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Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

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LEC URES I CO RAS IVE LEXICOLOGY OF HE E GLISH A D UKRAI IA LA GUAGES .O. Mizi Kyiv - 2005 Мизин Т.О. Курс лекцій з порівняльної лексикології англійської та української мов. Навчальний посібник для студентів III курсу факультету лінгвістики. – Київ, 2005. – с. Рецензенти: кандидат філологічних наук, доцент Т.А. Мирончук (Міжнародна Академія управління персоналом); кандидат філологічних наук, доцент І.В. Тіменко (Київський міжнародний університет) Даний посібник включає лекції, які охоплюють програму курсу порівняльної лексикології англійської та української мов. Розглядаються питання теорії слова та словотвору, семантичної структури слова, фразеології англійської та української мов, етимології, загальної характеристики вокабуляру. Посібник розрахований на студентів III курсу факультету лінгвістики. Друкується за рішенням Вченої Ради Київського міжнародного університету. PREFACE Lec ures i Co ras ive Lexicology of he E glish a d Ukrai ia La guages are i e ded for s ude s of E glish a u iversi ies. Lec ures are devo ed o he followi g opics: he Morphological a d Sema ic S ruc ures of Words; Sy o yms. A o yms. Homo yms; Word Combi a io s a d Phraseology i Moder E glish a d Ukrai ia La guages; he E ymology of E glish a d Ukrai ia Words; Ge eral Charac eris ics of he Vocabulary. he aim of he lec ures is o lead he s ude s o a deeper u ders a di g of he Moder E glish a d Ukrai ia lexical sys ems. he lis of bibliographical refere ces will serve as a guide o hose who would like o a ai a more comple e view of he opics discussed. HE S RUC URE OF WORDS A D WORD-BUILDI G 1. Ge eral problems of he heory of he word. 2. he s ruc ure of he word. ypes of morphemes a d heir specific fea ures. 3. Affixa io . 4. Co versio . 5. Composi io . 6. Shor e i g. 7. Back-forma io . 8. Ble di g. 9. Grada io . 10. S ress i ercha ge. 11. Sou d imi a io . 1. Ge eral Problems of he heory of he Word. he Defi i io of he Word he problems associa ed wi h he defi i io of he word have always bee mos complex a d remai dispu able. De ermi i g he word i volves co siderable difficul ies for he cri eria employed i es ablishi g i are of differe charac er a d each la guage prese s a separa e sys em wi h i s ow pa er s of vocabulary i ems, i s specific ypes of s ruc ural u i s a d i s ow ways of dis i guishi g hem. he ma er is ha he simples word has ma y differe aspec s. I has a sou d form because i is a cer ai arra geme of pho emes. I has i s morphological s ruc ure, bei g a cer ai arra geme of morphemes. Bei g he ce ral eleme of a y la guage sys em, he word is a sor of focus for he problems of pho ology, lexicology, sy ax, morphology a d also some o her scie ces ha have o deal wi h la guage a d speech, such as philosophy, psychology a d probably qui e a few o her bra ches of k owledge. All a emp s o charac erise he word are ecessarily specific for each domai of scie ce a d are co sidered o e-sided by he represe a ives of all he o her domai s a d cri icised for i comple e ess, he defi i io of he word from he poi of view of philosophy: Words are o mere sou ds bu ames of ma er ( .

Hobbes). he defi i io of he word from he poi of view of physiology: A word is a u iversal sig al ha ca subs i u e a y o her sig al from he e viro me i evoki g a respo se i a huma orga ism (I. Pavlov). he defi i io of he word from he poi of view of Machi e Ma hema ical Li guis ics: A word is a seque ce of graphemes be wee wo bla ks. he defi i io of he word from he poi of view of sy ax: A word is a mi imum se e ce (H. Swee ). A word is a mi imum free form (L. Bloomfield). he defi i io of he word from he poi of view of sema ics: Words are mea i gful u i s (S. Ullma ). he defi i io of he word from he poi of view of sy ax a d sema ics: A word is o e of he smalles comple ely sa isfyi g bi s of isola ed u i s i o which he se e ce resolves i self (E. Sapir). he defi i io of he word from he poi of view of sema ics a d pho ology: A word is a ar icula e sou d-symbol i i s aspec of de o i g some hi g which is spoke abou ( A. Gardi er). he defi i io of he word from he poi of view of sema ics, pho ology a d grammar: A word is he associa io of a give mea i g wi h a give group of sou ds suscep ible o a give gramma ical employme (A. Meille ). Ma y scholars have a emp ed o defi e he word as a li guis ic phe ome o . Ye o e of he defi i io s ca be co sidered o ally sa isfac ory i all aspec s. he defi i io which is a bi ex e ded bu akes i o accou differe aspec s a d he ce ca be co sidered op imal is he defi i io of he word give be I. Ar old: he word is a speech u i used for he purposes of huma commu ica io , ma erially represe i g a group of sou ds, possessi g a mea i g, suscep ible o gramma ical employme a d charac erised by formal a d sema ic u i y. he S ruc ure of he Word. ypes of Morphemes a d heir Specific Fea ures If viewed s ruc urally, words appear o be divisible i o smaller u i s which are called morphemes. Like a word a morpheme is a associa io of a give mea i g wi h a give group of sou ds. Bu u like a word i is o au o omous. Morphemes occur as co s i ue s of words. Bu here are qui e a lo of words which co ai o ly o e morpheme. he word morpheme is of he Greek origi . Morphe mea s form, he suffix –eme mea s he smalles u i . Morphemes ca be divided i o wo mai ypes: free ( hose ha ca occur alo e) a d bou d ( hose which ca o occur alo e). he word wool, for i s a ce, has o e free morpheme, he word woole co sis s of wo morphemes: wool (which is free) a d –e (which is bou d). he word лісистий co sis s of he free morpheme ліс a d he bou d morpheme –ст. A word has a leas o e lexical morpheme represe ed by a roo by which we mea he ul ima e co s i ue eleme which remai s af er he removal of affixes a d i does o admi a y fur her a alysis. I is he commo eleme of words wi hi a word-family. I is he primary eleme of he word, i s basic par co veys i s fu dame al lexical mea i g. here are ma y roo -morphemes which ca s a d alo e as words: able, car chair, room. I is o e of he specific fea ures of he E glish la guage. Free morphemes ca be fou d o ly amo g roo s. Bu o all roo s are free morphemes. O ly produc ive roo s are free. U like roo s affixes are usually bou d morphemes.

