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The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

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Federal Age cy o educa io S a e educa io al i s i u io of voca io al rai i g College of Op ics a d Elec ro ics Diploma paper « he problems of he Subju c ive Mood i E glish» Kras ogorsk 2007 Федеральное агентство по образованию по образованию Государственное образовательное учреждение среднего профессионального образования Красногорский оптико-электронный колледж Дипломная работа «Проблемы сослагательного наклонения в английском языке» Красногорск 2007 Co e s Preface 1. he Subju c ive Mood? 1.1 Foreig li guis s’ specula io s abou he Subju c ive Mood 1.2 he Subju c ive Mood from he poi of view of he represe a ives of he Russia li guis ic school 2. he mai cases of he use of he Subju c ive Mood i E glish 3. he use of he Subju c ive Mood i he works of E glish a d America wri ers Co clusio Bibliography Preface here are ma y co roversial a d o horoughly i ves iga ed poi s i he E glish grammar. ever heless, i my opi io o e of he mos difficul a d o clear bo h from he poi of view of i s defi i io a d descrip io a d from he poi of view of i s prac ical impleme a io i speech is he subjec of he Subju c ive Mood. Eve he ame of his gramma ical ca egory seems ambiguous i erm of i s bei g approached a d charac erized by differe ou s a di g li guis s i our cou ry a d abroad. o wo der his problem could ’ bu arise my curiosi y a d la guage i eres . I have made up my mi d o co sider he ma erial compiled o his problem i differe sources o clear up he poi for myself a d o have a be er idea abou he usage of he Subju c ive Mood i speech. I will lear more i forma io abou poi s of views of E glish a d Russia grammaria s. I is very i eres i g for me o k ow how E glish li guis s u ders a d problem of he Subju c ive Mood a d wha way Russia o es do i . I will also i roduce he mos impor a poi of my diploma paper – he usage of he Subju c ive Mood. I wa o lear i wha cases we should use he Subju c ive Mood. hus he objec of my paper is he Subju c ive Mood i self. he subjec of my diploma paper is he Subju c ive Mood i he works of foreig a d Russia grammar schools as well as he mai cases of he Subju c ive Mood usage. he aim of my diploma paper is o compare differe approaches o he problem of he Subju c ive Mood wi h he purpose of i ves iga i g he ma erial available for me abou he Subju c ive Mood from E glish a d Russia sources. My diploma paper co sis s of hree chap ers: i he 1s chap er I co sider differe approaches o he Subju c ive Mood u ders a di g bo h i our cou ry a d abroad. I he 2 d chap er I prese he mai cases of he Subju c ive Mood use a d perform he resul s ob ai ed. here is a co clusio oo. o wri e my diploma paper I used he works of he ou s a di g E glish grammaria s, such as: H. Swee , G.O. Curme, O. Jesperse a d Russia scholars: V. Kausha skaya, V. Vi ogradov. You ca see he ames of heir works i he lis of li era ure, o page 25, a d he i forma io from I er e . he 3d chap er represe s my prac ical co ribu io i o he problem of he Subju c ive Mood. I his chap er I a alyze he use of he Subju c ive Mood by some E glish a d America wri ers a d draw he co clusio based o he ma erial collec ed.

he li erary sources are give as suppleme ary ma erial af er Bibliography. 1. he Subju c ive Mood? Foreig li guis s’ specula io s abou he Subju c ive Mood As we shall fur her see here is o u i y o he Subju c ive Mood amo g he world famous foreig grammaria s. I would like o dwell o he views of he mos ou s a di g li guis s. By he moods of a verb H. Swee i his work «A ew E glish Grammar (Par I)» u ders a ds gramma ical forms expressi g differe rela io s be wee subjec a d predica e. hus, if a la guage has special forms o express comma ds as dis i guished from s a eme s, we i clude he forms ha express comma d u der he erm «impera ive mood». hus i E glish come! is i he impera ive mood, while he s a eme he comes is i he «i dica ive» mood. I E glish he o ly i flec io al moods are he i dica ive a d subju c ive. Bu he i flec io s of he E glish verb are so sca y ha we eed o be surprised o fi d ha he dis i c io be wee i dica ive a d subju c ive is very sligh . he o ly regular i flec io by which he subju c ive is dis i guished from he i dica ive i E glish is ha of he hird perso si gular prese , which drops he s of he i dica ive (he sees) i he subju c ive (he see). I he verb o be, however, fur her dis i c io s are made: i dica ive I am, he is, he was, subju c ive I be, he be, he were, al hough i he spoke la guage he o ly dis i c io ha is s ill kep us is ha be wee was a d were. Co seque ly he se se of he dis i c io i fu c io be wee subju c ive a d i dica ive has almos died ou i E glish, a d use he subju c ive were o ly i combi a io wi h o her mood-forms, he o her subju c ive i flec io s survivi g o ly i a few special phrases a d co s ruc io s, such as God, save he Quee !, where he subju c ive expresses wish, bei g hus equivale o he Greek op a ive. he few dis i c io ha E glish makes be wee fac -s a eme s a d hough -s a eme s are mai ly expressed, o by i flec io s, bu by auxiliaries (periphras ic moods), a d by peculiar uses of e se-dis i c io s. he followi g are he auxiliary forms: he combi a io of should a d would wi h he i fi i ive – he co di io al mood. he combi a io of may a d i s pre eri e migh wi h he i fi i ive is called he permissive mood. he combi a io of he fi i e forms of he verb o be wi h he supi e is called compulsive mood. We use e ses o express hough -s a eme s i he hypo he ical clauses of co di io al se e ces, as i if I k ew his address I would wri e him; if i were possible I would do i . I he la er example he hypo hesis is show o o ly by he pre eri e e se, bu also by he subju c ive i flec io , which is really superfluous. Whe a hough -s a eme is expressed by a e se i his way, H. Swee calls i a e se-mood. Were i if i were is a subju c ive e se-mood. As we see, i some co di io al se e ces all hree ways of expressi g hough -s a eme are used. G.O. Curme i he work «A Grammar of he E glish La guage» co siders moods as he cha ges i he form of he verb o show he various ways i which he ac io or s a e is hough of by he speaker. here are wo moods: I dica ive Mood. his form represe s some hi g as a fac , or as i close rela io wi h reali y, or i i erroga ive form i quires af er a fac .

