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The war of the roses

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he Prehis ory I was i his year , ha Richard Pla age e was bor o Richard, fif h Earl of Cambridge a d A e Mor imer. His fa her was he so of Edmu d, he firs Duke of York, who was i ur he four h so of Edward III. If He ry VI had died before 1453, he year of he bir h of Edward, Pri ce of Wales, he Richard would have u doub edly bee crow ed Ki g of E gla d, si ce here was o o her oble (si ce he dea h of He ry VI's u cle a d heir Humphrey, Duke of Glouces er, who had died i 1447) wi h such a s ro g claim o he hro e a ha ime, o her ha Richard himself. Bei g so highly placed i he royal household, Richard was des i ed o play a sig ifica role i he Gover me a d poli ics of E gla d hroughou his life ime a d i E gla d's affairs i Fra ce duri g he la er s ages of he Hu dred Years War. He was appoi ed Lieu e a of Fra ce i 1436. hroughou his service i Europe, he had o pay for he services of his me a d fi a ce he army i Fra ce from his ow perso al fu ds. Al hough York was a weal hy ma i his ow righ , (York was he sole be efac or of he childless Edmu d Mor imer, who had died of plague i Irela d i 1425). I was his marriage o Cicely eville i 1438 (who was k ow as ' he Rose of Raby'), daugh er o Ralph eville, Earl of Wes morela d a d sis er of Richard eville, Earl of Salisbury, which had brough him grea weal h. hus, he was able, albie u happily i doi g so, o fu d he E glish army overseas. By he ime he lef Fra ce, York had forwarded some Ј38,000 of his ow mo ey o mai ai E glish i eres s i Fra ce. o add i sul o i jury, i 1445 he was replaced as Lieu e a of Fra ce by Edmu d Beaufor , Duke of Somerse . I is o o be doub ed ha i was o Somerse 's advice (who was He ry VI cousi , a d someo e He ry rus ed more ha he Duke of York) ha He ry VI crea ed York Lieu e a of Irela d, which was i reali y, exile by office. Somerse was o doub fearful of York, a fear e ha ced by he fac ha Somerse , a ma whom York equally de es ed, a d a favouri e of He ry VI was forwarded fu ds o he sum of Ј25,000 o sus ai he ki g's army i Fra ce. o o ly did York de es Somerse because of his favouri ism wi h he ki g, bu he also de es ed he fac ha he had bee give he office he had previously held i Fra ce a d he fu ds o suppor i , despi e his i abili y as a soldier. York's fears over he ma ageme of he campaig i Fra ce was soo realised, as he war bega o go badly for he E glish. he Duke of Somerse was perso ally respo sible for he surre der of he s ra egic ow of Roue which subseque ly led o he fall of orma dy o Charles VII of Fra ce. Because of his, Somerse became dis i c ly u popular a home. However, because he re ai ed he ki g's favour, he mai ai ed his pres igious posi io a cour . I Ju e 1451, Bordeaux i Fra ce, a d Gasco y, were los o he Fre ch. his was disas rous ews for he E glish a d he Ki g, He ry VI, ook he loss very badly. York i ur , was quick o blame Somerse for he disas er a d, wi h suppor for he ki g a d his adhere s a such a low poi (due mai ly o E glish faili gs i Fra ce), York, decided o risk all a d a emp o wres co rol from he ki g by force of arms a d arres he Duke of Somerse , hus removi g him from his posi io as he ki g's mos se ior advisor.