Accordi g o heir fu c io a d mea i g prefixes a d suffixes are divided i o deriva io al a d fu c io al. here are several differe ces be wee hem. Deriva io al affixes are hose by mea s of which ew words are formed: o each – a eacher. Fu c io al are hose by mea s of which ew forms of words are formed: each – eaches. Deriva io al affixes permi he subs i u io of o e word by a o her wi hou his affix. Fu c io al affixes do o permi such subs i u io wi hou viola i g grammar rules. Deriva io al affixes permi fur her deriva io : each – eachi g – eachi g-room. Fu c io al affixes do o permi such deriva io . Deriva io al affixes do o combi e freely. Fu c io al affixes combi e more or less freely. he suffix –s ca be added prac ically o a y ou o form he plural form. 3. Affixa io Affixa io is he crea io of a word by modifyi g i s roo wi h a affix. I is a very produc ive ype of word forma io . I co formi y wi h he divisio of deriva io al affixes i o suffixes a d prefixes affixa io is subdivided i o suffixa io a d prefixa io . A careful s udy of a grea ma y suffixal a d prefixal deriva ives has revealed a esse ial differe ce be wee hem. Firs of all i moder E glish suffixa io is charac eris ic of ou a d adjec ive forma io . Prefixa io is ypical of verb forma io . Prefixes modify he lexical mea i g of s ems o which hey are added. A prefixal deriva ive usually joi s he par of speech he u prefixed word belo gs o. e.g.: defi i e – i defi i e; co ve ie – i co ve ie . I a suffixal deriva ive he suffix does o o ly modify he lexical mea i g of he s em i is affixed o, bu he word i self is usually ra sferred o a o her par of speech. e.g.: care( ) – careless (A), good (A) – good ess ( ). A suffix closely k i oge her wi h a s em forms a fusio re ai i g less of i s i depe de ce ha a prefix which is, as a ge eral rule, more i depe de sema ically. e.g.: wri i g – he ac of o e who wri es; he abili y o wri e; o rewri e – o wri e agai . I he E glish la guage here prevails ei her suffixa io or prefixa io , i he Ukrai ia la guage hey ca be used i he same word. E glish suffixes usually ra sfer a word from o e par of speech i o a o her, Ukrai ia affixes ever do i . Prefixa io Deriva io al morphemes affixed before he s em are called prefixes. hey modify he lexical mea i g of he s em, bu i doi g so hey seldom affec i s basic lexico-gramma ical compo e . U like suffixa io , which is usually bou d up wi h a paradigm of a cer ai par of speech, prefixa io is co sidered o be eu ral i his respec . he o ly excep io s are he prefixes be-, e -, a-, pre-, pos . e.g.: li le (A) – beli le (V); frie d ( ) – befrie d (V); able (A) – e able (V); courage ( ) – e courage (V); sleep ( ) – asleep (word of he ca egory of s a e); foo ( ) – afoo (Adv); war ( ) – prewar (A) ; war ( ) – pos war (A). Bu usually prefixes do o cha ge a par of speech. he Source of Prefixes Prefixes origi a ed from o io al words, which i he course of ime los heir i depe de mea i gs a d became prefixes. e.g.: re (La . Adv.) – o ce agai or back; u der (OE Adv., Prep.) - u der; fore (OE Adv., Prep) – foresee.

