Ѕиблиотека –ефераты  урсовые ƒипломы ѕоиск
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Ёкономика и ‘инансы Ёкономика и ‘инансы

The City of London and its role as a financial centre

√оршок торф€ной дл€ цветов.
–екомендуютс€ дл€ выращивани€ крупной рассады различных овощных и цветочных, а также дл€ укоренени€ саженцев декоративных, плодовых и
7 руб
–аздел: √оршки, €щики дл€ рассады
 арабин, 6x60 мм.
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44 руб
–аздел:  арабины дл€ ошейников и поводков
 оврик дл€ запекани€, силиконовый "ѕекарь".
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202 руб
–аздел:  оврики силиконовые дл€ выпечки

“he ci y of Lo do a d i s role as a fi a cial ce er Chap er 1. I roduc io . he Co cep of he Ci y of Lo do . Bri ai is a major fi a cial ce re providi g a wide ra ge of specialised services. he cou ryТs eco omy has for a lo g ime bee direc ed hrough he grea fi a cial i s i u io s which oge her are k ow as У he Ci yФ, capi al УCФ, a d which are mai ly loca ed i he famous УSquare MileФ of he Ci y of Lo do . he УSquare MileФ i he Roma imes his orically emerged o he hames as he busi ess a d i dus rial ucleus of he fu ure Lo do . hrough ce uries of busi ess a d religious developme s he Ci y assumed i s role of he world commercial ce re as i is k ow oday . Whe i he 20 h ce ury Grea Bri ai los i s empire a d o her fi a cial ce res go es ablished i he world, he ci y adap ed i self o cha ged circums a ces o remai a world fi a cial leader. he Ci y of Lo do has he grea es co ce ra io of ba ks i he world (respo sible for abou a quar er of o al i er a io al ba k le di g) , he worldТ s bigges i sura ce marke (wi h abou 1/5 of he i er a io al marke ), a S ock Excha ge wi h a larger lis i g of securi ies ha a y o her excha ge, a d i remai s he pri cipal i er a io al ce re for ra sac io s i a large umber of commodi ies. A large propor io of Bri ai Тs weal h has bee i ves ed by he Ci y overseas. he Ci yТs a ual foreig i come roughly double ha of he Bri ish ma ufac uri g i dus ries. he above proves he Ci yТs world sig ifica ce as a fi a cial ce re. Geographically he Ci y is a large office area bubbli g wi h life a day ime a d comfor ably quie ou side he office hours. I Тs his orical sigh s like he ower of Lo do , S PaulТs Ca hedral, he Museum of Lo do , he Mo ume a d o hers as well as he beau ifully impressive archi ec ure of he office buildi gs a rac crowds of visi ors. he o ly housi g projec , he Barbica , provides very expe sive accommoda io alo g wi h a ar s ce re, a school a d some official premises.Si ce af er he mid - 80s fi a cial a d rela ed services have s ar ed o expa d ou side he УSquare MileФ hough he Ci y of Lo do remai s he symbol a d ac ual reali y of he cou ryТs power. C h a p e r 2 Bri ai Тs Eco omic a d Fi a cial Posi io oday a Home a d Abroad. Fi a ce a d i dus ry of he Bri ish eco omy go ha d i ha d as i dus ry requires a diversified e work of fi a cial i s i u io s o develop successfully. Al hough Bri ai Тs fi a cial power oday exceeds ha of he cou ryТs i dus rial achieveme , he cou ry was for years У he workshop of he worldФ. I s ill remai s a highly i dus rialised cou ry bu he e d of he 20 h ce ury saw e de cies for he eco omic decli e.His orically, af er wo world wars a d he loss of i s empire Bri ai fou d i i creasi gly difficul o mai ai i s leadi g posi io i Europe. he growi g compe i io from he U i ed S a es a d la er Japa aggrava ed he cou ryТs posi io .Bri ai s ruggled o fi d a bala ce be wee he gover me s i erve io i he eco omy a d almos comple ely free-marke eco omy of he U i ed S a es. he heories of he grea Bri ish pre-war eco omis J. M. Key es s a ed ha capi alis socie y could o ly survive if he gover me co rolled, ma aged a d eve pla ed much of i s eco omy.