Doub less his move was o o ly i spired by York's fear for he co duc of he war i Fra ce, bu also because he was equally fearful ha Somerse migh ake over he very posi io ha York fel was his ow , ha of he mos likely heir o He ry i he abse ce of he ki g havi g a y childre of his ow . hus York, believi g ha he had more popular suppor ha he ac ually had, sailed from Irela d a d la ded i or h Wales, ga hered his forces a d ravelled s raigh for Lo do a d he e cou er a Blackhea h. he Wars of he Roses Begi Af er York's release from cus ody, here he followed several years of rela ive peace. However, by he year 1453, he poli ical s orm clouds were o ce agai ga heri g over he cou ry. By his year, E gla d's possessio s i Fra ce had bee almos los as he disas rous Hu dred Years War had all bu come o a e d . I was his - i is said - ha brough abou he firs bou of mad ess i He ry VI. Wha form his ill ess ook is o recorded, bu i seems ha i ma ifes ed i self i a form of paralysis. York, wi h he ki g i capaci a ed, was made pro ec or of E gla d a d ook he oppor u i y o seek reve ge o his earlier e emies, amely he Duke of Somerse , who was se o he ower o a revised charge of reaso (for his poor ma ageme of he war i Fra ce) i Sep ember 1453. he Earl of Salisbury, Richard eville a d his eldes so Richard, Earl of Warwick, also ook he oppor u i y afforded by he ki g's ill ess a d, u der he cover of heir ki sma 's pro ec ora e bega o seek heir reve ge agai s he Percy family, he Earls of or humberla d, wi h whom, hey had held a lo g ru i g feud, over he issue of ow ership of proper y i or humberla d a d Yorkshire . hus, E gla d was plu ged i o a series of mi or wars be wee he la d's mos powerful lords o which he Duke of York, as pro ec or was able o use his au hori y o he adva age of his family a d suppor ers. However, his all came o a e d whe he ki g recovered from his ill ess i Ja uary 1455. Somerse was released from he ower, a d immedia ely formed a a ural allia ce wi h He ry Percy, Earl of or humberla d (a d Percy's ally i he or h Lord Clifford), agai s he Duke of York - who was s ripped of his powers as pro ec or - a d his suppor ers, amely he Earl of Salisbury a d he Earl of Warwick. Wi h his he ba le li es for he 'Wars of he Roses' were draw . he pac be wee Somerse , or humberla d a d Clifford, suppor ed by he ki g would i la er years go by he ame of La cas ria s, ake from he family ame of he House of La cas er o which he li eage of He ry VI was derived. While he followers of he House of York, Warwick, Salisbury a d he Duke of York himself became k ow as he Yorkis s. 1455-1464 Firs S . Alba s, or hamp o , Wakefield, Mor imer's Cross, Seco d S . Alba s, ow o a d Hexham. I May 1455 he quee a d Somerse summo ed a Cou cil, o which o promi e Yorkis was i vi ed, a d ordered a ga heri g of he peers a Leices er o ake s eps for he ki g's safe y. York marched sou h o secure a fair heari g from he ki g, while he cour moved owards Leices er, escor ed by a large umber of obles a d heir re ai ers. he ki g a d Somerse did o lear of York's ac io s u il hey were e rou e o Leices er.

hey ried o assemble a army, bu here was i sufficie ime; a igh fall o 21 May, whe he wo sides camped o ly 20 miles apar , he ki g's 'army' s ill co sis ed of jus his escor a d heir re ai ers. Bo h sides decided o adva ce agai s heir adversary duri g he igh , a d hese marches became a race for he chief ow of he area, S . Alba s. he ki g's army arrived here a 7am, a d York hal ed a Key Fields, eas of he ow , a abou he same ime. here followed a pause of hree hours while reco cilia io was a emp ed, York offeri g o wi hdraw if he ki g would surre der Somerse , whom York co sidered a rai or. he ki g (i.e. Somerse !) refused, a d York ordered he a ack(see map). Warwick was o lay dow a barrage of arrows i suppor of fla k a acks by York a d Salisbury. However, hese a acks were repulsed a d Warwick herefore ordered his archers o co ce ra e o heir ow fro . He he a acked he ce er, broke hrough o he Chequers, a d here es ablished a rallyi g poi . Falli g back o preve heir divided forces from bei g ou fla ked by Warwick, he La cas ria s weake ed heir defe se of he Sopwell a d Shropshire La es, a d he forces of York a d Salisbury almos immedia ely burs i o he ow . he La cas ria s bega o fal er, pa icked, a d broke, o be pursued up S . Pe er's S ree by he riumpha Yorkis s. Somerse a d some re ai ers ook cover i he Cas le I while Lord Clifford, wi h Percy, Hari g o a d some o her k igh s a d esquires, fough o ou side he i . Whe hose ou side were slai , Somerse led his me i o e las charge. He killed four me before bei g felled by a axe. he ki g, he Duke of Bucki gham, a d he Earls of Devo a d Dorse were cap ured; Clifford, Somerse , S afford, Percy a d Hari g o were amo gs hose killed. York was appoi ed Pro ec or i Oc ober a d Warwick became Cap ai of Calais, he ci y which possessed he o ly s a di g army of he ki g. For he ex hree years here was a u easy peace. York los he pro ec orship a he begi i g of 1456 a d re ur ed o Irela d. Margare gai ed co rol of cour a d gover me , bu Warwick refused o surre der Calais o her, a d his ci y hus became a refuge for he Yorkis s, from which a a ack migh be lau ched a a y ime. I he la e summer of 1459 bo h sides bega armi g agai , a d i Oc ober York's forces were defea ed a Ludford – mai ly due o he reachery of A drew rollope, cap ai of a body of professio al soldiers se over from Calais by Warwick. York was forced o flee o Irela d agai a d his roops dispersed. I Ju e 1460 Warwick la ded a Sa dwich wi h 2,000 me of he Calais garriso , accompa ied by he Earl of Salisbury a d York's so Edward, Earl of March. he ki g a d quee were a Cove ry whe hey received ews of he la di g. Has ily ga heri g a army from his chief suppor ers – he Percies, S affords, Beaufor s, albo s a d Beaumo s – he ki g bega o march sou h. However, i he mea ime he me of sou h-eas E gla d had flocked o he s a dard of he popular Warwick, a d o 2 July he e ered Lo do wi h 5,000 me . O ly he ower, comma ded by Lord Scales, held ou for he ki g a d, heari g ha Lo do had go e over o he Yorkis s, he ki g hal ed a or hamp o a d ook up a defe sive posi io o awai rei forceme s.

