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Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

French Borrowings in the Modern English Language

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ Учреждение образования &quo ;Гомельский государственный университет имени Франциска Скорины&quo ; Факультет иностранных языков Кафедра теории и практики английского языкаFre ch Borrowi gs i he Moder E glish La guage Курсовая работаИсполнитель: студент группы Векшин П.А. Научный руководитель: Лобанкова Т.А.Гомель 2006 Co e sI roduc io Fre ch borrowi gs i he moder e glish la guage Co clusio Biblography I roduc io A foreig la guage is o jus a subjec lear i he classroom i is some hi g which is used for commu ica io by real people i real si ua io s.We live i Belarus a d our a ive la guage is Belarusia . Almos all he words are a ive i our la guage. Bu some of hem are borrowed from o her la guages, hough hey go heir mea i gs, spelli g, accordi g o he Belarusia la guage. I have bee lear i g E glish si ce he firs form, so E glish is he hird la guage i which I ca commu ica e a li le. Si ce he six h form I bega o s udy Germa , compari g pro u cia io s of he words, grammar rules, spelli g i became easier for me o lear hese la guages. A d I am sure ha i is easier o lear several la guages compari g hem. Las year I ook par i he research work a d I go a deeper k owledge of borrowi gs i E glish la guage. A d his year I decided o deepe my k owledge i his heme oo. So oday we would like o prese you more i forma io abou borrowi gs i E glish la guage. his heme sou ds i eres i g for us a d we guess you will be i eres ed i i oo. A i er a io al vocabulary i a y la guage cha ges due o he developme of eco omy, scie ce, educa io e c. Every hi g depe ds o ime. he same is i E glish. he purpose of our research work is o s udy Fre ch borrowi gs i he moder E glish la guage. he purpose has defi ed he followi g asks: ry o highligh he oldes words borrowed from Fre ch; compare u ique domi a io of widespread la guages i a cer ai epoch; show ha E glish is ow he mos widespread of he word's la guages; discer he i flue ce of he Fre ch la guage i he early moder period; compare he sou d of &quo ; orma E glish&quo ; of he middle ages a d he moder varia . Fre ch borrowi gs i he moder e glish la guageE glish is a Germa ic La guage of he I do-Europea Family. I is he seco d mos spoke la guage i he world. I is es ima ed ha here are 300 millio a ive speakers a d 300 millio who use E glish as a seco d la guage a d a fur her 100 millio use i as a foreig la guage. I is he la guage of scie ce, avia io , compu i g, diplomacy, a d ourism. I is lis ed as he official or co-official la guage of over 45 cou ries a d is spoke ex e sively i o her cou ries where i has o official s a us. his domi a io is u ique i his ory. E glish is o i s way o becomi g he world's u official i er a io al la guage. Ma dari (Chi ese) is spoke by more people, bu E glish is ow he mos widespread of he world's la guages. Half of all busi ess deals are co duc ed i E glish. wo hirds of all scie ific papers are wri e i E glish. Over 70% of all pos / mail is wri e a d addressed i E glish. Mos i er a io al ourism, avia io a d diplomacy are co duc ed i E glish. E glish co ai s ma y words from orma Fre ch, brough o E gla d duri g he 11 h ce ury orma Co ques .

