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Aral Sea - What Was and What Is

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Si ce he very begi i g of i s exis e ce, he huma bei g has bee developi g.  I has ever s opped, a d i ever will.  Duri g he las couple of ce uries i has bee developi g very aggressively, a d i has reached reme dous achieveme s i all fields.  U for u a ely ma ki d has achieved reme dous success i pollu i g i s e viro me also.  owadays, a ure is missi g ma y of i s i habi a s: – hose who are supposed o be u der he pro ec io of huma s as you g bro hers a d sis ers. Pollu io was he reaso for heir ex i c io . Fi ally, he huma i y s ar ed payi g more a e io o wha surrou ds i .  I s ar ed hi ki g abou he fu ure, i s fu ure ge era io s, a d he i heri a ce o hese ge era io s.   People have s ar ed aski g hemselves more of e ques io s like, “Wha will we have lef o o her childre af er us?”  Curre ly, huma i y has ple y of global e viro me al problems ha i has o ake care of ow.  omorrow will be oo la e.  Some of hese global e viro me al problems are global warmi g, defores a io , freshwa er co ami a io , des ruc io of ozo e layer of he ear h, pollu io of space orbi of he ear h by par s of used equipme .  Desicca io of he Aral Sea is o e of he i ems o he lis .  he Aral Sea, which is also co sidered o be a lake or I la d Sea i Ce ral Asia, is loca ed i sou hwes er Kazaks a a d or hwes er Uzbekis a , ear he Caspia Sea.  he Aral has o ou le .  he Aral Sea is s ill lis ed as he four h larges lake i he world.  Bu i has bee shri ki g for decades, a d he s a is ics migh cha ge.  I ime he Aral Sea may o he four h larges lake i he world a ymore. owadays, wo major problems have rise before he gover me s of Uzbekis a a d Kazaks a ; he desicca io a d as a resul of his hrea of he comple e disappeara ce of he sea, a d he da ger of he broad ex e sio of a hrax bac eria ha was s ored by he Sovie Army Vozrozde ia Isla d. I compariso wi h he size of he sea i he 1960’s, he Sea has decli ed i size by seve y-six perce .  he i i ial reaso for he Aral’s decli e is he fac ha Sovie pla ers diver ed wa er from Aral’s wo big feedi g rivers (Amu Darya a d Syr Darya) i o co o fields i he erri ory of Uzbekis a . Because of his irriga io , he sea is ow seve y miles away from i s former ba k (i some places eve more).  i e y perce of he Syr Daya’s wa er is diver ed i o ca als a d reservoirs.  Millio s of people i Ce ral Asia rely o he rivers for a livelihood.  Uzbekis a , for i s a ce, ge era es we y-eigh perce of i s hard curre cy from co o irriga ed wi h river wa er ( he Aral Sea, Pla i g he irriga io sys em, he Sovie pla ers were o ly af er high ra es of co o harves s.  U wise use of wa er has led o he curre s a e of he Aral Sea.    he sal co e of he Sea’s wa ers i creased by abou hreefold, adversely affec i g pla a d a imal life a d causi g he fishi g i dus ry o decli e. he disappeara ce of he sea as a par of he ecosys em is jus o e problem ha is followed by hu dreds of subseque problems.  O e of hem has already rise : he dryi g of he sea has lef behi d hree millio hec ares of desicca ed seabed, covered wi h accumula ed sal s which he wi d carries away a d deposi s over housa ds of square kilome ers of arable la d ur i g he la d i o dead o es. 

