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Historical Background of the Middle English Period

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“”Pla . he problem of periodiza io . he role of he Middle E glish Period i he his ory of E glish la guage. he i flue ce of he Sca di avia i vasio s. he orma Co ques . Early Middle E glish dialec s. eighborhood of hree la guages i E gla d. Wri e records of he M. E. P. La e M. E. P. Developme of E glish dialec s a d he rise of Lo do dialec . he his orical developme of a la guage is a co i uous, u i errup ed process wi hou sudde breaks or rapid ra sforma io s. herefore a y periodisa io imposed o la guage his ory by li guis s, wi h precise da es, migh appear ar ificial. here are some periodiza io s of he his ory of E glish la guage. he au hor of he firs scie ific his orical pho e ic a d grammar of E . La guage. H. Swee sugges ed he periodiza io ha correspo ds o he morphological s ruc ure of differe ce ures. He called he Old E glish Period – ‘ he period of full e di gs ‘, he M. E. P. – ‘ he period of reduced e di gs’ , he ew E . P. – ‘ he period of los e di gs.’ Bu his periodiza io is o full because i is o qui e righ o devide he logical fea ures, bu pho ological or sy ac ical o es ( hey were o me io ed i he periodiza io .) So, hus I co sider ha a y periodiza io is based o some pri ciples, bu ca ’ ouch all he sides of he la guage. O e of he promi e a d well-k ow E glish scie is s He ry Swee worked ou several periodisa io s of he his ory of E glish la guage. He sugges ed o si gle ou he period of ra si io a d o subdivide he ra si io al s age be wee he Old a d he Middle E glish Periods cover 1100-1200. H. Swee recko ed 1200 o be he lim i g of he Middle E glish based o morphological phe ome a he Middle E glish Period is co sidered o le he Period of Levelled E glish. A o her periodiza io is ex rali guis ical. I ’s based o he his orical eve s, which i flue ced o he E glish la guage. I mus o ice ha his o e is he mos radi io al. he commo ly accep ed radi io al periodiza io divides E glish la guage his ory i o hree periods: Old E glish, Middle E glish a d ew E glish wi h bou daries a ached o defi i e da es a d his orical effec s affec i g he la guage. Old E glish is co ec ed wi h he Germa se le i Bri ai (5 h ce ury) a d wi h he begi i g of wri i g (7 h ce ury) a d e ds wi h he orma Co ques (1066). Middle E glish begi s wi h orma Co ques e d e ds o he i roduc io of pri i g (1475). he Middle E glish period i self may be also divided i o wo smaller o es – Early Middle E glish a d La e Middle E glish. Early Middle E glish covers he mai eve s of he 14 h ce ury. I is he s age of grea es dialec al diverge ce caused by he feudal sys em a d by foreig i flue ces-Sca di avia a d Fre ch. he dialec al divisio of prese -day E glish owes i s origi o his period of his ory. Grea cha ges of he la guage ook place a all he levels, especially i lexis a d grammar. La er 14 h ill he e d of he 15 h ce ury is a ime k ow as La e or Classical Middle E glish. his period umbra’s he age of Chaucer, he grea es E glish medieval wri er a d foreru er of he E glish Re aissa u, a d is charac erized by res ora io of E glish o he posi io of he s a e a d li erary la guage a d by li erary flourishi g, which has a s abilizi g effec o la guage, so ha he ra e of li guis ic cha ges was slowed dow .

A he same ime he wri e forms of he la guage developed a d improved. he Old E glish period i he his ory of he la guage correspo ds o he posi io of he s a e a d li erary la guage correspo ds o he ra si io al s age from he slave-ow i g a d ribal sys em o he feudal sys em i he his ory of Bri ai . I he 11 h ce ury feudalism was already well es ablished. Accordi g o a survey made i he la e 11 h c. slaves a d freeme were decli i g classes. he majori y of he agricul ural popula io (a d also of he o al popula io , which amou ed o abou 2.000.000 people) was bou d o heir lord a d la d. U der a ural eco omy, charac eris re of feudalism, mos of he hi gs eeded for he life of he lord a d he villai were produced o he es a e. Feudal ma ors were separa ed from heir eighbors by ells, local feuds, a d various res ric io s co cer i g se leme , raveli g a d employme . hese his orical co di io s produced a cer ai i flue ce o he developme of he la guage. I Early M.E. he differe ces be wee he regio al dialec s grew. ever i his ory, before or af er, was he his orical backgrou d more favorable for dialec al differe ia io . he mai is he dialec al divisio i E gla d, which survived i la er ages wi h some sligh modifica io of he feudal s age of Bri ish his ory. I he age poor commu ica io dialec bou daries of e coi cided wi h geographical barriers such as rivers, mashes, fores s, a d mou ai s, as hese barriers would hi der he diffusio of li guis ic fea ures. I addi io o eco omic, geographical a d social co di io s, dialec al differe ces i Early M.E. were acce ua ed by some his orical eve s, amely he Sca di avia i vasio s a d he orma Co ques . hough he Sca di avia i vasio s of E gla d are da ed i he Old E glish period, here effec o he la guage is par icularly appare i M.E. Eve ually he Sca di avia s were absorbed i o he local popula io bo h e h ically a d li guis ically, because ew se lers a d he E glish i ermarried a d i ermixed; hey lived close oge her a d did ’ differ ei her i social ra k or i he level of cul ure a d cus oms; hey i ermi gled he more easily as here was o li guis ic barrier be wee hem. he i creased regio al differe ces of E glish i he Sca di avia i flue ce i he areas of he heavies se leme he Sca di avia s ou umbered he A glo-Saxo popula io , which is a es ed by geographical ames. I Yorkshire, Li col shire, or humberla d, Cumberla d-up o 75 per ce of he place- ames is Da ish or orwegia . Al oge her more ha 1.400 E glish villages a d ow s bear ames of Sca di avia origi (wi h he eleme “ horp” mea i g “village”, e.g. Wood horp, Li horp; “ of ”, “a piece of la d”, e. g. “Brim of ”, “Lowes of ”). Probably, i ma y dis ric s people became bili gual, wi h ei her Old orse or E glish prevaili g. Besides due o he co ac s a d mix ure wi h O Sea d, he or her dialec s (chiefly or h Umbria a d Eas Mercia ) had acquired las i g a d some hi g i delible Sca di avia fea ures. We fi d a large admix ure of Sca di avia words i Early M.E. records comi g from he or h Eas whereas co emporary ex from o her regio s are prac ically devoid of Sca di avia borrowi gs.

