Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
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Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

Dawn of the digital information era

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Раздел: Горшки, ящики для рассады

Successive waves of compu i g ech ology over he pas 50 years have led o huge cha ges i busi ess a d social life. Bu he i er e revolu io is jus begi i g, wri es Paul aylor. homas Wa so , who fou ded o e of he gia s of he i forma io ech­ ology world, could o have bee more wro g. I 1946, he head of I er a io al Busi ess Machi es, said: &quo ;I hi k here is a world marke for maybe five compu ers.&quo ; oday, half a ce ­ ury la er, as we head owards 1b people wi h access o he i er e , he rue scale of his mis­calcula io is appare . Compu ers, a d he semico ­duc ors ha power hem, have i vaded almos every aspec of our lives a d become he e gi e for perhaps he grea es cha ges si ce he i dus rial revolu io - he daw of a digi al i forma io era based upo he o es a d zeros of compu er bi ary code. he las 50 years have see a leas hree phases of compu i g, each buildi g o , ra her ha replaci g, he las . hese &quo ;waves&quo ; have i cluded mai frames a d depar me al mi i-compu ers, he PC era a d clie /server compu i g a d, mos rece ly, he emerge ce of he i er e compu i g model buil arou d he s a dards a d ech ologies of he i er e . Each wave has e abled a shif i busi ess processes: mai ­frames have au oma ed complex asks, perso al compu ers have provided users wi h perso al pro­duc ivi y ools a d i er e com­pu i g promises o deliver huge gai s i produc ivi y a d effi­cie cy, as well as he abili y o access huge volumes of i forma­ io . he ech ological fou da io s for hese cha ges bega o be laid more ha 350 years ago by Blaise Pascal, he Fre ch scie ­ is who buil he firs addi g machi e which used a series of i erco ec ed cogs o add um­bers. Almos 200 years la er, i Bri ai Charles Babbage, he &quo ;fa her of he compu er&quo ;, begu desig i g he s eam-powered a aly ical e gi e which would have used pu ched cards for i pu a d ou pu a d i cluded a memory u i , had i ever bee comple ed. Bu he moder compu er age was really ushered i by Ala uri g who i 1937 co ceived of he co cep of a &quo ;u iversal machi e&quo ; able o execu e a y algori hm - a break hrough which ul ima ely led o he build­i g of he code-breaki g Colossus machi e by he Bri ish duri g he seco d world war. I 1946, he Elec ro ic umeric I egra or a d Calcula or (E IAC) compu er which co ­ ai ed 18,000 vacuum ubes was buil i he US. wo years la er scie is s a Ma ches er com­ple ed &quo ;Baby&quo ;, he firs s ored program machi e a d ushered i he commercial compu i g era. Si ce he , compu er archi ec­ ure has largely followed pri ci­ples laid dow by Joh vo eu­ma , a pio eer of compu er scie ce i he 1940s who made sig ifica co ribu io s o he developme of logical desig a d advoca ed he bi as a mea­sureme of compu er memory. I 1964, IBM i roduced he Sys em/360, he firs mai frame compu er family a d ushered i wha has bee called he firs wave of compu i g. From a busi ess perspec ive, he mai frame era e abled com­pa ies o cu cos s a d improve efficie cy by au oma i g difficul a d ime co sumi g processes. ypically, he mai frame, based o proprie ary ech ology developed by IBM or o e of a ha dful of compe i ors, was housed i a air-co di io ed room which became k ow as he &quo ;glasshouse&quo ; a d was e ded by whi e-coa ed ech icia s.

