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Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

Ночник-проектор "Звездное небо, планеты", черный.
Оригинальный светильник-ночник-проектор. Корпус поворачивается от руки. Источник света: 1) Лампочка (от карманных фанариков); 2) Три
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170 руб
Раздел: 7 и более цветов
Совок №5.
Длина совка: 22 см. Цвет в ассортименте, без возможности выбора.
18 руб
Раздел: Совки

I roduc io O e of he lo g-es ablished misco cep io s abou he lexico is ha i is ea ly a d rigidly divided i o sema ically rela ed se s of words. I co ras , we claim ha word mea i gs do o have clear bou daries.1 I his paper we will give proof of he fuzzi ess of mea i g hrough a a alysis of he sema ic field of MOVEME i he E glish la guage. We will show ha ma y MOVEME verbs belo g o o ly o several subdomai s wi hi he field of MOVEME , bu also o various sema ic domai s hrough me aphorical ex e sio . Before deali g wi h he double or eve riple membership of MOVEME verbs, le us firs prese he model o which our descrip io of he lexico is based, he Fu c io al-Lexema ic Model (Mar &iacu e; Mi gora ce, 1984, 1985a,b; 1987a,b,c; 1990a,b). 1. he Fu c io al-Lexema ic Model he FLM i egra es Coseriu’s Lexema ics (1977), Dik’s Fu c io al Grammar (1997a) a d some fu dame al pri ciples of cog i ive li guis ics. Followi g Faber a d Mairal (1998: 4-5), he wo mai objec ives of his model are, o he o e ha d, he co s ruc io of he li guis ic archi ec ure of he lexico of a la guage, a d o he o her ha d, he represe a io of k owledge based o he li guis ic codi g of dic io ary e ries. he FLM es ablishes hree axes of a alysis: he paradigma ic, sy agma ic a d cog i ive axes. he elabora io of he paradigma ic axis e ails he s ruc uri g of he lexico i sema ic domai s —each correspo di g o a basic area of mea i g,2 a d he orga iza io of lexical domai s i o hierarchically co s ruc ed subdomai s elabora ed o he basis of shared mea i g compo e s A subdomai is “a subdivisio of sema ic space derived from he fac orisa io of he mea i g defi i io of i s members”3 (Faber a d Mairal 1998: 6). Word defi i io s are buil accordi g o Dik’s me hod of S epwise Lexical Decomposi io . his mea s ha he defi i io s ruc ure of each lexeme co sis s of he uclear word — he archilexeme— a d a series of sema ic fea ures which mark i s dis a ce from he precedi g members of he subdomai . Followi g Faber a d Mairal (1999), he domai of MOVEME is orga ised i o four subdomai s. he firs subdomai describes ge eric moveme , while he o her subdomai s subsume lexemes which de o e moveme i a umber of co ex s: liquid, a mosphere a d la d. Cu i g across his major co figura io of he domai , he parame ers of ma er a d direc io i roduce fur her divisio s wi hi each subdomai .4 For i s a ce, hese parame ers raverse he followi g subdomai s wi hi he subdomai lexicalizi g ge eric moveme : 1. Direc io : o move owards a place/perso / hi g o move back o move up o move dow 2. Ma er: o move quickly o move slowly o move smoo hly o move i a circular ma er As a example of a subdomai s ruc ured paradigma ically, we have selec ed he subdomai o move dow : fall: o move dow from a high posi io / he sky/a ree. plu ge: o fall sudde ly a lo g way from a high posi io . plumme : o fall very quickly from a high posi io . come dow : o fall (rai /s ow) heavily. desce d: o move dow a slope/s airs (fml). he verbs i de ed o he righ (plu ge, plumme , come dow ) are defi ed i erms of he verb immedia e above hem (fall), which hus becomes heir defi ie s.