Many of these little words have English equivalents {tui, "in general"; tue, "moreover"; tai, "above all"), but the really crucial words correspond to things like parentheses (which most spoken languages lack) and technical tools for picking out specific individuals mentioned earlier in the discourse. The English word he, for example, would be translated as da if it refers to the first singular antecedent in a discourse, de if it refers to the second, di if it refers to the third, do if it refers the fourth, and du if it refers to the fifth. Unnatural as this might seem, this system would banish considerable confusion about the antecedents of pronouns. (American Sign Language uses physical space to represent something similar, making signs in different places, depending on which entity is being referred to.) To see why this is useful, consider the English sentence He runs and he walks. It might describe a single person who runs and walks, or two different people, one running, the other walking; by contrast, in Loglan, the former would be rendered unambiguously as Da prano i da dzoru, the latter unambiguously as Da prano i de dzoru

1. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

2. The history of Old English and its development

3. The origin and history of the English language

4. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

5. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

6. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
7. Sport in different countries of the world
Sport in different countries of the world
8. The history of grammatical study of the English language
The history of grammatical study of the English language

9. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

10. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

11. The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages

12. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

13. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

14. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

15. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

16. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present

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Раздел: Папки для труда
Набор "Леди Баг и Супер Кот" Дизайн 1, 3 предмета (в подарочной упаковке).
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770 руб
Раздел: Качели

17. Legal and linguistic aspects of translating english legal terminology

18. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

19. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

20. Historical Background of the Middle English Period

21. Survey of the British Geography and Life

22. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors
The development of the drama. The theatres and actors
23. Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
24. Role of the interpreter in the modern world
Role of the interpreter in the modern world

25. The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual tradition

26. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"

27. The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus

28. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

29. My modern image of the United States

30. The fastest computers of the world

31. The Irish and Australia

32. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

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Раздел: Наборы для кормления
Паста-гель зубная детская "Weleda", 50 мл.
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Раздел: Зубные пасты
Качели пластмассовые "Малыш".
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Раздел: Качели

33. The Queen of the UK

34. Interactive method of teaching English grammar

35. Interactive method of teaching English grammar

36. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

37. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

38. The dark side of the moon
The dark side of the moon
39. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
40. Problems of the youth
Problems of the youth

41. Discovery of the New World

42. Cities of the USA

43. Washington is the capital of the USA

44. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

45. Art of the Edo Period

46. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

47. Category of number of the noun

48. History of democracy of the USA

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Раздел: Беговелы
Сковорода чугунная с деревянной ручкой 2505/27, 27 см.
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Раздел: Сковороды чугунные
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585 руб
Раздел: Прочее

49. Some Difficulties of Translating English Phrasal Verbs into Russian

50. The war of the roses

51. The English Judicial System

52. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Most Popular Poet of the Nineteenth Century

53. Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)

54. Some problems of the russian spelling
Some problems of the russian spelling
55. American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries
American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries
56. The Sound and the Fury
The Sound and the Fury

57. Giza, Wonder of the World

58. The development of the Tower

59. Description of a person and a place

60. Relief of the UK

61. Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?

62. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

63. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century

64. Переклад інфінітивних конструкцій на матеріалі роману С. Моема "The Moon and Sixpence"

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Раздел: Прочие фигурки
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410 руб
Раздел: Деревянные пазлы
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385 руб
Раздел: Формы и формочки для выпечки

65. Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words

66. Economic system. Changes in economic situation of Russia

67. Emblems of the UK

68. Linguistic Аspects of Black English

69. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)

70. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier
Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier
71. The explaining of the meaning of neologism
The explaining of the meaning of neologism
72. The marking of the Russian Revolution
The marking of the Russian Revolution

73. The outline of the period

74. The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development

75. Historical measurement of the science of governing

76. Division of the sentence into phrases

77. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

78. Working out of the search algorithm of failures of Air Conditioning System of TU-154

79. Euro-Atlantic integration and Ukrainian youth. Opinions and problems

80. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

Развивающая настольная игра "Котосовы".
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792 руб
Раздел: Карточные игры
Точилка механическая.
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547 руб
Раздел: Точилки
Электрогрелка "ГЭМР5-60".
Материал: высококачественный текстиль. Напряжение питания: 220 В. Потребляемая мощность 40 Вт. Переключатель режимов: есть
486 руб
Раздел: Грелки

81. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

82. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century

83. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

84. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

85. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

86. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements
On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements
87. The role of art in our life
The role of art in our life
88. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries
Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

89. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

90. Types of tests used in English Language Teaching Bachelor Paper

91. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

92. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

93. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

94. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

95. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

96. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

Соковарка алюминиевая (6 литров).
Легкая, прочная и практичная посуда, изготовлена из пищевого алюминия, имеет высокую стойкость к коррозии, равномерно нагревается за
1494 руб
Раздел: Скороварки, пароварки, мантоварки
Настольная игра "Эрудит. Сила магнита".
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1076 руб
Раздел: Игры на магнитах
Глобус «Двойная карта» рельефный, с подсветкой, на подставке из дерева.
Диаметр: 250 мм. Масштаб: 1:50 000 000. Материал подставки: дерево. Цвет подставки: вишня, орех. Мощность: 220 V, может использоваться в
1692 руб
Раздел: Глобусы

97. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

98. Customs and traditions of English speaking countries

99. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease


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