I would listen when the others speak, and how I would enjoy a good chocolate ice cream. If God would bestow on me a scrap of life, I would dress simply, I would throw myself flat under the sun, exposing not only my body but also my soul. My God, if I had a heart, I would write my hatred on ice and wait for the sun to come out. With a dream of Van Gogh I would paint on the stars a poem by Benedetti, and a song by Serrat would be my serenade to the moon. With my tears I would water the roses, to feel the pain of their thorns and the incarnated kiss of their petals...My God, if I only had a scrap of life... I wouldn't let a single day go by without saying to people I love, that I love them. I would convince each woman or man that they are my favourites and I would live in love with love. I would prove to the men how mistaken they are in thinking that they no longer fall in love when they grow old--not knowing that they grow old when they stop falling in love. To a child I would give wings, but I would let him learn how to fly by himself

1. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

2. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

3. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

4. The Taming of the Shrew

5. The protection of the environment

6. Washington is the capital of the USA
Washington is the capital of the USA
7. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?
Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?
8. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine
The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

9. For the Beauty of the Earth

10. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

11. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

12. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier

13. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

14. The origins of the International Socialists

15. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

16. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

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17. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system


19. The Tower of London

20. The Economy of Great Britain

21. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

22. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)
23. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)
24. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

25. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

26. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

27. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

28. My modern image of the United States

29. The fastest computers of the world

30. The Tower of London

31. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

32. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

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33. The History of English

34. The profile of an effective manager

35. The Tower of London

36. The Hero of Our Time

37. The house of my dream

38. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)
39. The role of art in our life
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40. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

41. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

42. The fastest computers of the world

43. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?

44. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

45. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

46. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

47. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

48. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

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49. The practice of modern medicine

50. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

51. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

52. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

53. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

54. The History of Moscow
The History of Moscow
55. Culture of the youth
Culture of the youth
56. The 8th of March
The 8th of March

57. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

58. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

59. The commonwealth of Australia

60. The Commonwealth of Australia

61. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

62. The climate of Great Britain

63. The sights of USA.

64. The constitution of Ukraine

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65. The history of Christmas

66. Art of the Edo Period

67. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

68. Category of number of the noun

69. Historical Background of the Middle English Period

70. Lexicology of the English Language
Lexicology of the English Language
71. Survival of the Welsh Language
Survival of the Welsh Language
72. The House of Yorks
The House of Yorks

73. The declaration of independence

74. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

75. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

76. The Future of American Youths

77. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

78. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

79. Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)

80. Some problems of the russian spelling

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81. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

82. The Grapes of Wrath

83. Valley of the Kings

84. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

85. The Formation of Youth Subcultures

86. Second period of the Renaissance.
Second period of the Renaissance.
87. Relief of the UK
Relief of the UK
88. Population of the UK
Population of the UK

89. The art of conversation

90. Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?

91. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

92. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

93. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

94. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

95. Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

96. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

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97. Сборник диалогов по английскому языку для развития устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)

98. Changes and specimens of the English language

99. Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words

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