hey are basically differe ia ed from o e a o her i erms of ma er. he o her archilexeme of his subdomai is desce d. he co s ruc io of he sy agma ic axis implies he a alysis of he compleme a io pa er s of each lexeme usi g predica e frames as i egra ed formulae. he followi g ypes of i forma io are cap ured i predica e frames: (i) he form of he predica e (ii) he sy ac ic ca egory o which i belo gs (iii) i s qua i a ive vale cy, i.e. he umber of argume s ha he predica e requires (iv) i s quali a ive vale cy, i.e. he sema ic fu c io s of he argume s a d he per i e selec io res ric io s (v) he mea i g defi i io Predica e frames describe a s a e of affairs a d specify he rela io ship be wee he predica e argume s (represe ed by he variable x). Each argume is charac erized by a selec io res ric io —described i erms of bi ary sema ic fea ures— a d fulfills a sema ic fu c io (Age , Experie cer, Goal, Recipie , e c.). Co sider he predica e frame of he verb bow: [ (x1: pro o yp. huma )Ag (x2: pro o yp. par of he body)Go ]Ac io DEF = o be d your head a d upper body as a gree i g or as a sig of respec . his frame describes a Ac io a d specifies he rela io ship be wee a huma argume , performi g he fu c io of Age , a d a argume fulfilli g he fu c io of Goal a d sema ically marked as par of he body (head). he elabora io of he cog i ive axis e ails he formula io of he predica e co cep ual schema a, which are cog i ive co s ruc s e codi g sema ic, sy ac ic a d pragma ic i forma io a d represe i g our k owledge abou he lexical u i i ques io . Co cep ual schema a are codified a hree levels: lexeme, subdomai a d domai . 2. Polysemy of MOVEME verbs Ma y MOVEME verbs fall wi hi several subdomai s. his double/mul iple membership may be accou ed for o he followi g grou ds: a) he mea i g compo e focalised b) he ge us of he lexeme c) he me aphorical ex e sio of he verb Le us exami e each of hese fac ors. 2.1. Focaliza io of a mea i g compo e We have used Dik’s (1997a) pragma ic fu c io s of Focus a d opic o accou for some i s a ces of polysemy i he sema ic field of MOVEME . hese fu c io s specify he i forma io s a us of he co s i ue s of he predica e wi hi he commu ica ive se i g i which hey occur, a d hey are assig ed o he co s i ue s af er he assig i g of sema ic a d sy ac ic fu c io s. he opic is he e i y abou which he predica io predica es some hi g i he se i g i ques io , whereas he Focus refers o he mos releva i forma io i he se i g: (1) As for Mary (Focus), I do ’ care for her ( opic). he applica io of such fu c io s o he paradigma ic descrip io of he lexico is based o he orga iza io of he lexico a hree levels: domai , subdomai a d lexeme. I co so a ce wi h his idea, we may formula e various levels of focaliza io : Level of focaliza io 1: Domai Level of focaliza io 2: Subdomai Levels of focaliza io 3, 4, . : Lexeme A domai s a ds for he level of focaliza io umber 1. I performs he fu c io of Focus i ha i represe s o e of he basic areas of mea i g. A subdomai represe s he level of focaliza io umber 2 i ha i focuses o a area of mea i g wi hi a domai .