Subju c ive Mood. he fu c io of he subju c ive mood is o represe some hi g, o as a ac ual reali y, bu as formed i he mi d of he speaker as a desire, wish, voli io , pla , co cep io , hough ; some hi g wi h more or less hope of realiza io , or, i he case of a s a eme , wi h more or less belief, some imes wi h li le or o hope or fai h. he various mea i gs may be classified u der wo ge eral heads – he op a ive subju c ive a d he po e ial subju c ive. he op a ive subju c ive represe s some hi g as desired, dema ded, required. he po e ial subju c ive marks some hi g as a mere co cep io of he mi d, bu a he same ime represe s i as some hi g ha may probably be or become a reali y or o he o her ha d as some hi g ha is co rary o fac . H. Whi ehall i he work «S ruc ural Esse ials of E glish» says ha Mood (or mode) es ablishes he speaker’s or wri er’s mood abou he ac uali y of a happe i g. he i dica ive mood i dica es ha wha he says mus be regarded as a fac , i.e., as havi g occurred or as occurri g; he so-called subju c ive mood implies ha he is doub ful or u cer ai abou i s occurre ce. Al hough he subju c ive is gradually dyi g ou of he la guage, E glish is rich i devices for expressi g o e’s psychological moods oward happe i gs ha are imagi ary. Our appara us for expressi g mood sugges s ha i he use of verb word-groups, he speaker’s or wri er’s me al a i udes are of grea impor a ce. Ma y grammaria s e umera e he followi g moods i E glish, e c.: i dica ive, subju c ive, impera ive, i fi i ive, a d par iciple. O. Jesperse as i ca be see from « he Philosophy of Grammar» co siders ha i fi i ives a d par iciples ca o be coordi a ed wi h he o hers, a d we shall herefore i his chap er deal wi h he firs hree moods o ly. hese are some imes called fac -mood, hough -mood, a d will-mood respec ively. Bu hey do o express differe rela io s be wee subjec a d predica e. I is much more correc o say ha hey express cer ai a i udes of he mi d of he speaker owards he co e s of he se e ce. O. Jesperse i his work «A moder E glish Grammar» prese s forms of he Subju c ive Mood i he able: For expressi g u real ac io , simul a eous or pla i g ac io owards ow For expressi g u real ac io , pas owards ow I. I should he, she, i would do we should be doi g you would be do e hey would II. I he, she, i do we would be doi g you be do e hey III. I he, she, i do we should be doi g you be do e hey IV. I he, she, i we be, did, were you hey should would have do e should have bee doi g would have bee doi g would have do e would have bee doi g have bee doi g have do e should have bee doi g have bee doi g had bee had do e he Subju c ive Mood from he poi of view of he represe a ives of he Russia li guis ic school he ca egory of mood i he prese E glish verb has give rise o so ma y discussio s, a d has bee rea ed i so ma y differe ways, ha i seems hardly possible o arrive a a y more or less co vi ci g a d u iversally accep able co clusio co cer i g i . I deed, he o ly poi s i he sphere of mood which have o so far bee dispu ed seem o be hese: here is a ca egory of mood i Moder E glish; here are a leas wo moods i he moder E glish verb, o e of which is he Subju c ive.

At all hazard, he was determined to show that he was boss. We remained there more than two hours, my involuntary host pausing now and then in his telegraphing to entertain me with the latest political gossip. Djavid, the Minister of Finance, he said, had resigned, but had promised to work for them at home. The Grand Vizier, despite his threats, had been persuaded to retain his office. Foreigners in the interior would not be molested unless Beirut, Alexandretta, or some unfortified port were bombarded, but, if such attacks were made, they would exact reprisals of the French and English. Talaat's conversation showed that he had no particular liking for the Germans. They were overbearing and insolent, he said, constantly interfering in military matters and treating the Turks with disdain. Finally the train was arranged. Talaat had shown several moods in this interview; he had been by turns sulky, good-natured, savage, and complaisant. There is one phase of the Turkish character which Westerners do not comprehend and that is its keen sense of humour

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