O e ca see whi e ridges amid he soil i he field.  Sal y dus from he dried ou la d blows i squalls hrough he area, causi g discomfor a d respira ory problems.  Wi d bri gs more ha a hu dred o s of sal y dus per square mile o he regio every year.   As a resul of his, rees do o bear frui a y more.  he Aral Sea’s desicca io has a i flue ce o every hi g ha is arou d i .  he clima e i he regio has cha ged sig ifica ly; he wi ers are eve colder, summers are eve ho er. he sea was o o ly he wa er supply for he popula io , bu i was he source of heir i come.    A large par of he popula io was i volved i fishi g a d resor i dus ries.   ow, ha he Sea is far away, hese busi esses are o lo ger available, a d ha leads o de eriora io of he fi a cial si ua io of he people i he area.  “I ci y of Muy ak, he hree hu dred-vessel flee o ce employed a housa d fisherme .  I is ow a collec io of rus i g hulls half-buried amid he du es o he edge of ow .  Ye he six y-year-old ca i g fac ory s ill cla ers, all s eam a d s e ch, al hough i s seve hu dred workers ha dle fish brough by lorry from he lakes arou d ashke , o e housa d miles away” (Reeves, he Sea Sick ess). he sea has ur ed from a rich fishi g grou d o a prairie of poiso dus .  Desicca io has a grea deal of i flue ce o he popula io ’s heal h; he cha ge i e viro me has sig ifica ly i creased ra es of bir h defec s, i fa mor ali y, ca cers, mal u ri io , respira ory diseases, a d he a emia suffered by almos all wome of child-beari g age. Mal u ri io has rise sharply; fish is o lo ger a par of he people’s daily die .  A o her side effec imposed o he popula io is a drama ically i creased ra e of uberculosis i he area.  O e of he causes of heal h de eriora io is ha over hree decades he wa er could o or barely could make i o he Aral Sea.  he Aral’s wa er co ai s a lo of pes icides.  he pes icides sa k o he bo om of he lake.  As he lake dried up, his layer of pes icide became exposed o he wi d, which blows i away o he o her la ds. he par ial solu io for he problem is o build a dam o keep wa er from flowi g i o he larger, sou her por io .  Pla s call for he s ruc ure’s base o be 150 yards wide.  If mo ey is fou d for he co s ruc io , he wa er level of he or her sea will rise o he same level i was i 1960’s.  As a resul of he co s ruc io , sali a io of he sea will decrease.  his fac migh co ribu e o res ora io of fishi g a d resor i dus ries. For he popula io of his regio , he dam is a rare ray of hope. If he dam holds o he small sea, a microclima e will be res ored here.  he heal h of people will improve a d i will be good for he eco omy. Calcula io s by he Kazak Academy of Scie ce i Alma y, he cou ry’s mai commercial ci y, sugges he e ire sea migh disappear by 2010 wi hou he dam.  Curre ly he or her Sea is o e-six h as large as he sou her por io .  If he surface area is reduced, less wa er will evapora e. he full damage caused ca o be repaired, bu i ca be s opped from goi g a y fur her. he seco d hrea o he Aral Sea a d i s i habi a s is a hrax bac eria s ored 1988 by he Sovie Army.  he Army was ryi g o ge rid of i s germ weapo s a d s ored he bac eria o o e of he Aral’s isla ds. 

Soldiers dug large pi s a d poured a mix ure of a hrax bac eria a d bleach.  he bleach was supposed o kill he bac eria, bu i did o .  Eve wi h he passage of ime, he bac eria s ay alive.  ow, he Sea is dryi g ou a d his isla d ca become a par of la d.  his fac carries he hrea ha a hrax bac eria ca be exposed o a mosphere o e day, a d i will become a very serious da ger o bo h cou ries.  A his ime, bo h gover me s i coopera io wi h he U i ed S a es are u der aki g ac io s i order o preve he ex e sio of he bac eria.  Over he wo las ce uries ma y of Ear h’s i habi a s became ex i c as a resul of e viro me al pollu io .  I is ime o s op i ; o herwise he ex ex i c i habi a migh ur ou o be huma i y i self.  Works ci ed R.J. Be e a d R.J.Chorley.  “E viro me al Sys ems.”  Pri ce o :  Pri ce o U iversi y Press, 1978 Sulva J.Kapla , Ph.D. Evely Kivy – Rose berg, Ph.D.  “Ecology a d he Quali y of Life.”  Illi ois:  Publisher spri g field, 1973 A drew, Goudie. “ he Huma Impac .”  Cambridge, Massachuse s: he MI Press, 1981 Joh , Passmore. “Ma ’s Respo sobili y for a ure.”  ew York: Charles Scrib er’s So s, 1974 Robi , Bu lim A, a d eil Rober s.  “Ecological Rela io s i His orical imes.” Lo do :  he I s i u e of Bri ish Geographers, 1985. Sue Loyd-Robers.  “Kazakhs S ruggle o Refill heir Los Sea; Drai i g he Aral Des royed a Way of Life.”  ewspaper Publishi g PLC, Lo do : he I depe de .  Phill, Reeves “ he Sea Sick ess.”  ewspaper Publishi g PLC, Lo do : he I depe de , March 6, 1999. Graham, Hugles. “Scie is s Figh o Save he Aral Sea: Desappeari g Lake Wa ers Leave Disease, Pover y i Wake.”  Sou ha I c.  he O awa Ci ize ,  Ja uary 30, 1999. Ga iel, Williams.  “ he Si ki g Sea; Dike Spli i g Kazakhs a ’s Aral Dims Hopes for I s Salva io .”  he Washi g o Pos , ovember 1, 1998.  he Aral Sea.   www.sou hamp o .ac.uk/%7Ee ge vir/wa er /aral.sea.h ml he Aral Sea.   Wa er Fea ures a d Wa er Issues: Aral Sea.   Childre ’s Respo se o he Aral Sea Problem 

Seas are not level at all. Tides, winds, the Coriolis force, and other effects alter water levels considerably from one ocean to another and within oceans as well. The Pacific is about a foot and a half higher along its western edge-a consequence of the centrifugal force created by the EarthБЂ™s spin. Just as when you pull on a tub of water the water tends to flow toward the other end, as if reluctant to come with you, so the eastward spin of Earth piles water up against the oceanБЂ™s western margins. Considering the age-old importance of the seas to us, it is striking how long it took the world to take a scientific interest in them. Until well into the nineteenth century most of what was known about the oceans was based on what washed ashore or came up in fishing nets, and nearly all that was written was based more on anecdote and supposition than on physical evidence. In the 1830s, the British naturalist Edward Forbes surveyed ocean beds throughout the Atlantic and Mediterranean and declared that there was no life at all in the seas below 2,000 feet


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