hese ideas failed o ge Bri ai ou of he image of a cou ry wi h quie marke ow s li ked by s eam rai s puffi g slowly hrough gree meadows. Arrival of Margare ha cher, he Co serva ive prime-mi is er i office be wee 1979 a d 1990, discarded hese heories as comple ely wro g. Mrs. ha cher claimed ha all co rols a d regula io s of he eco omy should be removed a d a marke eco omy should recover. Her arge s were a io alised i dus ries. She refused o assis he s ruggli g e erprises of he coal a d s eal i dus ries which were slimmed dow i order o improve heir efficie cy. I he s eel i dus ry, for example, he workspace was reduced from 130000 people o 50000 by 1990s a d he produc io of 1 o of s eel by 1990 ook o ly 3,7 ma hours i s ead of 12 ma hours i 1980. he gover me believed ha priva isa io would i crease efficie cy a d eco omic freedom would e courage priva e i i ia ive. A lo of big publicly ow ed produc io a d service compa ies such as Bri ish elecommu ica io s, Bri ish Gas, Bri ish Airways, Rolls Royce a d eve Bri ish regio al Wa er Au hori ies were sold i o priva e ha ds. Bri ai bega o ur i o a cou ry of shareholders. Be wee 1979 a d 1992 he propor io of he popula io ow i g shares i creased from 7 % o 24%. he Co serva ive gover me reduced he i come ax from 33% o 25% as a i ce ive i produc io . his did o lead o a y loss of reve ue, si ce a he lower ra es fewer people ried o avoid ax. A he same ime he gover me doubled he VA o goods a d services o 15%. oday i is 17%.Small busi ess bega o i crease rapidly. I 1984 for example here was a o al of 1.4 millio small busi ess hough i cludi g У he black eco omyФ he figure was earer o millio . Propor io a ely, however, here were 50% more of hem i Wes Germa y a d he U i ed S a es a d abou wice more i Fra ce a d Japa .Ma y small busi esses fail o survive mai ly as a resul of poor ma ageme a d also because compared wi h o her Europea Commu i y Bri ai offers he leas e couragi g co di io s. Bu small busi esses are impor a because hey ca grow i o big o es a d because hey provide over half of he ew jobs. I is par icularly impor a because u employme i Grea Bri ai rose o early 2.5 millio people a d a lo of jobs are par - ime.E ergy is a major compo e of he eco omy, which depe ded mai ly o coal produc io u il 1975, bega o rely o oil a d gas discoveries i he or h sea. Coal s ill remai s he si gle mos impor a source of e ergy, i spi e of i s rela ive decli e as a i dus ry, so oil a d coal each accou for abou o e hird of o al e ergy co sump io i Bri ai . Over a umber of years Bri ish policy makers promo ed he idea of e ergy comi g of differe sources. O e of hem was uclear e ergy as a clea a d safe solu io o e ergy eeds. I fac Bri ai co s ruc ed he worldТs firs large scale uclear pla i 1956. However, here were a lo of public worries af er he US disas er a hree Miles Isla d a d he Sovie disas er i Cher obyl. Also uclear research a d safe ech ology is proved o be very expe sive - by 1990 he real commercial cos of uclear pla was wice as high ha of a coal power s a io . Re ewable e ergy sources such as wi d or solar e ergy, are pla ed o provide 1% of he a io al e ergy requireme s i he year 2000.R