Da a were i pu from &quo ;gree scree &quo ; or &quo ;dumb&quo ; ermi als hooked i o he mai frame over a rudime ary e work. he mai frame provided a highly secure a d usually reli­able pla form for corpora e com­pu i g, bu i had some serious drawbacks. I par icular, i s pro­prie ary ech ology made i cos ly a d he eed o wri e cus­ om-buil programs for each applica io limi ed flexibili y. he ex compu i g wave was led by he mi icompu er makers which buil scaled-dow mai ­frame machi es dubbed depar ­me al mi is or mid-ra ge sys ems. hese s ill used propri­e ary ech ology, bu provided much wider depar me al access o heir resources via desk op er­mi als. Amo g ma ufac urers leadi g his wave of compu i g was Digi­ al Equipme wi h i s Vax ra ge of machi es a d Wa g which developed a widely used propri­e ary word-processi g sys em. A key fac or drivi g dow he cos of compu i g power over his period was sig ifica adva ces i he u derlyi g ech­ ology a d i par icular, semi­co duc ors. I 1947, scie is s a Bell elepho e labora ories i he US had i ve ed he &quo ; ra sfer resis a ce&quo ; device or &quo ; ra sis or&quo ; which would eve ually provide compu ers wi h a reliabili y u achievable wi h vacuum ubes. By he e d of he 1950s, i e­gra ed circui s had arrived - a developme ha would e able millio s of ra sis ors o be e ched o o a si gle silico chip a d collapse he price of compu ­i g power drama ically. I 1971, I el produced he 4004, lau chi g a family of &quo ;processors o a chip&quo ; leadi g o he develop­me of he 8080 8-bi micropro­cessor hree years la er a d ope ­i g he door for he emerge ce of he firs mass produced perso al compu er, he Al air 8800. he developme of he per­so al compu er a d perso al pro­duc ivi y sof ware - he hird wave of compu i g - was led by Apple Compu er a d IBM i co ­ju c io wi h Microsof which provided IBM wi h he opera i g sys em for he firs IBM PC i 1981. his year, a es ima ed 108m PCs will be sold worldwide i cludi g a growi g umber of sub - $500 machi es which are expa di g he pe e ra io of PCs i o households which previously could o afford hem. Some imes, however, sof ware developme has o kep pace. As Rober Cri gely, he Silico Valley ech ology guru, o es: &quo ;If he au omobile had followed he same developme as he compu er, a Rolls-Royce would oday cos $100, ge a millio miles per gallo a d explode o ce a year, killi g everyo e i side.&quo ; ever heless, for busi esses he arrival of he desk op PCs buil arou d rela ively low cos s a dard compo e s pu real compu i g power i o he ha ds of e d-users for he firs ime. his mea I dividual users could crea e, ma ipula e a d co ­ rol heir ow da a a d were freed from he co s rai s of deali g wi h a big I depar me . However, he limi a io s of desk op PCs as &quo ;isla ds of com­pu i g power&quo ; also quickly became appare . I par icular, people discovered hey eeded o hook heir machi es oge her wi h local area e works o share da a a d peripherals as well as excha ge messages. By he s ar of he 1990s, a ew corpora e compu er archi ec ure called clie /server compu i g had emerged buil arou d desk­ op PCs a d more powerful serv­ers li ked oge her by a local area e work.