I 1066 he orma s co quered Bri ai . Fre ch became he la guage of he orma aris ocracy a d added more vocabulary o E glish. More pairs of similar words arose. able 1. Fre ch-E glish bili guism Fre ch E glish close shu reply a swer odour smell a ual yearly dema d ask chamber room desire wish power migh ire wra h / a ger Because he E glish u derclass cooked for he orma upper class, he words for mos domes ic a imals are E glish (ox, cow, calf, sheep, swi e, deer) while he words for he mea s derived from hem are Fre ch (beef, veal, mu o , pork, baco , ve iso ). he Germa ic form of plurals (house, house ; shoe, shoe ) was eve ually displaced by he Fre ch me hod of maki g plurals: addi g a s (house, houses; shoe, shoes). O ly a few words have re ai ed heir Germa ic plurals: me , oxe , fee , ee h, childre . I was ' ill he 14 h Ce ury ha E glish became domi a i Bri ai agai . I 1399, Ki g He ry IV became he firs ki g of E gla d si ce he orma Co ques whose mo her o gue was E glish. By he e d of he 14 h Ce ury, he dialec of Lo do had emerged as he s a dard dialec of wha we ow call Middle E glish. Chaucer wro e i his la guage. Moder E glish bega arou d he 16 h Ce ury a d, like all la guages, is s ill cha gi g. O e cha ge occurred whe he suffix of some verb forms became s (love h, loves; ha h, has). Auxiliary verbs also cha ged (he is rise , he has rise ). orma Fre ch is he 11 h ce ury la guage of Fra ce a d E gla d. I is a I do-Europea la guage. I 1066, he orma ki g, William he Co queror, i vaded E gla d. Ma y orma Fre ch words e ered he la guage af er his. I ge eral, he orma s were he obili y, while he a ive E glish were heir serva s. he ames of domes ic a imals a d heir mea s show his rela io ship. he a imal ame is E glish (&quo ;cow&quo ;, &quo ;sheep&quo ;, &quo ;pig&quo ;) while he ames of he mea s derived from hese a imals is Fre ch (&quo ;beef&quo ;, &quo ;mu o &quo ;, &quo ;pork&quo ;). able 2. E glish - A His orical Summary Ma y words have bee borrowed from orma Fre ch. hese ca be grouped i o several ypes: legal erms (&quo ;adul ery&quo ;, &quo ;sla der&quo ;), mili ary words (&quo ;surre der&quo ;, &quo ;occupy&quo ;), ames of mea s (&quo ;baco &quo ;, &quo ;ve iso &quo ;), words from he royal cour (&quo ;chivalry&quo ;, &quo ;majes y&quo ;). he o -me ric u i of volume ( he &quo ;gallo &quo ;) is orma Fre ch. here are ma y o her words. he orma s i roduced he QU spelli g for words co ai i g KW (&quo ;ques io &quo ;). able 3. Fre ch borrowi gs Word Mea i g o es accuse O e of ma y legal words from orma Fre ch. adul ery archer O e of several mili ary words from orma Fre ch. arso Crime of delibera e bur i g. assaul asse e ough baco Cured pig's mea . O e of ma y ames for mea s from orma Fre ch. bail o ake charge Securi y for a priso er's appeara ce. bailiff carrier Officer who execu es wri s. beef Mea of ox or cow. bu cher seller of goa flesh A dealer i mea . bu o chivalry horsema O e of ma y words used i royal life from orma Fre ch. comfor s re g he cour esy cricke A ball game played i he UK, Caribbea , par s of Africa a d Asia, Aus ralia, ew Zeala d.