esearch a d developme (R&D) i Bri ai are Mai ly direc ed owards immedia e prac ical problems. I fac Bri ish compa ies spe d less o R&D ha a y Europea compe i ors. A he e d of he 1980Тs, for example 71% of Germa compa ies were spe di g more ha 5% of heir a ual reve ue o R & D compared wi h o ly 28% of Bri ish compa ies. As a resul Bri ai has bee au oma i g more slowly ha her rivals. I fac i may be he co seque ce of Margare ha cherТs views o public spe di g which i cludes medical service, social spe di g, educa io a d R&D. У he Iro ladyФ argued ha Уif our objec ive is o have a prosperous a d expa di g eco omy, we mus recog ise ha high public spe di g kills grow h of i dus ryФ, as mo ey is ake from he produc ive sec or (i dus ry) o be ra sferred o u produc ive par of i . As a resul i he 80Тs o ly 6% of Bri ai Тs labour had a u iversi y degree agai s 18% i America, 13% i Japa a d 10% i Germa y. ech ical educa io has always bee compared wi h Bri ai Тs major compe i ors. Accordi g o gover me s udy У mecha ical e gi eeri g is low a d produc io e gi eers are regarded as he Ci derella of he professio Ф. Very few school leavers received voca io al rai i g. Si ce 1980Тs amo g u iversi y gradua es he e de cy has bee o go from he civil service o mercha ba ki g, ra her ha i dus ry. A d accordi g o a alys s resul ed from he lo g-s a di g cul ural roo s. Public school leavers co sidered hemselves Уge leme Ф oo lo g o adjus fas o he cha ges of ime. Effor s are ow ake by he labour gover me o boos ech ical a d e erprise skills i schools. he 1999 Pre-budge repor ou li ed a 10 millio pou ds for he purpose.Despi e he favourable effec of У ha cherismФ Bri ai Тs eco omic problems i he 1990s seemed o be difficul . Ma ufac uri g was more efficie bu Bri ai Тs bala ce of payme s was u heal hy, impor s of ma ufac uri g goods rose by 40%, a d Bri ish expor s could hardly compe e wi h hose of i s compe i ors. Car workers i Germa y, for i s a ce, could produce a Ford Escor i help he ime ake i Bri ai . I he 90Тs amo g he Europea cou ries Bri ish average a ual produc ivi y per worker ook he 6 h place. he reve ue sof e ed he social problems bu dis rac ed Bri ai from i ves i g more i o i dus ry. Ma y a alys s hough ha much more should have bee i ves ed i o e gi eeri g produc io , ma agerial a d marke i g before he or h Sea oil decli ed. he Labour gover me u der akes o improve he si ua io . I his Pre- budge repor o 9 ovember 1999 he Cha cellor of he Exchequer Gordo Brow se ou ew eco omic ambi io s for he ex decade. U der hem Bri ai will raise i s produc ivi y fas er ha i s compe i ors o close he produc ivi y gap a d a majori y of Bri ai Тs school a d college leavers will go o o higher educa io .I he 80s Bri ish compa ies i ves ed heavily abroad while foreig i ves me s i Bri ai i creased oo. oday i a speech i okyo o 6 Sep ember1999 he Foreig Secre ary Robi Cook said ha УBri ai is a chose cou ry for more i ves me from Japa ha a ywhere else i Europe a d more ha housa d compa ies opera e i he U. K.ФMr. Cook added ha he huge Europea Marke of 370 millio people was У he larges si gle marke i he world, a marke ha is se o expa d eve fur her wi h he arrival of ew member s a esФ.

The land donated to them in the West since Hugues de PayenвАЩs visit of 1127вАУ29 formed the basis of the OrderвАЩs wealth. As Malcolm Barber has noted, вАШwithout an extensive network of support in the West, the Templars would have vanished with the first major defeat they sufferedвАЩ.10 This network took the form of their European preceptories, which were initially acquired through the extensive programme of donations that transpired during and after Hugues de PayenвАЩs tour. Ordinarily, a Templar preceptory would be an estate (a farm or a manor, for instance) that would then develop a network of daughter houses around it. All the revenues from both the mother and daughter houses would be directed towards campaigning in the East. A tax, known as the responsion, was raised, whereby one-third of all revenues collected from a Templar house in the West was to be used to support the OrderвАЩs work in the Holy Land. These Western houses were generally established in all the main cities, financial centres and ports of Europe

