supple, a d delica e are lovers of life. Bu he heme "i fa -sage" ca o be reduced o ly o he me aphor of he ewbor child. Much deeper a d more i eres i g is he image of he o bor child, which also plays a impor a role i he eachi gs of he ao e chi g. Le us ci e a par of §20 of he ex : All he people are glad a d joyfull as if hey are celebra i g upo he grea sacrifice of oxe , as if hey are mou i g a ower i spri g. O! I am he o ly who is quie a d sile , like a baby who is o ye a child. O! 1 am fas e ed a d ied a d I have o place o re ur . All people behave hemselves as if hey have more ha e ough a d I alo e am beref .

In these lessons we have tried to give you the Key to the Mysteries, but unless you have studied the other lessons in which the Occult Teachings have been set forth, you will not be able to see their application in Mystic Christianity. You must bring Knowledge to these lessons, in order to take away knowledge. THE ELEVENTH LESSON. THE ANCIENT WISDOM. The doctrine of Metempsychosis or Re-incarnation has its roots deeply imbedded in the soil of all religions-that is, in the Inner Teachings or Esoteric phase of all religious systems. And this is true of the Inner Teachings of the Christian Church as well as of the other systems. The Christian Mysteries comprised this as well as the other fundamental occult doctrines, and the Early Church held such teachings in its Inner Circle. And, in its essence, the doctrine of Re-birth is the only one that is in full accord with the Christian conception of ultimate justice and "fairness." As a well known writer has said concerning this subject: "It relieves us of many and great difficulties

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