Over he pas few years, how­ever, here has bee growi g disa isfac io , par icularly amo g big corpora e PC users, wi h he clie /server model mai ly because of i s complexi y a d high cos of life ime ow ership. As a resul , here has bee a pro ou ced swi g back owards a ce ralised compu i g model i he pas few years, accelera ed by he grow h of he i er e . he i er e has i s origi s i he 1970s a d work u der ake by Vi o Cerf a d o ers o desig sys ems ha would e able research a d academic i s i u­ io s worki g o mili ary pro­jec s o co-opera e. his led o he developme of he E her e s a dard a d CP/ IP, he basic i er e pro ocol. I also led Bob Me calfe o promul­ga e &quo ;Me calfe's Law&quo ; which s a es he value of a e work is propor io al o he square of he umber of odes a ached o i . Bu arguably, i was o u il he mid-1990s a d he commer­cialisa io of he I er e ha he rue value of i er e worki g became appare . he grow h of he i er e a d he world wide web i par icular si ce he has bee as o ishi g. Wi h he help of ools like web browsers, he i er e was ra s­formed i jus four years from a arca e sys em li ki g mos ly academic i s i u io s i o a global ra spor sys em wi h 50m users. oday, ha figure has swolle o abou 160m a d es i­ma es for he elec ro ic com­merce ha i e ables are pushed up almos weekly. Accordi g o he la es Gold-ma Sachs i er e repor , he busi ess- o-busi ess e-commerce marke alo e will grow o Јl,500b i 2004, up from $114b his year a d vir ually o hi g wo years ago. wo i er-rela ed ech ologies have bee drivi g hese cha ges: semico duc ors a d e work commu ica io s. For more ha 25 years, semi­co duc or developme has broadly followed he dic um of &quo ;Moore's Law&quo ; laid dow by Gor­do Moore, co-fou der of I el. his s a es ha he capaci y of semico duc or chips will double every 18 mo hs, or expressed a differe way, ha he price of compu i g power will halve every 18 mo hs. Moore's Law is expec ed o hold rue for a leas a o her decade bu arou d 20l2 scie is s believe semico duc or desig ers will ru i o some physical (a omic) roadblocks as hey co i ue o shri k he size of he compo e s a d li es e ched o o of silico chips. A ha s age, some compu er scie is s believe i will be ecessary o look for al er a ives o silico -based compu i g. Research i o ew ma erials a d compu er archi ec ures is mos ly focusi g o he po e ial of qua um compu i g. Mea while, he deadli e keeps bei g pushed back by improveme s o exis i g processes. A he same ime, here have bee big leaps i commu ica io s ech ologies a d, i par icular, fibre op ics a d IP-based sys ems. oday, o e s ra d of Qwes 's US e work ca carry all or h America's elecoms raffic a d i a few years, he same s ra d of glass fibre will be able o carry all he world's e work raffic. &quo ;We are goi g o have so much ba dwid h, we are o goi g- o k ow wha o do wi h i ,&quo ; says Joh Pa rick vice preside of i er e ech ology a IBM. &quo ;I am very op imis ic abou he fu ure.&quo ; He believes his elecoms capaci y will e able he crea io of a wide ra ge of i er e -based ew services i cludi g digi al video a d dis ribu ed s orage a d medical sys ems.

We position the words "GRID CRAZY" at 207 on the x axis (center on the screen) and 24 on the y-axis (up and down). We use our large font by selecting font set 0. After we've drawn "GRID CRAZY" to the screen, we change the color to yellow (full red, full green). We write "Level:" and the variable level2 to the screen. Remember that level2 can be greater than 3. level2 holds the level value that the player sees on the screen. %2i means that we don't want any more than 2 digits on the screen to represent the level. The i means the number is an integer number. After we have written the level information to the screen, we write the stage information right under it using the same color. int DrawGLScene(GLvoid) // Here's Where We Do All The Drawing {  glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); // Clear Screen And Depth Buffer  glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); // Select Our Font Texture  glColor3f(1.0f,0.5f,1.0f); // Set Color To Purple  glPrint(207,24,0,"GRID CRAZY"); // Write GRID CRAZY On The Screen  glColor3f(1.0f,1.0f,0.0f); // Set Color To Yellow  glPrint(20,20,1,"Level:%2i",level2); // Write Actual Level Stats  glPrint(20,40,1,"Stage:%2i",stage); // Write Stage Stats Now we check to see if the game is over

1. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

2. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

3. My modern image of the United States

4. The fastest computers of the world

5. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

6. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
7. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
8. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

9. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

10. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

11. The Taming of the Shrew

12. History of the USA

13. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

14. Problems of the youth

15. Discovery of the New World

16. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

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Корзина "Плетенка" с крышкой, 35х29х17,5 см (коричневая).
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Увлекательная настольная игра "Цветариум", новая версия.
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712 руб
Раздел: Карточные игры

17. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

18. Washington is the capital of the USA

19. The pride of the nation

20. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

21. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

22. Historical Background of the Middle English Period
Historical Background of the Middle English Period
23. Lexicology of the English Language
Lexicology of the English Language
24. Survival of the Welsh Language
Survival of the Welsh Language

25. The war of the roses

26. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

27. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

28. Prominent People of the Belarus

29. The making of the collection

30. For the Beauty of the Earth

31. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

32. Giza, Wonder of the World

Настольная игра "Тайны моря".
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Пенал "Fairy" с наполнением.
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1142 руб
Раздел: С наполнением
Настольная игра "Уве Розенберга Пэчворк".
Настольная игра "Пэчворк" - одна из лучших абстрактных игр в мире. На протяжении игры участники составляют полотно из отдельных
900 руб
Раздел: Классические игры

33. The development of the Tower

34. Second period of the Renaissance.

35. The Taming of the Shrew

36. Population of the UK

37. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

38. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language
A (Very) Brief History of the English Language
39. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)
Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)
40. Algorithmic recognition of the Verb
Algorithmic recognition of the Verb

41. Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

42. Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children

43. Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words

44. Economy of the United States

45. Industrial development of the African countries

46. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

47. Sport in different countries of the world

48. Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary

Шкатулка музыкальная "Сердце", 20x19x8 см, арт. 24804.
Состав: пластик, элементы металла, стекло. Регулярно удалять пыль сухой, мягкой тканью. Музыкальный механизм с ручным заводом. Товар не
1027 руб
Раздел: Шкатулки музыкальные
Магнитная игра для путешествий "Подводный мир".
Расположи 4 магнитные детали на игровой доске таким образом, чтобы только указанные в задании обитатели подводного мира остались видны.
554 руб
Раздел: Головоломки
Игра настольная "Дом с привидениями".
Эта веселая соревновательная ролевая игра предназначенна для 2 игроков в возрасте от 5 до 10 лет. Один из них играет за команду из 7
314 руб
Раздел: Классические игры

49. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

50. The history of grammatical study of the English language

51. The origin and history of the English language

52. The outline of the period

53. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

54. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
55. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)
56. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

57. Division of the sentence into phrases

58. Intellectual history of the Europe

59. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

60. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

61. The Tax System of the United States

62. The basic features of translation informal lexicon

63. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

64. The Economy of Great Britain

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342 руб
Раздел: Для посудомоечных машин
Музыкальный коврик "На ферме".
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681 руб
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Швабра для пола, с отжимом.
Швабра может использоваться для мытья пола, стен и окон. Пригодна для чистки ковров. Моющая губка - 27 см. Ручка - телескопическая, длина
331 руб
Раздел: Швабры и наборы

65. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

66. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

67. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

68. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

69. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

70. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation
Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation
71. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)
72. The Tower of London
The Tower of London

73. The Economy of Great Britain

74. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

75. The History of English

76. The profile of an effective manager

77. The Tower of London

78. The Hero of Our Time

79. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

80. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

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464 руб
Раздел: 13-24 цвета
Говорящий планшетик "Сказочка", 19x24 см.
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513 руб
Раздел: Планшеты и компьютеры
Подгузники Huggies Elite Soft, (1), до 5 кг, 84 штуки.
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879 руб
Раздел: 0-5 кг

81. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

82. The role of art in our life

83. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

84. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

85. Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles

86. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?
87. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)
88. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

89. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

90. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

91. The practice of modern medicine


93. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

94. The United States of America

95. London - the capital of Great Britain

96. The History of Moscow

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620 руб
Раздел: Сковороды гриль
Мотоцикл-каталка 2-х колесный, полицейский.
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1700 руб
Раздел: Каталки
Этикетки самоклеящиеся "ProMEGA Label", белые, 210х297 мм, 1 штука на листе А4.
Самоклеящиеся этикетки подходят для печати на лазерных, струйных принтерах и копировальных аппаратах. При хранении листы с этикетками не
792 руб
Раздел: Бейджи, держатели, этикетки

97. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”

98. The United States Of America

99. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

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