1. The Tower of London

2. The Tower of London

3. The cities of USA

4. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

5. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

6. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.
The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.
7. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. ‘.ћ. ƒостоевский, ѕреступление и наказание
8. London - the capital of Great Britain
London - the capital of Great Britain

9. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

10. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

11. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

12. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

13. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

14. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

15. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

16. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

ѕапка дл€ труда "—портивное авто", 325х245 мм.
–азмер: 325х245 мм. ћатериал: ткань.
322 руб
–аздел: ѕапки дл€ труда
ћашинка детска€ с полиуретановыми колесами "Ѕибикар спорт", красный.
¬се еще не можете определитьс€, что подарить ребенку на торжество?  уклы и конструкторы уже негде складывать, а удивить малыша очень
2150 руб
–аздел:  аталки
ѕланшетик " то самый умный?".
Ётот говор€щий планшетик Ц прекрасный подарок дл€ маленьких эрудитов! 200 умных вопросов, 20 игровых тем, 3 уровн€ Ц играй и узнавай много
445 руб
–аздел: ѕланшеты и компьютеры

17. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

18. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in УCicer arietinumФ

19. –оль —ћ» в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

20. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

21. Ѕашн€ Ћондона (Tower of London)

22. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/
23. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society
The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society
24. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

25. ќсобенности ведени€ бизнеса в  итае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

26. The History of English

27. The profile of an effective manager

28. The Hero of Our Time

29. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

30. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

31. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

32. ƒинасти€ “юдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

»менна€ кружка с надписью "јлександр".
ѕредлагаем вашему вниманию готовое решени€ дл€ подарка по любому поводу Ц именна€ кружка.  ружка изготовлена из керамики, в нежной
434 руб
–аздел:  ружки
 ол€ска-трость Everflo "Simple pink".
 ол€ска-трость - идеальный вариант дл€ путешествий и поездок в общественном транспорте. ’арактеристики: - —тальна€ рама. - ќдно положение
1300 руб
–аздел:  ол€ски-трость
—тиральный порошок Attack "BioEX", концентрированный, 0,9 кг.
 онцентрированный стиральный порошок Attack "BioEX" подходит дл€ стирки белого, цветного, темного и черного бель€. «апасной блок
342 руб
–аздел: —тиральные порошки

33. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?

34. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

35. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

36. The profile of an effective manager

37. ћальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

38. The practice of modern medicine
The practice of modern medicine
39. Quality of life and management of living resources
Quality of life and management of living resources
40. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada
The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

41. Art galleries of London

42. The History of Moscow

43. The 8th of March

44. The protection of the environment

45. Period of lithuanian and polish rule (1360-1599)

46. The commonwealth of Australia

47. The Commonwealth of Australia

48. Zaporozhye: The city in which I live

ќрганический солнцезащитный крем Mommy care дл€ тела, 100 мл, арт. MC_1115.
ќрганический солнцезащитный крем дл€ тела идеален даже дл€ городских условий, а такие натуральные компоненты, как ромашка, кунжутное
1140 руб
–аздел: —олнцезащитна€ косметика
√ирл€нда электрическа€, 1200 см (бела€).
√ирл€нда состоит из белых мини ламп, которые будут мигать в 8 режимах. ѕитание от бытовой электросети 220 ¬. ƒлина гирл€нды: 1200
472 руб
–аздел: √ирл€нды с мини-лампами
Ѕумага крафт, без печати (10 листов).
–азмер: 100x70 см. ѕлотность бумаги 70 г/кв.м.
495 руб
–аздел: ќднотонна€, голографи€

49. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

50. The sights of USA.

51. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

52. The history of Christmas

53. Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony

54. The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century
The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century
55. The House of Yorks
The House of Yorks
56. The declaration of independence
The declaration of independence