I la er ages he Sca di avia eleme passed i o o her regio s. he i corpora io of he Sca di avia eleme i he Lo do dialec a d S a dard E glish was brough abou by he cha gi g li guis ic si ua io i E gla d: he mix ure if he dialec s a d he groovi g li guis ic u ifica io . Soo af er Ca u e’s dea h (1042) a d he collapse of his empire he old A glo-Saxo li e was res ored bu heir reig was shor -lived. he ew E glish ki g, Edward he Co fessor (1942-1066), who had bee reared i Fra ce, brough over ma y orma advisors a d favori es; he dis ribu ed amo g hem E glish la ds a d weal h o he co siderable rese me of he A glo-Saxo obili y a d church hierarchy. He o o ly spoke Fre ch himself bu i sis ed o i bei g spoke by he obles a his cour . William, Duke of orma dy, visi ed his cour a d i was rumored ha Edward appoi ed him his successor. I ma y respi es Edward paved he for orma i fil ra io lo g before he orma Co ques . However, he gover me of he cou ry was s ill i he ha ds of A glo-Saxo feudal lords, headed by he powerful Earl Godwi of Wessex. I 1066, upo Edward’s dea h, he Elders of E gla d proclaimed Harold Godwi ki g of he E glish. As soo as he ews reached William of orma dy, he mus ered a big army by promise of la d a d plu der (o e hird of his soldiers were orma s, o her, merce aries from all over Europe) a d, wi h he suppor of he Pope, la ded i Bri ai . I he ba le of Has i gs, fough i Oc ober 1066, Harold was killed a d he E glish were defea ed. his da e is commo ly k ow as he da e of he orma Co ques , hough he mili ary occupa io of he cou ry was o comple ed u il a few years la er. Af er he vic ory of Has i gs, William by passed Lo do cu i g i off from he or h a d made he William of Lo do a d he bishops a Wes mi s er Abbey crow him ki g. William his baro s laid was er ma y la ds i E gla d, bur i g dow villages a d es a es. hey co duc ed a rele less campaig of subjuga io , devas a ed a d almos depopula ed or humbria a d Mercia, which ried o rise agai s he co querors. Huge s o e orma cas les if ear he for s a d woode s ockades, buil duri g he campaig , soo replaced scores. Mos of he la ds of he A glo-Saxo lords passed i o he ha ds of he orma baro s, William’s ow possessio comprisi g abou o e hird of he cou ry. he orma s occupied all he impor a por s i he church, i hee gover me a d i he army. Followi g he co ques hu dreds of people from Fra ce crossed he Cha el o make heir home i Bri ai were also dukes of orma dy a d, abou a hu dred years la er, ook possessio of he whole wes er half of Fra ce, hus bri gi g E gla d i o s ill closer co ac wi h he co i e . Fre ch mo ks, radesme a d craf sme flooded he sou hwes er ow s, so ha o o ly he higher obili y bu also much of he middle class was Fre ch. he orma Co ques was o o ly a grea eve i Bri ish poli ical his ory bu also he grea es si gle eve i he his ory of he E glish la guage. I s earlies effec was a dras re cha ge i he li guis ic si ua io . he orma Co querors of E gla d had origi ally come from Sca di avia. Abou o e hu dred a d fif y years before hey scized he valley of he Sci e a d se led i wha was he cewor h k ow as orma dy.

Lieberman, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen, I (Halle, 1903), p. 94; F. L. Attenborough, The Laws of the Earliest English Kings (Cambridge, 1922), pp. 4041. 266 F. Lot, UArt Militaire et les Arrhees au Moyen Age, I (Paris, 1946), pp. 336337. 267 J. H. Ramsay, «The Strength of English Armies in the Middle Ages», English Historical review, XXIX (1914), pp. 221227. 268 См. c. 2829. 269 См. c. 29. 270 Ред. Waquet, p. 14, lines 2830. 271 См. c. 120125. 272 См. c. 110. 273 Эта битва была рассмотрена в кн.: F. P. Magoun, Modern Language Review, XXXVII (1942), pp. 409414. 274 William of Malmesbury, Historia Novella, ред. К. R. Potter (Nelson's Medieval Classics, 1955), pp. 7374. 275 По поводу битвы при Бриссарте см. F. Lot, op. cit., I. 99. 276 Stenton, op. eit., p. 241 прим.; Lot, op. cit.,PI. 98. 277 Op. cit., p. 577. 278 I. C. Gould, «Ancient Earthworks», Victoria History of the County of Essex, I. 286287. 279 C. Fox, The Archaeology of the Cambridge Region (Cambridge, 1923), p. 302. 280 English Historical Review, XXVII (1912), pp. 512513. 281 Этельред II Нерешительный англосаксонский король, правивший в 978-1013, 10141016Pгг.P Прим. ред. 282 P

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