he followi g levels of focaliza io are formula ed a lexeme-level. his mea s ha he lexemes of a subdomai represe differe levels of focaliza io based o he mea i g hierarchies wi hi he subdomai . Wha is mos releva is ha wha is Focus o a level becomes opic o he level below. he a domai , which performs he fu c io of Focus o he level of focaliza io umber 1, becomes opic a subdomai -level i ha i prese s he give i forma io , si ce all he subdomai s of MOVEME lexicalize he co cep of moveme . herefore, he archilexeme of he lexical field, move, which performs he fu c io of Focus a domai -level i ha i codifies he uclear mea i g of he domai , becomes opic a subdomai -level, si ce i is he defi ie s of he archilexeme of each subdomai . Similarly, a subdomai , which ac s as Focus o he level of focaliza io umber 2, becomes opic a lexeme-level, si ce all he lexemes i he subdomai share he uclear i forma io formalised by he subdomai . he , as we move dow i he sema ic hierarchy which charac erizes he i er al s ruc ure of each subdomai , wha is Focus i he mea i g defi i io of he archilexeme (level of focaliza io umber 3) becomes opic i he mea i g defi i io of i s hypo yms (level of focaliza io umber 4). For example, if we ake he subdomai a alysed above, o move dow , he defi ie s “ o move dow ” ac s as Focus i he defi i io of fall ( he archilexeme), a d as opic i he defi i io of plu ge, plumme a d come dow , he fu c io of Focus bei g performed by he sema ic parame ers of ma er a d place i ha hey i dividua e he members of he subdomai . Le us ow co sider he fu c io s of opic a d Focus i he case of lexemes belo gi g o several subdomai s. Here he fu c io of Focus applies o a par icular mea i g compo e , which hus becomes especially releva . he verbs whizz a d zoom i volve quick moveme , hus belo gi g o he subdomai o move quickly. Bu hey ca also de o e moveme hrough he air: (2) he bulle s whizzed pas . he , hese verbs belo g o he subdomai o move quickly or o move hrough he air depe di g o which parame er is highligh ed, whe her ma er or medium. Similarly, he verbs circle a d whirl refer o circular moveme i he air. If he ma er compo e is focalized, he he verbs fall i he subdomai o move i a circular ma er. If he focus is o he medium, he he verbs belo g o he subdomai o move hrough he air. he able below shows he double membership of hese verbs. VERB FOCUS DIME SIO MEA I G whizz zoom circle whirl Ma er o move quickly o move i a circular ma er o move (a e gi e/device) very quickly wi h a loud whis li g oise o move (a vehicle/a aircraf ) very quickly wi h a loud buzzi g/hummi g oise o move i a circular ma er i he air o ur rou d i he air very quickly whizz zoom circle whirl Medium o move hrough he air o move very quickly hrough he air wi h a loud whis li g oise o move very quickly hrough he air wi h a loud oise o fly arou d i circles o move very quickly i a circular ma er hrough he air 2.2. Ge us of he lexeme Ma y verbs describe ge eric moveme . Verb membership is he de ermi ed by he sema ic parame er of medium or direc io , or by he parame er specifyi g he a ure of he subjec /objec .

Mavis reflects with a kind of pitiful, deranged defiance that "She wanted them to know she had taken her own life; her death, unlike her life, had to have some meaning. Even if it was only Ronnie who fully understood that reason." This is hardly stunning character insight, but it is fully adequate to Herbert's purposes, and if the ironic outcome is similar to the ironic outcome of the tales in E.C.'s series of horror comics, we are able to see more and thus believe more, a victory for Herbert which the reader can share. Further, Herbert has continued to improve. The Fog is his second novel; those that follow show a gratifying development in the writer, culminating perhaps in The Spear, which shows us a writer who has stepped out of the pulp arena altogether and has entered the wider field of the mainstream novel. 9 Which brings us to Harlan Ellison . . . and all kinds of problems. Because here it is impossible to separate the man from the work. I've decided to close this brief review of some of the elements in modern horror fiction by discussing Ellison's work because, although he repudiates the label "horror writer," he sums up, for me, the finest elements of the term

1. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

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4. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

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6. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?
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8. The political role of Great Britain in modern world
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9. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

10. Problem of Synonyms in the Translation

11. Syntax and semantics of verbals in English

12. Places of interest in Ukraine

13. Linguistic Pecularities Of Contracts in English

14. French Borrowings in the Modern English Language

15. Places of interest in Kyiv

16. Trotskyst movement in Australia

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22. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)
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26. What type of toys do the kids prefer nowadays?

27. The United States Of America

28. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

29. Lexico-semantic characteristics of business letter correspondence

30. The political system of Ukraine

31. Lexicology of the English Language

32. The working day of an engineer

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36. Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children

37. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)

38. The basic features of translation informal lexicon
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41. The origin and history of the English language

42. The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development

43. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

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53. Islam in the eyes of the West

54. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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55. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus
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56. Role of the interpreter in the modern world
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57. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

58. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

59. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

60. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

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68. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)

69. Militant Islam’s Expansion in the Southern Philippines

70. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA
71. Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind... Пастернак и нравственная дилемма послереволюционной интеллигенции
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73. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present

74. Science in the 20th century

75. My career in the future

76. Zaporozhye: The city in which I live

77. Internet helps in development of education and democracy

78. Sport in the UK

79. Agriculture in the USA

80. The roman times in british history

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82. The transactions in civil law

83. Economic bases of innovative activity in public health services

84. Education, its role in increase of economic potential

85. Problem of meaning ambiguity in a language

86. The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French
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87. School education in the USA
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88. A Catcher In The Rye - Summary
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89. Attaction of foreign inflows in East Asia

90. The Tower of London

91. The Economy of Great Britain

92. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

93. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

94. Democracy in Russia

95. The Church of England

96. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

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97. Radio And TV In My Life

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