57. The system of english tenses

58. The Future of American Youths

59. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

60. Is the nature of quantum chaos classical?

61. On a decomposition of an element of a free metabelian group as a productof primitive elements

62. The Grapes of Wrath

63. The Concept of Youth Subcultures

64. The development of the Tower

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 окосовый активированный уголь очищает от активного хлора, органических загр€знений и т.д. ќбработка активированного угл€ серебром
354 руб
–аздел: ‘ильтры дл€ воды
«ащита " арапуз" дл€ автомобильного кресла от детских ножек, с карманами.
¬о врем€ поездки в автомобиле дети иногда могут пачкать гр€зью, остающейс€ на ботинках, заднюю сторону кресел. «ащита - это
323 руб
–аздел: јвтомобильные коврики
Ќабор мебели дл€ каминной комнаты " оллекци€".
 расива€ игрушка помогает ребенку развить свою фантазию, воспитывает художественный вкус.  укольна€ мебель помогает развить
715 руб
–аздел: √остинные

65. The Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions

66. The art of conversation

67. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

68. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

69. Summary on the subject: Gender Issues and Hopewell Culture

70. —борник диалогов по английскому €зыку дл€ развити€ устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)
71. British slang and its classification
British slang and its classification
72. Economy of Russia and Economic crisis
Economy of Russia and Economic crisis

73. Internal diagnostics company, identification of strengths and weaknesses

74. My day and its schedule

75. Oscar Wilde "The picture of Dorian Gray"

76. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier

77. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

78. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

79. The history of grammar theory

80. The history of Moscow

Ћоток вертикальный, 3 отделени€, черный.
Ўирину секций данного лотка можно регулировать. —екции маркируютс€ сменной линованной табличкой.  оличество секций: 3. Ўирина: 230 мм. ÷вет: черный.
301 руб
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ѕенал школьный "Pixie Crew" с силиконовой панелью дл€ картинок (цветна€ клетка).
ѕовседневные вещи кажутс€ скучными и однотонными, а тебе хочетс€ выгл€деть стильно и быть не как все? "Pixie Crew" сделает твою
1096 руб
–аздел: Ѕез наполнени€
ѕодарочный набор, 21x16x4 см, арт. 140304.
ћатериал: искусственна€ кожа. ѕравила ухода: избегать попадани€ влаги. —остав: кожзаменитель (PU), элементы металла. ¬ наборе: бумажник,
355 руб
–аздел: ѕисьменные наборы

81. The marking of the Russian Revolution

82. The origins of the International Socialists

83. The people must fight for their laws as for their walls

84. The place of УMacbethФ among ShakespeareТs tragedies

85. The problems of oral translation

86. The Science Of Grammar
The Science Of Grammar
87. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (ShakespeareТs Histories)
88. Historical measurement of the science of governing
Historical measurement of the science of governing

89. The Architecture of Ancient Rome

90. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

91. Great Britain: the Land of Traditions

92. The Killing of Percy Casserley

93. The Clash of Civilizations

94. Market and its Functioning

95. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (ѕогромы в јзербайджане и јрмении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 јрм€нского √еноцида)

96. ѕереведенна€ на английский лекци€ по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современна€ банковска€ система)

 ольцедержатель "ƒерево с оленем", малый, черный.
—тильный аксессуар в виде фигурки олен€ с ветв€щимис€ рогами Ц держатель дл€ украшений, - выполнен из прочного пластика двух классических
375 руб
–аздел: ѕодставки дл€ украшений
Ѕанка дл€ сыпучих продуктов "÷ветовна€ поэма" квадратна€, 800 мл.
Ѕанка дл€ сыпучих продуктов квадратна€ (клипс). –азмер: 9x9x18 см. ќбъем: 800 мл. ћатериал: керамика.
305 руб
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12 цветных фломастеров дл€ малышей.
ƒл€ маленьких любителей рисовани€ представлен набор дл€ развити€ творческих навыков. ‘ломастеры, которые подымут настроение и сделают
568 руб
–аздел: 7-12 цветов

97. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

98. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (—равнение –енессанса и ѕросвещени€)

99. The role of art in our life


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