crime judgme curfew cover fire Period o be off he s ree s. cus ard Baked mix ure of eggs a d milk. defea du geo U dergrou d priso . du y eagle Large bird of prey. elope ru away embezzle ravage e emy o frie d error evide ce exchequer A a io al reasury. fashio make felo y A serious crime. fraud gallo jug A u i of liquid volume (= 4.546 Ч 10-3 m3 i UK; = 3.785 Ч 10-3 m3 i USA) gobli gourd grammar ar of le ers grease fa grief grocer Food dealer. Origi ally &quo ;o e who deals i he gross&quo ;. gu er drop rack for wa er. haddock A ype of fish. havoc hogma ay ow a Sco ish fes ival a ew Year. ho our i jury wro g Wro gful ac io or damage. je iso hrow overboard joy judge righ speaki g jury swear jus ice larce y he crime of hef . lave der Perfumed shrub. lau ch hurl lease leave leisure allowed Free ime. lever o raise liable may be bou d libel li le book liber y free liquorice swee roo Origi ally from a Greek roo , &quo ;glico riza&quo ;. mackerel A ype of fish. majes y ma gle ma or remai marriage ma rimo y From he same roo as &quo ;ma riarch&quo ; (mo her). mayhem mu o Mea of sheep. oble ou ame urse ourish occupy seize odour smell parliame speaki g Ruli g cou cil i cou ries like UK. pedigree cra e's foo From &quo ;pe de gru&quo ;. Because bird's fee marks resemble a family ree. pe house perjury False s a eme u der oa h. pi ch As i &quo ;grip igh ly&quo ;. pla er big pla e pleasure pocke small bag pork he mea of he pig. priso lay hold of profou d deep purloi pu away purveyor Supplier of food. push quar er he orma s i roduced he QU spelli g for he KW sou d. ques io quie quiver he arrow case. rape ake by force reaso rebuke Origi ally &quo ; o cu dow wood&quo ;. rebu recover remedy o heal re ow o make famous re he same roo as &quo ;re der&quo ;. repeal reprieve se d back reprisal re ail piece cu off reward river robe royal rummage salary sal Soldiers used o be paid wi h sal . salmo A ype of fish. scave ger ax collec or scullery maker of dishes search sermo sewer Origi ally a cha el o carry off overflow from a fishpo d. share shop cobbler's s all sir From &quo ;sire&quo ;. sla der soil sovereig spaw spy squirrel li le shadow ail s ubble grai s alks subsidy suppor sui or sur ame Family ame. surplus surre der survey survive over live syllable ally mark o a s ick ally s icks were used o record fi a cial ra sac io s. ax o charge oil s ir reaso rea y u cle usher door keeper valley veal veil ve iso o hu Deer mea vicar assis a vice view virgi vul ure Large bird of prey. wafer waive warde Same roo as &quo ;guardia &quo ;. wicke ga e Woode s icks used i he game of cricke . wreck he Fre ch La guage i E gla d 1066-1200 orma Fre ch is he a ive la guage of he obili y. Probably o a grea deal of bili gualism Small umbers of Fre ch loa s e er E glish: legal, admi is ra ive a d mili ary erms. 1200-1300 1204 Loss of orma dy. Fre ch is he cul iva ed, pres ige la guage. here is a diag os ic si ua io , wi h Fre ch he high-pres ige, E glish he low-pres ige varie y. orma Fre ch has los i s s a us, a d Parisia Fre ch as he preferred orm. Large umbers of Fre ch loa s e er E glish.

Roman numerals? Forget iti-And make room instead for new and valuable material. But do we dare forget things? Why not? We've forgot ten much; more than you imagine. Our troubles stem not from the fact that we've forgotten, but that we remember too well; we don't forget enough. A great deal of Pike's book consists of material we have imperfectly forgotten. That is why the modern arithmetic book is shorter than Pike. And if we could but perfectly forget, the modern arithmetic book could grow still shorter. For instance, Pike devotes many pages to tables-pre sumably important tables that he thought the reader ought to be familiar with. His fifth table is labeled "cloth meas ure.29 Did you know that 2% inches make a "nail"? Well, they do. And 16 nails make a yard; while 12 nails make an ell. No, wait a while. Those 12 nails (27 inches) make a Flemish ell. It takes 20 nails (45 inches) to make an English ell, and 24 nails (54 inches) to make a French ell. Then, 16 nails plus 1% inches (371/5 inches) make a Scotch ell

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3. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

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6. Lexicology. Word structure in Modern English
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60. The weather in Great Britain

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73. English in business

74. Homonyms in English and their specific features

75. Problem of meaning ambiguity in a language

76. Sport in different countries of the world

77. Syntax and semantics of verbals in English

78. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

79. The Language of Narrative Writing

80. The system of English verbs

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83. Спецподразделения Армии Израиля: "Голани" (Special forces in Army of Israel Golani)

84. The great Britain

85. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

86. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
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87. Luther Martin in krestjanskoy voyne w Germanii
88. Two approches to the scientific management
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89. Democracy in Russia

90. The Church of England

91. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

92. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

93. История развития компьютеров (Silicon Valley, its history & the best companies)

94. Small business lending in Kazakhstan (предоставление кредитов малому бизнесу в Казахстане)

95. AIDS IN AFRICA (СПИД в Африке)

96. American Federalism in 1990s

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97. Business relation ships in japan

98. Education in Moscow school

99. English topics

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